Nicaragua Demographics Profile
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Population6,203,441 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.63% (male 811,731/female 777,984)
15-24 years: 19.51% (male 609,962/female 600,567)
25-54 years: 42.41% (male 1,254,683/female 1,376,052)
55-64 years: 6.63% (male 188,591/female 222,766)
65 years and over: 5.82% (male 159,140/female 201,965) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 54.3
youth dependency ratio: 45.5
elderly dependency ratio: 8.8
potential support ratio: 11.4(2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.3 years
male: 26.4 years
female: 28.2 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.96% (2020 est.)
Birth rate17.1 births/1,000 population(2020 est.)
Death rate5.2 deaths/1,000 population(2020 est.)
Net migration rate-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population(2020 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 59% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population1.064 million MANAGUA (capital) (2020)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 95.1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.2 years (2011/12 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Infant mortality ratetotal: 16.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.2 years
male: 72 years
female: 76.6 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate1.82 children born/woman (2020 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate80.4% (2011/12)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.2% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS9,600 (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<200 (2019 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 97.6% of population
rural: 62.6% of population
total: 83.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.4% of population
rural: 37.4% of population
total: 16.9% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 89.8% of population
rural: 66.5% of population
total: 80.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.2% of population
rural: 33.5% of population
total: 19.9% of population (2017 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
Nationalitynoun: Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
ReligionsRoman Catholic 50%, Evangelical 33.2%, other 2.9%, unspecified 13.2%, none 0.7% (2017 est.)
Demographic profileDespite being one of the poorest countries in Latin America, Nicaragua has improved its access to potable water and sanitation and has ameliorated its life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and immunization rates. However, income distribution is very uneven, and the poor, agriculturalists, and indigenous people continue to have less access to healthcare services. Nicaragua's total fertility rate has fallen from around 6 children per woman in 1980 to below replacement level today, but the high birth rate among adolescents perpetuates a cycle of poverty and low educational attainment.
Nicaraguans emigrate primarily to Costa Rica and to a lesser extent the United States. Nicaraguan men have been migrating seasonally to Costa Rica to harvest bananas and coffee since the early 20th century. Political turmoil, civil war, and natural disasters from the 1970s through the 1990s dramatically increased the flow of refugees and permanent migrants seeking jobs, higher wages, and better social and healthcare benefits. Since 2000, Nicaraguan emigration to Costa Rica has slowed and stabilized. Today roughly 300,000 Nicaraguans are permanent residents of Costa Rica - about 75% of the foreign population - and thousands more migrate seasonally for work, many illegally.
LanguagesSpanish (official) 95.3%, Miskito 2.2%, Mestizo of the Caribbean coast 2%, other 0.5% (2005 est.)
note: English and indigenous languages found on the Caribbean coast
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.6%
male: 82.4%
female: 82.8% (2015)
Education expenditures4.3% of GDP (2017)
Maternal mortality rate198 deaths/100,000 live births(2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight4.6% (2012)
Health expenditures8.6% (2017)
Physicians density1.01 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population(2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.7% (2016)
Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020
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