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THE QUARTERLY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTIQUITIES IN PALESTINE THE QUARTERLY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTIQUITIES IN PALESTINE VOL. I 9 / 3-3305 Q_- D • A • R. JERUSALEM PUBLISHED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF PALESTINE BY HUMPHREY MILFORD OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON, E.C. 4 1932 CENTRAL ARCHAEOLOGIGAV LIBRARY, NEW l)£LHK A oo. No. - ) i ,t» l o ♦ £> * 5 7 PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, OXFORD BY JOHN JOHNSON, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTION CONTENTS page I I. Excavations NOTE ON A CEMETERY AT KARM AL-SHAIKH, JERU- SALEM • . • . . . 3 MEDIEVAL f AJLt)N. THE CASTLE . . . . ' . 21 A ROCK-CUT TOMB AT NAZARETH . . . . . .53 JERUSALEM. ANCIENT STREET LEVELS IN THE TYROPOEON VALLEY WITHIN THE WALLS . . 97 A TOMB CHAMBER IN THE SYRIAN ORPHANAGE, JERUSALEM 101 BYZANTINE CHURCH AT MUICHMAS . . . .103 STREET LEVELS IN THE TYROPOEON VALLEY . . 105 EXCAVATIONS AT PILGRIMS’ CASTLE ('ATLIT) . . m MOSAIC PAVEMENTS AT 'EIN EL FAWWAR . . .151 II. Sculpture A PORTRAIT OF VITELLIUS (?) IN ROCK CRYSTAL . .153 III. Inscriptions SATURA EPIGRAPHICA ARABICA I 37 AN INSCRIBED EPITAPH FROM GAZA . . . .155 V IV. Numismatics A HOARD OF PHOENICIAN COINS io A FATIMID COIN-DIE 34 A HOARD OF BYZANTINE COINS 55 NOTE ON THE OBVERSE TYPE OF THE TETRAD RACHMS OF THE SECOND REVOLT OF THE JEWS ... 69 COINS IN THE PALESTINE MUSEUM I, II . . . 70, 130 V. Translations A MEDIEVAL ARABIC DESCRIPTION OF THE HARAM OF JERUSALEM 44, 74 VI. Other Studies CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE .... 2 ‘LOOP PATTERN 5 DECORATING LEAD SARCOPHAGI . 36 CONCISE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EXCAVATIONS IN PALES- TINE 86, .39,163 THE NAME OF KHAN EL AHMAR, BEISAN . . . 0 r VII. Notes and News notes EXCAVATIONS IN PALESTINE IN 1931 • 52 • 157 VI INDEX I N compiling this index we have preferred to err on the side of fullness rather than to risk leaving any omissions. Reference is as a rule to pages, but excavated objects shown in the plates but not mentioned in the text are listed by reference to plates. An asterisk shows that the item is repeated on the page. In the course of last year the official spelling of Arabic and Hebrew geographical names was changed; this affects Nos. 2-4, but not No. r. In the index the spelling has been as a rule kept uniform according to the new transcription; so it follows that there are occasional divergencies between the text and the index; in the more serious cases cross-references have been made. Attention is drawn to the special detailed index to the ‘Bibliography of Excavations’ on pp. 192 ff. A Abbasids, 22. Abd al-Ghanl b. Abl Bakr al-Isardl, Majd ad-din, his kh£nqah, 79. Abd al-Karfm b. Hibatallah, Karim ad-din, his school, 78. Abdallah b. al- Abbas b. 'All b. Abi Talib, 39. Abdallah, Amin ad-din (Amin al-Mulk’), his monastery, 79. Abdallah the Hanafite, Amin ad-din Abu Muhammad, 44 n. 1. Ablutions, Gate of, see Jerusalem, Haram. Abraham, cave of, see Jerusalem, Haram; place of, see ib. Abu Bakr b, Ayyub, al-Malik al- Adil, Saif ad- din, 24, 26*, 27*, 28. Abu Ghosh, excavations, 86. Abu-l-Fada’il, see Ahmad b. Amin al-Mulk. Abu-l-Fida’, 23, 27. Abu Mansur, see Nizar. Ace, see Acre. Acre, 10, 13, 14, 33, hi*, H 3 > iao; coins, I3*ff., 134. Adhri r at(Der'a), 22. al-Adil (al-Malik), see Abu Bakr, Kitbugha, Salamish. Aelia Capitolina, coins, 71-3. Aetolos Machaios (?), 155 f. al-Afdal (al-Malik), see All. D d Africa, 153. Aga of Tiberias, 33, Agar, son of, (Saracen), 1 1 1. Agrippina the Elder, portrait, 153. Ahmad b. Amin al-Mulk, Taj ad-din Abu-l- Fada’il, 44 and n. 1, 84. Ahmad b. Fadl- Allah al-'Umari, 23, 44andn. 2. Ahmad Zeki Pasha, 44. Aibak b. Abdallah, 'Izz ad-din, 26, 2 7% 28* f., 30% 32. Aibak b. Abdallah al- Allan!, 'Izz ad-din, 32*. Ain, see 'Ein. Aintab, 32*. Ajlun, 21-33; description, 25-9; history, 21- _ 5? 3°“35 inscriptions, 26, 28, 33. Al (al-Habls), 22, n. 8. Ala’ ad-din, see Aydughdl. Alam ad-din, see Sanjar b. Abdallah, Sanjar al- Jawll. Albright, William F., 158. Aleppo, 31 £ Alexander the Great, coins, 11, n. 1, 13% 14% * 5 - Alexander Balas, coin, 70. Alexander Jannaeus, 24 n. 4} coin, 6. Alexandria, 153 £ All, the Caliph, 35. All, al-Malik al-Afdal, Nur ad-din, 27. All b. Qilij Nurl, Saif ad-din, 31. 201 Almalik, Saif ad-din al-Hajj, the polo-master, 43* and n. i ; his madrasa, 79, 83; inscription of^ 42 f. altar, see coins. al-AW, see Aydughdi. American School of Oriental Research, see Jerusalem, Institutions. American School of Prehistoric Research, see New Haven, Conn. Amin ad-din, see 'Abdallah. Amin al-MuIk, see 'Abdallah, amir, 27. 'Amman, 275 coin-die from, 34. Ammon, on coin, 71. Anastasius I, coins, 55, 57, 68. Anatolia, 154. anchor, see coins. Angustae Viae, see Khirbat Dustrey. Anthology, Greek, 155. Antinous, 56 n. Antioch, coins, 7, 9, 55, 57 £, 61, 63*, 65, 68. Antiochus Epiphanes, 1 59. Antiochus VII, coin, no. Antiquities, Department of, see Department of Antiquities. Antoniniani, 7. Antoninus Pius, coins, 72*, aphlaston, see coins, apostolic mission (Islamic), 34 f. 'Aqaba, gulf, 21. ' aqd ’ enbuh , see vault} ~ salib^ see vault. al-Aqsa mosque, see Jerusalem, Haram. aqueducts, 'Ein el Fawwar, 15 1. Arab conquest of Palestine, 5. Arabia, 23; coin, 6 f., 1525 Holy Cities of, see Mecca, Medina. e Araq el Manshiyyeh, see 'Iraq el Manshiya. arbaahfi jasad wahid (twisted), 49. Arcadius, coin, 4, 8. Archaeological Museum, Palestine, see Jerusa- lem, Institutions. Archagate, daughter of Charmadas, 155. ark, see coins. arkan (corners), 74. armour (chain) fragment, 53. arrow-slits: 'Ajlun, 25*, 26*5 'Atlit, 118. Artemis, coins, 132*. Asandamur, 41 n. 1. Ascalon coins, 6, 70, 130 £; excavations, 86 f.} | lead sarcophagi from, 36. 202 Ascension, Dome of, see Jerusalem, Haram. al-Ashraf (al-Malik), see Khalil, MGsa, Sha'ban. al- % asjad fi sifat al-aqsa wa-l-masjid , 44 n. I. Assuan granite, 48 n. 1. Assumption, Orthodox customs, 36. Astarte head, 1 60. Asteria, on coins, 138 and n. 1. atabak, 21. 'Atlit (Pilgrims’ Castle) excavations, 52, in- 29; name, 1 1 1 5 history, 1 U-13} the south- eastern (corner) fort, 113-205 town-walls, 120-2} gates, 122; sea-towers, 124; baths, 124-9. Attic bases, 69, 133; tetradrachms, I2f.; eras of, 1 1 n. 1 ; standard, 1 1* and n. 1. Augustus, coins, 130. al-Auhad (al-Malik), see YOsuf b. D&wGd. 'Auja el Hafir, excavations, 87. Aurelian, coin, 7. Aurignacian scrapers, 158; (Lower Middle) industry, 158. Austro-Hungarian Crusade, in*. Aydughdi b. 'Abdallah al-A'ma, 'Ala’ ad-din, his ribat, 80. Ayyub b, Isma'il, al-Malik a?-§alih, Najm ad- din, 31*. Ayyubids, see Abu Bakr b. AyyGb, 'All al- Malik al-Afdal, AyyQb b. Isma'il, Dawud b. 'Isa, Isa b. Abl Bakr, Muhammad b. Abl Bakr, Muhammad b, GhazI, Ma$a b. Abl Bakr, Saladin, Turanshah b. Ayvub, Yusuf b. Dawud, Yusuf b. Muhammad. Ayyubid coins, 129. al-'Aziz (al-Malik), see Muhammad b. GhazI, Nizar. al-Azraq, 27. B Bab al-'Amud, see Jerusalem; ~ al-Ghawani- ma, ~ al-Hadld, ~ Hitta, see Jerusalem, Haram; ~ al-Khalll, see Jerusalem; ~ al- Janna, see Jerusalem, Haram; ~ al-Maghari- ba, see Jerusalem 5 ^ al-Mlda’a ~ al- Qaisariyya, - ar-Rahma, ~ ar-Ribat al- Mansurl, ~ as-Sahara, ~ Sharaf al-Anbiya’, - as-Silsileh, see Jerusalem, Haram. Babelon, J., 12. Babylon, mint, 14 n. 5. Badr ad-din, see Salamish. Baghdad, 22. baileys, 25 £, 27* Bairut, 23, 24 n. 2. Balance, Dome, ^ Steps, see Jerusalem, Haram. Balata, excavations, 87, 189* Baldwin I, 22*, 112, Balqa, 21, 27. Banu 'Auf, 23 £* Banu Ghanim, Gate of, see Jerusalem, Haram, Band Jama f a, see Jerusalem, Haram. Barakat Khan b. Baybars, al-Malik as-Sa c ld, Bar^k&t family, Ajlun, 33* al-Barghutl, 'Omar Eff. Salih, 50 n. 2. barre a JUau , 1 22. barrel-shaped vaults, see vault. basBtil (tie beams), 45. basilica, see Mukhmas. bath, 'Atlit, 124-9. al-Bathaniyya, 22. al-b 8 tin (soffits), 46. Batn el-Hawa, excavations, 87 f., 182 f. Battlr, excavations, 88. Ba'un, Roman road, 24. Baybars, al-Malik az-Zahir, Rukn ad-din, 32% 42; inscription of, 37 £ beacon stations, Mamluk, 31. beads, 53*$ carnelian, PL v, 2; glass, Pis. iv, 10- 12, v, 4-6, vi, 2, 6, vxi, 6, 18, 20, x, 7, 10, xi, 2, 5, xiv, 1, p. 53*5 ivory, PL ix, 85 paste, 53*5 pearl, 101*; resinous, PL vn, 6. Bedawin raids, 22. Beirut, see Bairut. Beisan, 23, 96; excavations, 88 £, 1575 beacon station, 315 Khan al-Ahmar, 95*. Beit Jibrln, excavations, 89; road, 43. Beit Jimal, excavations, 89. Beit Liqia, 49. Beit Sahur, excavations, 90, 182. Beit Sha'ar, excavations, 189. Beit Surlk, excavations, 90. Beitln, excavations, 90. bells, bronze, 53*. Belvoir (Kaukab al-Hawa), 23, 27. beqa' weight, 159. Beth Alpha, excavations, 90. Beth Pelet, see Tall el Fari'a. Beth Shean, see Beisan. Beth Shemesh, see Tin Shams. Beth Zur, 1 58 f; see also Khirbat et Tubeiqa. Bethany, excavations, 90. Bethar, see Battlr. Bethlehem, 865 excavations, 90. Bethphage, 86; excavations, 90 £, 184. Beyrouth, see Bairut. Bibliography of excavations in Palestine: A — J, 86-94, K — Z, 139-49; Jerusalem, 163-88, 1925 Addenda, 189-92; Index, 192-9; of 1931 excavations, 157. ‘Big Boor’ (Tughtakln), 21. Bildad the Shuhite, 21 . al-bi’r, near Tiberias, 40 £ al-bi’r al-aswad, b. birkat Ban! Isra’ll, ~ al- waraqa, ~ al-ward, see Jerusalem, Haram. Birkat Ban! Isra’ll, see Jerusalem, Haram. Birkat al Beida, 96. Black Well, see Jerusalem, Haram. blades, prehistoric, 158. blazons on pottery, 129. bone, see under carving, harpoon, pendants. bone-chamber, tomb-cave, 159 £* bosses, flat, 29. Bostra, 23; coins, 135*. bottles, glass, Pis. v, 12, 22, vm, 7, 8, x, 1, 3-4, 6, 12, xii, 4, p. 53*; purple, PL v, 19; with iron ring, PI. vn, 4. bowl, bronze, no; pottery, Pl. xv, 7. bracelets, bronze, Pis. v, 8, vir, 3, 17, ix, 10, xi, i; glass, Pis. v, 16, vi, 8-10, 13-14, xr, 4, XII, 3, XIV, 5 , XV, 2, 3, p. 1 01 ; iron, 53. bread, loop-formed, represented on sarcophagi, 36. British Museum, see London. British School of Archaeology, see Jerusalem, Institutions. Bronze Age: Early — flints, 158; pottery, 158, 162. Middle : flints, 158; hearth, 158; pottery, 158; stamped jar-handle, 159; walls, 1 61. Late : migrations, 156; finds, Megiddo, 162; cave with water-pool, 1 6 1 ; pottery, 158* bronze fragments, 53*. bronze, see also under bowl, bracelets, buttons, fibula, mace-head, pins, plate, rings, spatulae, tube. brooch, gold, PL xiv, 2. ‘Buckler of Hamza’, see Jerusalem, Haram. al-buhaira, see Jerusalem, Haram. buq a (building), 85. Buraq, see Jerusalem, Haram. Burchard of Mount Zion, 104. Burckhardt, John Lewis, 32 £ 203 burial chamber with lead sarcophagi, 36. burials, Lower Natufian, 161. burial-customs, Greek Orthodox, 4. al-Bu$tan, near Tiberias, 40 f. Bustan al-Hannana, near Tiberias, 40 £* Bustan al-QassIs, near Tiberias, 40 £ buttons, stone. Pis. iv, 3, 3a, vi, 12, xi, 8, xm, 4, xiv, 6; bronze, cases, Pis, iv, 1, 2, vi, 1, xi, 3; glass, Pis, vi, 15, xi, 9; ivory, Pis. vi, 5 - Byzantine, 2 n. 2, 9, 22, 28, 56, no, 1545 church and settlement at Mukhmas, 103 £5 coins, 8-9, 55—685 town at 'Ajlun, 29. C Caduceus, see coins. Caesarea, rock-crystal bust from, 153 £5 coins, * 33 *i of Crusaders, 1 1 1*; road, 1 13. Cairo, 2, 44; Mamluk post, 31*5 Citadel, 26, 28; coins, 34*5 inscription, 43. Caliphs: 'All, 34; Nizar al-'Aziz-billah, 345 'Umar, 75, 77, Canaanite objects, 159. candlestick, PL xvi, 3. Capernaum, Capharnaum, see Talhum. capitals, 104, 160. Capri, 153. Caracalla, coins, 133, 134% 137. Carcassonne, gates, 122 n. 1, 2. Carmel, see Mount Carmel. carucca, 69 n. 3. carving in bone, 159. casal at Khirbat Dustrey, 1 1 1 £ Castellum Peregrinorum, Castle Pellegrino, Castrum filii Dei, see 'Atlit cave. Dome of the Rock: of Abraham, see Jerusalem, Haram; sepulchral, 3*, 4*5 with water-pool, 161*; see also Magharat. Cayphas, see Haifa, cells, see Jerusalem, Haram. cemeteries: Jerusalem, 3-5; 'Atlit, 116. chain-armour (fragment), 53. Chain, Dome of, Gate of, see Jerusalem, Haram. chancel, 1515 fittings, 104. Chancery manuals, Mamluk, 23. chapel, 'Ein el Fawwar, 15 1 £ charcoal, 30, 112. Charmadas, son of Taskomenes (?), of Crete, 155 f. Chastel Pelerin, see 'Atlit. 204 Chastel Rouge (Khan el Ahmar), 96. chest, see coins. Chicago, Oriental Institute of the University, excavations at Megiddo, 161; Presbyterial Theological Seminary, excavations at Khirbat et Tubeiqa, 158. chisel, see shokeh , Choricius, 155. Chrysoroas, on coin, 136. Church of the Holy Sepulchre, see Jerusalem. Cilician coins, 12. cisterns: 'Ajlfcn, 265 Court of the Dome of the Rock, 74 £; Haram, Jerusalem, 755 Khirbat et Tubeiqa, 159. Citadel, see Cairo, Jerusalem. City-goddess on coins, 6, 73, 132, 134 £, 137. Claudius, portrait, 1 53. Claudius Gothicus, coin, 7, Clermont-Ganneau, Charles, 46 n. 3; excava- tions, 3. Coins in the Palestine Museum: I, 70-3; II, 130-85 from the Museum Site, Jerusalem, 4 £, 6-9; from the Tyropoeon Valley, 1 10; Phoenician, 10-20; Jewish, 6, 69 ffi, 725 of Alexander, 14 £5 Roman, 6-8, 72-3, 130-8; Byzantine, 8-9, 36, 55-68; Arab, 129, 152; Crusader, 5, 9, 35*, u6, 1196, 124, 129; Mamluk, 5, 9; Turkish, 9; Egyptian, 9. Emblems: Phoenician : crook, 10 £*, 12; diadem (kidaris, tiara, turban), io and n. 2, 3; dolphin, 11*, eagle-owl, 10; flail, io£*, 16; kandys, 10; murex shell, 11; owl, io£*, 12; rider, 10 and n. 2, n* £5 sea-horse, 10 £*5 waves, 1 of.* Seleucid : anchor, no; aphlas- ton, 70; diadem, 70; head-dress of Isis, 6; lily, no. Jewish ; amphora, 6, 1105 anchor, 6, 70; ark, 69*; chest, 69*; cornu- copiae, 705 lyre, 71; poppy-head, 70; taber- nacle, 69*; temple-portico, 69; vine-leaf, tendril, grapes, 6, 71*, no; wagon, 69; wheel, 6; wreath, 70. Roman : altar, 6; caduceus, 71; cornucopiae, 7, 71; crescent, 55* and n. 4, 56* and n.; cross, 55; cuirass of emperor, 7*, 71-3, 131*^8*5 diadem, 8; dove, 6, 130; eagle, 130, 1335 emperor, 6*, 7*, 8* 71 £*, 73* 131*— 8*5 with empress, 72; fig-tree, 1 34; flail, 1 3 1 ; galley-prow, 1 30, 137*5 kalathos, 72* £, 135; lilies, 71; lituus, 65 military dress, see paludamentum; palm- branch, 130; paludamentum, 7*, 71 £*, 73, I3i*- 8*; Sol, 7, 1 31 ; soldier with captive, 8; sphinx, 135; star, 55 n. 4; temple, 132 £5 toga, 72; wolf and twins, 72*5 wreath, 6, 71, Byzantine : consular dress, 63, 65; crescent, 55 f.*, 59*5 cross, 9 > 55 * 58*, 59 % 60* 61* 62*, 63* 64* 65*; crown, 63* 65; diadem, 57% 60; eagle, 63, 65; emperor, bust, 7*, 8*, 9, 57*-65*, with empress, 9*, 63; globe, 7, 9% 60, 62 £, 65; helmet, 64 £*; mappa, 63, 655 military dress, 57*, 60, 62, 64 £; pellet, 58; plume, 63, 65*; sceptre, 63 fF. ; star, 55* and n. 4, 56* and n., 57 f.*, 60. Fatimid : pellet, 34 f. coin-die, Fatimid, 34 £ colonnade, Jerusalem, Sites, Tyropoeon, colony of Elagabalus, coin, 7. column bases, 104, 108; fragment, 108. comb-decoration of pottery, no, 122, comb-pick, see shahuta. Commodus, coins, 72*, 1 32 and n. 3. Conrad III, 23. Constantine, coins, 7, 36. Constantinople: coins, 9, 57% 59 £, 63 £, 65*5 mint, 55, 68; church of Saint Sophia, 56. Constantius II, coins, 8. Corinthian columns, on coins, 69. corner fort, see 'Atlit. cornucopiae, see coins, cosmetic articles in tomb, 1 60. Court, see Jerusalem, Haram. Court of Burgesses, 'Atlit, 112. cowrie shell with lead cover, PL v, 3. Cradle of Jesus, see Jerusalem, Haram. crescent, see coins. Creswell, K. A. C., 21. Crete, 156*; migrations from, 156. Crispina, coins, 72. crois^e d’ogive, see vault. crook and flail, see coins. cross, carved, 29, 15 1 ; see also coins. crown, see coins. Crusaders, 2, 21 £, 29, 129; castles, 52, 96, 1 1 1 ; see also coins; pottery, 122, 129; stone- dressing, 29, 1 1 6. cuirass, see coins, cup-bearer, Mamluk, 42. cupboards, rock-cut, 115. customs, Greek-Orthodox, 4, 36. cyma recta, 29. Cypro-Phoenician capitals, 160. D Damascus, 21*, 22% 23*, 27% 30% 31% 32, 44 and n. 2; tomb of Sukaina, 38 n. 1, Damascus Gate, see Jerusalem. Damietta, 30, 1 1 1*; Jamal ad-din of, 38. dar al-darb (mint), 34. darabztn (railings), 45. darics, ion. 2. David Street, see Jerusalem. ad-Dawadar, see Sanjar b. 'Abdallah, ed Daweima, excavations, 91. Dawud b. 'Isa, al-Malik an-Nasir, Salah ad- din, 31*. Dead Sea, 21. Decapolis, 24. Deir Dakhle, excavations, 91. dentalium shell ornament, 161. Department of Antiquities, Palestine, I*, 10, 37 and n. 1, 52 £, 55, 101*; excavations of, see 'Atlit; museum, see Jerusalem, Institu- tions. Department of Antiquities, Government of Transjordan, 21. Der'a, 22, 31 ; inscriptions, 104. le Destroit, see Khirbat Dustrey. Dhur a, 27. diadem, see coins, diaper pattern, 103, 122, 152. dice, made in rock-crystal, 153. Diehl, Charles, 56. Dimishqi, 31. dinars of Nizar, 34 £* Dionysos, on coins, 132 £ Dioscuri, on coins, 56 n. Diospolis-Lydda, coins, 133 £ disks, bronze, 53. Districtum, see Khirbat Dustrey. diwan, 1 1 8, 1 25. dolphin, see coins. Dome of Ascension, of the Balance, of the Chain, of the Rock, of the Secret Discourse, see Jerusalem, Haram; see also Qubbat Dora, see Tantura. dove, see coins. drains, Jerusalem, 97 £, 100, 105 ff,; 'Atlit, 1 1 8. dressing of stones, 28 £, 116. Dung Gate, see Jerusalem. duqaisiyy^ 47. Dusares (?), 135 n. 2, 3; on coins, 135 n. 3. Dussaud, Ren£, 135 n. 2, 3. 205 E eagle, see coins; ~ owl, see coins, ear-rings, gold, 4, 101*, 160. earthquakes, 22. Easter, Orthodox customs, 36. Egypt* Egyptian, 21, 23*, 32, 43, 129, 155; chest, 69*; coins, 9; ear-rings, ioij stones, 153 * 'Ein 'Arrub, excavations, 91. 'Ein el Beida, 96. 'Ein ed Dirwa, 159. 'Em Duk, 865 excavations, 91. e Ein el Fawwar, mosaic pavements, 151* f. "Ein Jalut, battle, 32. 'Ein Jenni, Roman road, 24. 'Ein Karim, excavations, 189. 'Ein Qilt, 151. 'Ein es Sauda, 96. 'Ein Shams, excavations, 91 f., 157. Elagabalus, coins, 7, 72 f., 1 37. El'azar, the Priest, coins, 71. Eleutheropolis, coins, 131. Elijah (al-Khidr), place of, see Jerusalem, Haram, Emmaus, see 'Imwas. emperor, see coins. Ephraim, tribe, 104. epitaph, inscribed, from Gaza, 155 f. Equity, on coins, 7. Eros, on coins, 6, Euphrates, 31. Evagoras I, 12*; coins, 12. Excavations, see Contents of volume. F faddan , , 40*. Fahl (Pella), 24. Fakhr ad-din, pasha of Acre, 33; see also Muhammad b. Fadl- Allah. Faris ad-din, see Ilbakl. Fatimids, 2, 22, 24, 34 £*; coins, 34 f.; coin-die, 34 f. Faustina I, coins, 55 n. 4. Faustina II, coins, 55 n. 4. fibula, bronze, Pis, v, 13, vii, 15. fig-tree, see coins. fish, 1 12; made in rock-crystal, 153. flail with crook, see coins, flakes, prehistoric, 158. flints, 158. 206 j Flury, S., 2. folleSy hoard of, 55—68. forgeries, 34 f. Franks, 22, 24, 29*, 129*. Frederick II, in. funnel (Megiddo), 161. G Gadara, coins, 137*. Galilee, patriarch, 69 n. 3. galley-prow, see coins. Gallienus, coins, 7. game-counters, made in rock-crystal, 153. gates, see 'Ajlun, 'Atlit, Jerusalem, and Jerusa- lem, Haram. Gaza, 31, 42 n. 3, 155*; excavations, 92; coins, 132?.; inscriptions, 1 55 f. 5 beacon station, 3 1 j roads, 43. 'Gealyahu, the son of the King*, seal, 159, gems, 1 01. Gerar, see Tall Jamma. Gerizim, see Mount Gerizim, Geta, coins, 132. Gezer, excavations, 92 f. Ghazan, 42. Ghiyath ad-din, see Muhammad b. Ghazl. Ghor, 31. ghurabiyy (crow coloured), 45. Giv’at Eliyahu, 159. glass, fragments, PI, ix, I, p. 535 see also under beads, bottles, bracelets, buttons, kohl vessel, lamp, pendants, plaque, plates, tear-bottles, unguentaria, urn, vases, vessel, glazed pottery, 122; lamp, 129. globe, see coins. Goddess, on coins, 136*. Gdk Jami', 95. golalim . , 160. gold-foil, 36. gold, see also brooch, ear-rings, mouthpiece, necklace, sheet, thread. Golden Gate, see Jerusalem, Haram. Gordian III, coins, 137. Gothic keystone, 129; ~ vault, see vault. Government Offices, see Jerusalem, Institutions, grand councillor, Mamluk, 38. graves, see tombs. Gravette points, 158* ‘Great Amir’, 27, ‘Great King’ (of Persia), 10 n. 2. Greek Orthodox customs, 4, 36. Greek pottery, see Megiddo. gros tournois of Philip III, 1 29. Grossus Rusticus (Tughtakln), 21 n. 5. guard at opening of cave with water-pool, Megiddo, 161. Guerin, Victor, 95, guilloche (mosaic), 103. de Guinecort, Friar Simon, seal of, 120*. Guy, P. L. O., 161. H al-Habls, Habls Jaldik, castle, 22 and n. 8, 23. Hadrian, coins, 6*, 7 1. Haifa (Cayphas), 10, ill; excavations, 189. Haifa Harbour Works, 1 13. hajj, 43; road, 21, 22, 27, 31* hdktm , 32, al-Halabi, see Ibn Shaddad, Zahir ad-din. ‘Hamza, buckler of’, see Jerusalem, Haram. Hanafites, 49. Hanbalites, 82; portico of, see Jerusalem, Haram, Hannanet al-QassIs near Tiberias, 41. Haram, Jerusalem, see Jerusalem, Haram. Harbaj, see Tall el Harbaj. al-Harithiyya near Tiberias, 40 f. harpoon, bone, 158. Hasmoneans, 245 see also Maccabean, Hauran, 22 and n. 7. al-Hayyaniyya, 22 n. 7. head-dresses in Lower Natufian burials, 1615 of Isis, see coins. Hebron, 44 n. 2; stamp of jar-handles, 159; road, 43. Hellenistic, 125; fortress, 1585 lamps, 535 pottery, 158 f., 160$ wall, 10. helmet, see coins. Heracles on coins, 130 £, 136. Heraclius, 56 n. 4; coins, 55 % 65* 68. Herod I, no; coins, 6, 70. High Commissioner for Palestine, 52. Hijaz, 27. Hims, governor, 42. Hittite lions, 154. Holy cities of Arabia, see Mecca, Medina. Holy Places, in. Holy Sepulchre, see Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Horsfield, G., 21. Hugh I of Cyprus, coins, 120. Husain b. 'All b. Abl Talib, 39. Husam ad-din, see Lajln. Hyksos type of jar-handle stamps, 159. hypocaust, see bath. I Ibn Battuta, 31, 43, 46 n. 3. Ibn Shaddid al-Halabi, 23% 31 f. Ibn Sunqur al-Halabi, see Zahir ad-din. Ibn 'Urwah, cistern of, .w Jerusalem, Haram. Ibrahim Pasha, 30, 33 n. 2, 120. Ibzlq, beacon station, 31*. Ilbakl b. 'Abdallah az-Zahirl, Faris ad-din, 39 £, 41% 42*5 inscription, 39 f. Ilbakl b. Qutlumalak b. 'Abdallah, Faris ad- din, 42 n. 3. 'Imad ad-din b. Shaikh Badr, 38. Imam, Mu'azzamiyya school, 49*; of mosques, 7 6 - . Imperial portraits in rock-crystal, 153 £ 'Imwas, excavations, 93. Inn of the Good Samaritan, 96. Inscriptions: Arabic : 'Ajlun, 26, 28, 32% 33; 'Iraq el Manshiya, 42 £5 Jerusalem, 28; Nablus, 37 £5 Tiberias, 38 £; on coin die, 34. Greek: Gaza, 1555 Jerusalem, 4; Mukhmas, 103. Institut de Pal£ontologie humaine, see Paris. 'Iraq, 21, 27. 'Iraq el Manshiya, inscription, 42 £ Irbid, 315 excavations, 93, 189. Iron Age: Early: pottery, 158 ; I and II remains, 159. Middle : Astarte head, 160; Middle and Late Pottery, 1 60. Iron fragments, 53*; see also under bracelets, nail, rings. ‘Iron Gate’, see Jerusalem, Haram. Iron Mines, 30. ‘Iron Mountain’ (Josephus), 30 n. 4. 'Irq el Ahmar excavations, 157 £ 'Isa b. Abl Bakr, al-Malik al-Mu'azzam, Sharaf ad-din, 26, 27% 3of.*, 49; inscription, 28; al-Mu'azzamiyya, 49, 825 his portico, 82 £* al-Is'ardl, see 'Abdal-Ghanl. 'Isawiya, excavations, 93. Isis, head-dress of, on coins, 6. Ivory, see under beads, buttons, needle, pins, stopper. 'Izz ad-din, see Aibak b. 'Abdallah, Aibak al- 'Allanl, Usama. 207 J Jabal 'Ajlun, 22. Jabal f Au£, 22* and n. 7, 23 £, 27. Jabal Hirsh, 22 n. 7. Jabal Jarash, 22 and n. 7. Jabal JiPad, 22. al-Jabaniyya, 22 n. 7. Jaffa, 1 1 3* Jaffa Gate, see Jerusalem, Jamal ad-din of Damietta, 38. Jami c al- Aqsa, - al-Maghariba, - an-NisS’, see Jerusalem, Haram. jars, 108, no, 1 1 8, 122, 1595 see also PL xvii, 3 > 4 - Jaulan, 22 n. 7. JaussenJ. A., 37 n. 1,95. al-Jawll, see Sanjar. Jawllyya school, see Jerusalem, Haram. Jazzar Pasha, 1 20, Jenin, beacon station, 31. Jerash, 22*; Roman road, 24. Jericho, 86, 96; excavations, 93 £ Jerusalem, 2*, 24*, 49, 76 £, 96 n. 4, in. bibliography of excavations, 163-88, 192; for detailed index see pp. 195 £ coins, 7, no \ see also Aelia Capitolina, inscriptions, 4, 28. Latin Kingdom of, 21, 30. pilgrimage to, 44 and n. 2. Monuments and buildings ; Citadel (Tower of David), 28. Churches: Church of the Holy Sepulchre, lintels, 2*. Drainage, 97 £, 100, 105 £*; sewers, 97 - 9 % I0 5 , 107 f. Gates: Bab al- Amud (Damascus Gate), 975 ~ el Khalil (Jaffa Gate), 97*; ~ al- Maghariba (Dung Gate), 97. Haram, 975 Medieval Arabic description of, 44-51,74-85- Banu Jama 'a, house, 79. Buraq, ring, 84; see also steps, caves: Dome of the Rock, 47*; of Abra- ham, 79. cells, 49 f., 79, 8 x . cisterns, 74 f. ; see wells. Court of the Dome of the Rock, see Dome of the Rock. Cradle of Jesus, 77*. Domes: Qubbat al-Mi'raj (D. of the 208 Ascension), 74; ~ al-Mlzan (D. of the Balance or of the Secret Discourse), 48; ~ Musa, 83*5 ~ as-Sakhra, 45 n. 2, 49 f.*, 74 f.*; description, 44-8; place of Abraham, 47; ~ of al-Khidr (Elijah), 47; court, 48-51, 74 f., 78% 80 f., 82*; constructions below court, 82 f.; gates, 47 f., 50; Gate of Paradise, 47 f.*, 50; ~ SulaimSn, 83 f. j Dome of the Chain, 50. Gates: Bib al-GhawSnima (G. of the Band Ghilnim), 75, 80*; ~ al-Hadld (Iron), 75, 80 £; ~ Hit|a, 78*5 ~ al- Mlda'a (of Ablutions), 74, 80 f. # ; ~ al-Qaisariyya (of the Bazaar), 74; ~ ar- Rahma (of Mercy, Golden Gate), 75 , 77* 5 ~ ar-Ribat al-ManjurT, 75, 80; ~ as-Sahara, 82; ~ Sharaf al-Anbiya’ (of the Honour of the Prophets), 51, 75, 79; ~ as-Silsileh (of the Chain), 82 f.*; Gate of the Maghariba Quarter, 82; of the Tribes, 77 f. Hamza, buckler of, 46 and n. 3. Monasteries: KMnqth Is'ardlyya, 75, 79, 83; ~ Salahiyya, 84* j ~ Tankiziyya, 8x f. Ribat of 'Alam ad-din (Sanjar b. 'Abdallah), 79; ~ of al-ManjOri, 75, 80. Zawiya Fakhriyya, 75 f. # , 82; ~ al-LawI (of the Levitc), 75, 79; ~ ‘Lodgings of al-Kbatnl’, 85, Mosques: al-Aq?S, 48*, 77, 85; gates, 49; Jami' al-Maghariba, 76*; ~ an-Nisa’, 76* f., 85; Mosque of Bab er-Rahma, 77*; Masjid, see Jami'. Platforms, 49, 5 x . Porticoes: of the Hanbalites, 83; of al- Mu'azzam, 82 f. Prayer-niches, 45, 48; of 'Umar, 75. Professors, 49. Pulpit of al-Khatnl, 84. Schools: (Madrasas) of Al-Malik, 83; Jawllyya, 79; Karlmiyya, 78; Mu'azza- miyya, 48 £, 82; Salahiyya, 78; Tanki- ziyya, 81 f. Shaikh, 79. Solomon’s buildings, 77, 84; stables, 84 f. Steps: of the Balance, 75; Buraq, 50; Ramp of seven steps, 48. Sufis, Lodgings, 82. Superintendent of the Haram, 80*; of pious foundations, 81. Synagogues: Wailing Wall Synagogue, 97. Tombs: Rabi'aal-'Adawiyya, 78; Shaddad b, Aus, 77. Walls, 76-83; Eastern, 77-8; Northern, 78-80; Southern, 76-7; Western, 80-2. Waqfs, 49, 8r. Wells: bab al-janna (Door of Paradise), 75; al-bi’r al-aswad (Black Well), 75; b. birkat BanI Isra’Tl (Well of the Pool of the Children of Israel), 75; ~ al- waraqa (Well of the Leaf), 75; ~ al- ward (Rose Well), 75; al-buhaira (Little Sea), 75; Ibn 'Urwah, 75; al-ka’s (the Goblet), 75; rummana (the Pome- granate), 75; esh shauk (the Thorn), 7 5. Wilson’s Arch, 97. Institutions-. American School of Oriental Research, excavations at Khirbat et Tubeiqa, 158. British School of Archaeology, excavations at Wad! el Maghara, 160. Government Offices, 97. Municipality, 97, 105, 151. Palestine Archaeological Museum, x, 34, 36*, 52; site, cemetery, 3-5; coins, 7°“3j 1 3°~S; head of Vitellius, 153 f. 5 inscriptions, 155 f. St. Paul’s Hospice, 97. Syrian Orphanage, tomb at, 10 1 f. Pools-. Birkat BanI Isra’il, 78*. Sites: Karm al-Shaikh, see Palestine Archaeo- logical Museum, site. Mount of Olives, 78. Ophel, gardens, 97. Silwan, 97. ‘Third Wall’, 3. Tyropoeon, 97-100, 105-10; channels, 107; coins, 5; colonnade, 108*; levels, 105, 108; pavements, 99 f., 105 f.*, 1 08, 1 10; wall, 105, 108; see also drains. Streets: Jericho Road, 96; Ramallah road, 103; Sdq al Qattanln, 97; Tariq Bab as- Silsileh (David Street), 97*, 105; Tariq al-Wad (Valley Street), 97*, 105. Jesus, Cradle of, see Haram, Jerusalem. Jewish Palestine Exploration Society, excava- tions at Ramat Rahel, 159 f. Jews, coins, 6, 69, 71, 1 10. Jifna, excavations, 94. el Jish, excavations, 94, 1 89. Jisr al-Majami', 31. Job, 21. John Hyrcanus, coin, 70. Jordan, 21* f., 24, 31; valley, 21, 22 and n. 7, 2 3 f., 31. Josephus, 30 n. 4, 97. jug, Pis. xii, 5, 6, xnr, 5, xv, 4, xvr, 5, 6-9, PP* 10,53. Julia Domna, coins, 131, 135, Jupiter Capitolinus, on coins, 71. Justin I, coins, 55* 57-9, 65, 68; with Justin- ian I, 59-60, 68*. Justin II, coins, with Sophia, 9*, 55, 63, 68, Justinian I, coins, 9, 55* 60-2, 65, 68; with Justin I, 59-60, 68* K Kafr Bir'im, excavations, 139, 189. Kafr Kanna, excavations, 189. Kafrinjl (Kafr al-F ranj), 29 £ kalathos, see coins. Kamil (al-Malik), see Muhammad b. Abi Bakr. Kandidos, 4. kandys, see coins. Karim ad-din, see f Abd al-Karlm. Karlmiyya School, see Jerusalem, Haram. Karm Dar Masrur, near Tiberias, 40. Karm al-Shaikh, see Jerusalem, Palestine Archaeological Museum, site, al-ka’s, see Jerusalem, Haram. Kaukab al-Hawa, 23 £, 27. Kerak, 21% 23, 27 f., 30 f.* 33, 43; ‘Lion of Kerak’, 21. Kerberos, on coins, 73. Khalil b. Qalaun, al-Malik al-Ashraf, Salah ad- din, 41 n. 1. Khan (Khirbat et Tubeiqa), 159. Khan el Ahmar, Beisan, 95 f. Khan el Ahmar (Inn of the Good Samaritan), 9 6 * Khan el Ahmar (St. Euthymius) excavations, 139,189. Khan al 'Aqabeh inscription, 27. Khan el Lajjun, see Megiddo. Khanqah Is ardlyya, ~ Salahiyya, - Tanki- ziyya, see Jerusalem, Haram. al-Khatnl, pulpit of, see Jerusalem, Haram. al-Khidr (Elijah), place of, ^Jerusalem, Haram. 209 Khirbat Dubel, 55. Khirbat Dustrey (Districtum, le Destroit, ‘Narrow Ways’, Casa Angustarum Viarum, Casal, f Petra incisa’), in and n. 3, 112 and n. 5 > 113* Khirbat el Hamra, 96. Khirbat Hubeila, excavations, 139. Khirbat Keraza, excavations, 139. Khirbat al-Khasas, near Ascalon, find of lead sarcophagi, 36. Khirbat Salih, 1 59. Khirbat Sammaka, excavations, 139, 190. Khirbat et Tubeiqa, excavations, 158 £ Khums (vault), 128. Khurbet, see Khirbat. al-Khatnl, Zawiya of, see Jerusalem, Haram. kidaris, see coins. Kingdom of Jerusalem, see Jerusalem. Utah ad-diyarat , 24. Kitbugha, al-Malik al-Adil, Zain ad~dln, 39 f., 4 Kleodoxa, grand-daughter of Charmadas, 155. kohl vessel of glass, 53*. kukhim (kokim, loculi), 53, 160*. Kursiyy al-qubba (drum), 44, 46. L Lachish, see Tall el Hast. Lajln, al-Malik al-Mansur, Husam ad-din, 41% 42* lamp, glass, 152; pottery, Pis. vi, u, xi, 6, xii, 1, xm, 3, 9, xv, 1, 5, pp. 53, 101, 129*. Latin coinage, 35. lead sarcophagi, 36*. lead, see also rings. Leaf, well of the, see Jerusalem, Haram. Levite, Monastery of the, see Jerusalem, Haram. lily, see coins. lintel, 295 Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 2. lion, on glass pendant, 535 head of, in rock- crystal, 154. Little Sea, see Jerusalem, Haram. lituus, see coins. London, British Museum, portraits in precious stones, 153*$ Catalogue of coins, 73. loop pattern on sarcophagi, 36*. Louis VII, 23. Lucius Verus, coins, 138. Lydda, see Diospolis. lyre, see coins, 210 M Maccabean coin, 705 see also Hasmoneans. mace-head, bronze, 161. Machaios the Aetolian (?), 155 f. machicoulis , 'Ajlun, 25, 27 £, 305 'Atlit, 118, 122*. Macrinus, coins, 131. Madaba mosaic map, 108. Madden, Frederick W., 70. Madrasa Salahiyya, Tankiziyya, see Jerusalem, Haram. Magharat el Amlra, excavations, 140. Magharat es Skhul, excavations, 161. Magharat el Wad, excavations, 140, 158% 160 £, 190. Magharat ez Zuttiya, see Magharat el Amlra. al-Maghariba, see Jerusalem. magister palatii , see major-domo. Maisler, B., 159. Majd ad-din, see f Abd al-Ghani b. Abl Bakr. major-domo (ustadh ad-dar ), 26 £ Makhouly, Naim, 53. makhrUq (open), 50. malfufa mutha'bana (ringed), 49. Malha, excavations, 140. al-Malik, see al-'Adil, al-Afdal, al-Ashraf, ai- Auhad, al-'AzIz, al-Kamil, al-Mansur, al- Mu f azzam, al-Muzaffar, an-Nasir, a$~Sa'ld, as-Salih, az-Zahir. al-Malikl al-'Adill, 39 £, 41*5 - al-Ashrafl, 41 n. 15 ~ al-Mansurl, 39 £, 41* and n. 15 ~ an-Nasirl, 41 n. 1 5 ~ az-Zahirl, 42. Mamluk, 26, 30 ff., 33, 129*5 coins, 5, 9, 1295 post, 31 ; sultans, 1 1 1, and see Barakat Khan, Baybars, Khalil b. Qalaun, Kitbugha, Lajln, Muhammad b. Qalaun, Qalaun, Qutuz, Salamish, Sha'ban. mangers, 'Atlit, 118. Mankuwlrish, Rukn ad-din, 32. al-Mansur (al-Malik), see Lajln, Qalaun. maqali (dishes), 46. Maqtiat Atlit, 113. Marcus Aurelius, coins, 131. Maritime Plain, governor, 39, Marnas, on coins, 132*. Mars, on coins, 72. Marsyas on coin, 136. masalik al-absar , 23, 44. Masjid, see Jerusalem, Haram. masqul (polished), 44. mastaba (platform), 77. Maurice Tiberius, coins, 64 £, 68. Mecca, 22, 43% 44 n. 2. Medina, 22, 38 n. 1. Megiddo, excavations, 140 f, 161 f. Meirun, excavations, 141. Melqarth, on coins, ion. 2. Memshat, stamp on jar-handle, 159. el Meqerqesh, see Beit Jibrln. Mercy, Gate of, see Jerusalem, Haram. Mesolithic industry, 158, 161*. Michmash, see Mukhmas. Microlithic industry, 158. el Midya, excavations, 14 1. mihrab (niche), 45, 48. military dress, see coins, mill 'Atlit, 128. al-Minbar near Tiberias, 40 f. Minoan pottery, 1 62. mizzl ahmar, 96 n. 45 ~ helu, 97, 108$ ^ yahudl, 96 n. 4. Montfort castle, 129. Montreal, ‘Lion of Montreal’, 21. mortars, basalt, PL xvi, 1 . mosaics, Jerusalem Haram, 45, 5 °> 77 J pave- ments, 1 03 f., 1 5 1 f. Moslem cemetery, 124. mosques, see Jerusalem, Haram. Mount Carmel, 10 n. 1, 55, 865 excavations, 141, 160. Mount Gerizim, excavations, 1413 on coins, 7. Mount of Olives, see Jerusalem. Mount Tabor, 24, 27, ill; excavations, 144. Mousterian implements, industry, 161*. mouthpiece, gold, 36. al-Mu c azzam (al-Malik), see 'Isa, Turanshah. Mu'azzamiyya school, see Jerusalem, Haram. Muhammad the Prophet, 35, 38, 46. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr, al-Malik al-Kamil, 3 1 . Muhammad b. Fadl- Allah, Fakhr ad-din, his monastery, 75 £* Muhammad b. Ghazi, al-Malik al-'AzIz, Ghiyath ad-din, 32. Muhammad al-Ikhna'l, Taj ad-din, 32. Muhammad b. Qalaun, al-Malik an-Nasir, Nasir ad-din, 78. Muhammad Zaid, Lord of 'Aintab, 32*. al-mukandaj (plaster variety), 74. Mukhmas, excavations, 103 f. murex shell, see coins. Musa b. Abi Bakr, al-Malik al-Ashraf, Muzaf- far ad-din, 31*. Museum, Palestine Archaeological, see Jerusa- lem, Institutions. mushajjar (veined), 44. mutawalli , 32. muttakayah (supports), 50. al-Muzaffar (al-Malik), see Qutuz, Muzaffar ad-din, see Musa. N en Nabl Rubin, excavations, 141. Nablus, 24, 31*; excavations, 141 f.; inscrip- tion, 37 £; coin, 7. Nabratain, excavations, 142, 190. na'ih (governor), 30% 32. nail, iron, PL vn, 12, pp. 53, 101. Najm ad-din, see Ayyub b. Isma c ll, Yusuf b. Dawud. an-Nasir (al-Malik), see Dawud, Muhammad b. Qalaun, Yusuf b. Muhammad. Nasir ad-din, see Barakat Khan, Muhammad b. Qalaun, Sha'ban. naskhi script, 38 f., 42. Natufian, Lower and Upper, 158, 161*; burials, 161. nave, 103 £, 151. Nazar, see Nizar. Nazareth, excavations, 53 f., 142, 190. necklace, gold, PL v, 9; jet, Pl. xii, 2. needle, ivory, PL V, 18. Nero, coin, 137. neseph, weight, 159. Neuville, Rene, 157. New Haven, Conn., American School of Pre- historic Research, excavations in Wadi el Maghara, 160 f. niche, 26, 159 £ Nicomedia, coins, 9% 59, 62, 64 £, 68. Nike on coins, 131*, 133 and n. 5, 134; see also Victory. Nizar al- f Aziz billah, Abu Mansur, caliph, coins, 34 - Nonnus, 155. Nur ad-din, 23; see also f Isa b. Abi Bakr. Nysa, see Beisan. o officina marks, see Constantinople, Nicomedia, Antioch (coins). 21 I 'Omar, see 'Umar. Ophel, see Jerusalem. Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, see Chicago. ossuaries, ossuary-chamber, 159*, 160* Otacilia Severa, coins, 1 36. Outre le flum Jour dan , 2 1 . Outre mer, 21 f. owl, see coins. Oxford, 44. P Palestine, 1*, 7, 21, 24. Palestine Archaeological Museum, see Jerusa- lem, Institutions. Palestine, excavations, A — J, 86-94; K — L, 139-49; Jerusalem, 163-88, 192; Addenda, 189-92; Index, 192-9. Palestine Exploration Fund, Survey, 95*. Palestine Salt Company, 120 n. 1. palm-branch, — tree, see coins, paludamentum, see coins, panels, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 2 *. Paradise, Door of, Gate of, see Jerusalem, Haram. Paris, Byzantine Exhibition, 154; Institut de Pal^ontologie humaine, excavations at 'Irq el Ahmar, 157 f. paste, see beads. Patriarch of Galilee, 69 n. 3. pavements, mosaic, 103 f., 15 if.; see also Jerusalem, Sites, Tyropoeon. peacocks, 28. pearl-bead, 101*. Pella (Fahl), 24. pellet, see coins. pendants, bone, 1615 glass, Pis. vh, 19, ix, 6, P* 53 - Persian, 55, 56 and n. 4; coin-types, 14 n. 55 emblems, 56; tombs, 116. pestle, basalt, PL xvi, 2. Petra, 7. ‘Petra incisa’, see Khirbat Dustrey. Philadelphia, coin, 138* Philip Senior, coins, 135% 136*; with Philip Junior, 136. Philip Junior, coins, 75 see also preceding item . Philip III of France, coins, 129. Philip’s fountain, see 'Ein ed Dirwa. Phocas, coin, 65, 68. 212 Phoenician coins, 10-20, era of, 11 and n. 1; pendant, 53; see also coins, pigeon-post, Mamluk, 31. pilgrimage, ‘small’, 44 and n. 2. Pilgrims’ Castle, see 'Adit, pirn weight, 159. pins, bronze, Pis. iv, 7, 9, x, 13; ivory, Pis. iv, 6, 8, vi, 17, ix, 3-5, x, 1 1. Place of Abraham, ~ of Elijah, see Jerusalem, Haram. plaque, glass, PL x, 9. plaster, 74, 101, 152. plate, bronze, PL ix, 2; glass, PL vii, 13. plume, see coins. Pompey, era of, 135. Pontius Pilatus, coins, 6. poppy-head, see coins, portcullis, 122. Poseidon, on coins, 130 f. pottery: 'Adit, 1 18, 122, 129; 'Ein el Fawwar, 152; 'Irq el Ahmar, 158; Jerusalem, 100, 108 ff.; Khirbat et Tubeiqa, 1585 Megiddo, 162; Nazareth, 53; Ramat Rahel, 160; marks, 1295 ribbed, 101, no, 152; see also bowl, comb-decoration, diaper, glazed pottery, jars, jug, lamp, tea-pots, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Hellenistic, Roman, prayer-niche, see Jerusalem, Haram. Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Chicago, see Chicago. Procopius, 155. Procurators of Judaea, coins, 6, 70 f. Ptolemaic system, 24 n. 1 . Ptolemais, see Acre. Ptolemy II, 14. Qal'atel Qurein, 129; excavations, 142. Qal'at er Rabad, 21, 30. Qalaun, al-Malik al-Mansur, Saif ad-din, 32*, 41* f.; his ribat, 75, 80. Qalqashandl, 23, 30. Qalunya, excavations, 142. Qaryat el 'Inab, see Abu Ghosh. al-Qasll(e), near Tiberias, 40 f. Qasr bint al-Malik, 4 1 . quarries, quarrying, 1 1 3* ff. Qubbat al-mi'raj, - al-mizan, ~ Musa, ~ as- Sakhra, ~ Sulaiman, see Jerusalem, Haram. Qubeiba, excavations, 190. Qutuz, al-Malik al-Muzaffar, Saif ad-din, 32. R Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya, tomb, see Jerusalem, Haram. Rachel’s tomb (vicinity), excavations, 190. Ragaba, 24 n. 4. er Ram, 103. Ramallah, lead sarcophagus from, 36. Ramat el Khalil, excavations, 142 f., 190. Ramat Rahel, excavations, 159 f, Ramses II, scarabs, 159, 162. Raphia, coins, 132*. er Ras, excavations, 143. ‘Rasad’ (guardian spirit), 15 1. Records Office, Department of Antiquities, 37. Red Caravanserai, see Khan el Ahmar. Reginald of Kerak, 23*. relatif d y appartenance> 41 £ ribat, see Jerusalem, Haram. Ricci, P. A., 21. Richard Coeur-de-Lion, 1 1 2 f. Richmond, E. T., 48 n. 1. rider, see coins. rings, bronze, Pis. vi, 3, ix, 1, n, x, 8, p. 53*; iron, Pis. iv, 5, vir, 4, 16, p. 535 lead, PL v, 7; silver, 53. road, Roman, 24. rock-crystal, 153 f. rock-shelter, 157 £, 161. Rockefeller, J. D., Jr., 1. Rogers, Edgar, 69. Roma, on coins, 1 32. Roman, 28 £, 1255 see coins, lamp, pottery. Romanesque vault (a plein cintre ), see vault. Rose well, see Jerusalem, Haram. rosettes, 118, 160*. Rostovtzeff, M., 101*. rudder, see coins. ruhan fijasad (twisted), 46. ar-Rujm al-kablr, near Tiberias, 40. Rukn ad-din, see Baybars, Mankuwlrish. Rummana well, see Jerusalem, Haram. S Sabastya, excavations, 143, 157. Safad, 24, 32, 39, 42*. Saffuriya, excavations, 143, 157. sahib ^ 27. as-Sa f ld (al-Malik), see Barakat Khan. Saif ad-din, 32; see also Abu Bakr b. Ayyub, 'All b. Qilij, Almalik, Qalailn, Salar. St. Euthymius, see Khan el Ahmar. St. Paul’s Hospice, see Jerusalem, Institutions. St. Sophia, see Constantinople. sakhra , 45 n. 2. Saladin, 23* £, 26% 27% 33, 129; his madrasa, 78, 84. Salah ad-din, see Khalil b. Qalaun, Saladin, Yusuf b. Muhammad. Salamish b. Baybars, al-Malik al-'Adil, Badr ad- din, 32,41. Salar, Saif ad-din, 95 £ salib , see vault. as-Salih (al-Malik), see Ayyub b. Isma'll. Salkhad, 27*; inscription, 104. as-Salt, 22 and n. 7, 27. Sanjar b. 'Abdallah, ad-Dawadar as-Salihl an- Najml, 'Alam ad-din, his ribat, 79. Sanjar al-Jawll, 'Alarn ad-din, 96} his school, 79. Saracens, in. Sarapis, on coins, 7, 72* £, 135 and n. 3. sarcophagus, lead, 36*; stone, 4. Sarkhad, see Salkhad. Sassanian coins, 56; pottery, 129. Satura Epigraphica Arabica I, 37-43* Saulcy, F. de, 7. as-Sawad, 21, 22 and n. 7, 23*5 names, 21*. scarabs, PI. v, 1, pp. 159, 162. sceptre, see coins, school, see Madrasa. Scottish Missionary Station, Tiberias, 41. scrapers, 158*. screen, chancel, 151 ; in Dome of the Rock, 46; post, 104. sculpture, PI. ix, 7, p. 153 £ Scythopolis, see Beisan. sea-horse, see coins. seal, ‘Gealyahu, the son of the King’, 1 59 > Friar Simon de Guinecort, 120. Sebaste, coins, 1 34 £, see also Sabastya. Seilun, excavations, 143 £ Seleucid, 14; coins, 6,70, no* era, 6, 11 n. 1, 70*. Seleucus I, 14. Sellers, O. R., 158. Septimius Severus, coins, 132 £, 137. Sepulchre, Church of the Holy, see Jerusalem. Seti I, scarabs, 162. 213 Severus Alexander, coins, 131, 132 £ s g ra ffit° designs on pottery, 1 29. Sha'ban b. Hasan, al-Malik al-Ashraf, Nasir ad- din, 41 n. 1. Shaddad b. Aus, tomb, see Jerusalem, Haram. Shafa *Amr, excavations, 144. ShaYat, excavations, 190, shaft, 1 05$ masonry, 161 f.j rock-cut, 1615 tombs, 53, 162. shahm voa-lahm (speckled red and white), 45* £ shahuta (comb-pick), 29, 108. Shaikh of the Haram, 79 \ of the Muazzamiyya school, 49. Shaikh Ahmad al-'Areinl, inscription, 42. Shaikh Badr, 38. Shaikh Budran, inscription, 37 £ Shaikh Sa r d, 31. esh Shajara, 22 n. 8; excavations, 191. Shallal, excavations, 144. sharniyy (like wax candles), 47. Shaqlf, 39. Sharat, district, 24. esh Shari f a, see Outre mer . Shaubak, 31*. Shauk, well, see Jerusalem, Haram. sheet, gold, Pis. vii, 1, xm, 2, xiv, 8. shokeh (pointed chisel), 29. Shuqba, excavations, 144. Si don, coins, 14* stlstlai al-asjad fi sifat as-sakhra wa-l-masjid , 44 and n. 1. silver, see rings. Silwan, see Jerusalem. Simon the Maccabee, 1 59. Sitt Sukaina, see Sukaina. skeletons, 3% 4*, 101% 159, 160*. skulls, 3% 4% 1 01, 162. slip ware, no, 129. Sobal, see Syria Sobal. Sol, see coins, soldier, see coins. ‘Solomonic’ buildings, see Jerusalem, Haram. Sophia, with Justin II, on coins, 9% 63. spatulae, bronze, Pis. xv, 4, ix, 9, xi, 1 1 .. . sphinx, see coins, stables, 118. stamped jar-handles, 159* £ star, 53, 56 n.; see also coins, staters, 1 of.* Stekelis, M., 159. | 214 stopper, ivory, PI. vi, 4. subh al-a'sha , 23, 30. Suet, 2i. Suetonius, 153*. suffah (platform), 48; see also Jerusalem, Haram. Sufis, see Jerusalem, Haram. Suhitis, Suite, 21. Sukaina bint Husain b. *AlI b, Abl Talib, Sitt, 38 and n. 1 j inscriptions, 38-42. sultans, 31; see also Ayyubids, Mamluk. sun, see coins. Sunqur, Ibn, see Ibn Sunqur. Superintendent, see Jerusalem, Haram. Suq al-Qattanln, see Jerusalem, Sur Bahir, excavations, 144. Syria, 23, 31 f., 42, 154. Syria Sobal, 21, 23. Syrian ceiling, 49. Syrian Orphanage, see Jerusalem. Szelah-eddyn, see Saladin. T Tabaria, see Tiberias, tabernacle, see coins, table legs, 104. Tabor, see Mount Tabor. Taj ad-din, see Muhammad al-Ikhna'l, Ahmad b. Amin al-Mulk, Talhum (Capernaum, Capharnaum), 69*, 112 n. 5, 1 13 n. 15 excavations, 144 £, 191. Tall Abu Hawwam, ion. 1 j hoard, 10-20. Tall Ajjul, see Tall el f Ujul. Tall Amr, excavations, 145. Tall Beit Mirsim, excavations, 145, Tall el Fari a, excavations, 1 45, 1 9 1 . Tall el Ful, excavations, 145. Tall el Has!, excavations, 145 £ Tall el Harbaj, excavations, 146. Tall Hum, see Talhum. Tall el Husn, see Beisan. Tall Jamma, excavations, 146, Tall el Judeida, excavations, 146. Tall Mubarak, excavations, 147. Tall el Mutasallim, see Megiddo. Tall en Nasba, excavations, 147, 191. Tall el Qassls, excavations, 147. Tall es Safi, excavations, 147. Tall Sandahanna, see Beit Jibrln. Tall es Sultan, see Jericho. Tall Ti e innik, excavations, 147 £ Tall el 'Ujul, excavations, 157. Tall Zakariya, excavations, 148. Talpiyot, 159. et Tamra, excavations, 1 9 1 * Tancred, 22. Tankiz an-Nasirl, Saif ad-din, his madrasa and khanqah, 81. Tantura (Dora), 112 n. 53 excavations, 148; coins, 135. at-tarif. , 23, 31. Tariq Bab as-Silsileh, Tarlq al-Wad, see Jerusalem. Tartars, 31% 32*. Taskomenes (?), 156 n. 1. tathmina (octagon), 44 and n. 4. Tayyibat al-Ism, beacon station, 31*. ‘tea-pots’ pottery, 1 62. tear-bottles, glass, Pis. vii, 1 1, xi, 10. Templars, iii*£, 120. temple, see coins 5 ~ portico, see coins. terra sigillata, 154. tetradrachms, 12 £*, 69. Thessalonica, coin, 7. Thomsen, Peter, 86. Thorn (well), see Jerusalem, Haram. thread, gold, 36. tiara, see coins. Tiberias, 22* and n. 7, 23, 33*, 40, 863 inscrip- tions, 38-423 lake, 21 £, 24, 27, 405 vicinity, excavations, 148 f., 191. Tiberius, 1 53*; coins, 6, 70-1 5 era, 6, 71. Tiberius II, coins, 9, 63-4, 68. et Tlra, 1 12 n. 5, 128. firs (vault), 128*. Titus, 4. toga, see coins. tombs: 'Atlit, 1163 Jerusalem, 3*, 4*3 Khirbat et Tubeiqa, 1595 Nazareth, 53* £3 Ramat Rahel, 159* £ tomb-stones, 4. Tower of David, see Jerusalem, Citadel, town-wall, 'Atlit, 120-4. Trajan, coin, 6. Trajan Decius, coin, 73. T rans-Jordan, 2 1 , 23 £ 3 Department of Antiqui- ties, see Department. Tribes, Gate of, see Jerusalem, Haram. tube, bronze, PI. v, 15. tubzl mazmul (quarry-faced stone), 28. Tughtakln, 21, 22*. Turanshah b. Ayyub, al-Malik al-Mu azzam, 31 - turban, see coins. Turkish coins, 9. Turmus 'Aiya, excavations, 19 1. Turra, beacon station, 31*. Tyr, see et Tlra. Tyre, 123 coins, 10 £, 13% 14 n. 5, 15*. Tyropoeon Valley, see Jerusalem, Sites. U 'Umar, the Caliph, 75, 7 7. al-'Umarl, see Ahmad b. Fadl-Allah. Umm el 'Amad, excavations, 149. Umm Jarar, excavations, 149. Umm el Laqis, inscription, 43. Umm Qal'a, excavations, 191. UmmQatafa, 1573 excavations, 19 1. Umm er Rus, excavations, 149, 192. Umm Rujm, near Tiberias, 40. unguentaria, glass, Pis. vxi, 14, vm, 1, 2, 4, 6, University of Chicago, see Chicago, urn, glass, PI. vm, 5. Usama, 'Izz ad-din, 23 £, 25 £, 2 7*. 'Usama b. Munqidh, of Shaizar, 24 n. 2, 129. ustadh ad-dar (major-domo), 26 £ V Valabathus, coin, 7*. Valentinus, inscription, 103, 104*. Valerian, 73 coins, 134*. Valerius Gratus, coins, 70 £ Valley Street, see Jerusalem, vases, glass, PL xv, 6. vault, 1283 barrel-shaped (' dqd ’ enbub\ 29, 533 diagonal groined {salib\ 29, 1283 Roman- esque {a plein cintre ), 1293 Gothic (croisee d'ogive)^ 129. Venus, on coins, 72. Vespasian, portrait, 153. vessel, glass, 53*, 160. Victory, on coins, 8*3 see also Nike, vine-leaf, see coins. Vitellius, Aulus, the emperor, 153*3 his por- trait, 153 £ Vitellius, Lucius, 154*. de Vitri, Jacques, 1 1 1 and n. 2, 1 12. voussoirs, 28 £ 2I 5 w Wadi Beit Sahur, excavations, 192. Wadi Dustrey, 113. Wadi *Ein Silwan, 84. Wadi Fara, 15 1. Wadi Ghazza, see Tall Jamma. Wadi Jahannam, 77 £ Wadi KafrinjI, 24. Wadi Khureitun, 157, Wadi el Maghara, excavations, 160 £ Wadi Rajib, 24. Wadi Suweinlt, 1 5 1 - Wadi Yabis, Roman road, 24. wagon, see coins. Wailing Wall Synagogue, see Jerusalem. wall , 30*. wall, 25*, 26% 29, 120, 158, i6o£*; see also Jerusalem, Haram, Sites, Tyropoeon. Warren, Sir Charles, 99* and n. 1. waves, see coins, weights, inscribed, 159. Well of Jacob, ~ of the Samaritan, excavations, 149. wheel, see coins. Wiet, Gaston, 21. Wilson’s Arch, see Jerusalem, wine-shop, Khirbat et Tubeiqa, 159. wine-press, 160. ‘winged roll’ on jar-handle stamps, 159. wolf and twins, see coins, wreath, see coins. Y Yalbugha, 41 n. 1. Yarmuk valley, 22 n. 8. Yeshil Jami f , 95. Yl-Malak, 43 n. 1. Yusuf, mutsellim of Damascus, 33*. Yusuf al-Barekat, 33. Yusuf b. Dawud, al-Malik al-Auhad, Najm ad-din, his mausoleum, 79. Yusuf b. Muhammad, al-Malik an-Na§ir, Salah ad-din, 31% 32*. Z az-Zahir (al-Malik), see Baybars. Zahir ad-din Ibn Sunqur al-Halabl, 31. Zain ad-din, see Kitbugha. Zarqa valley, 30. az-Zawiya al-Fakhriyya, Zawiyat al-LawI, see Jerusalem, Haram. Zeus, on coins, 134*, 135 n. 2, 3. zigzag diaper, 122. Zikhron Ya'qov, excavations, 192. Ziph, on jar-handle stamp, 159 £; on seal, 150. Zir*In, excavations, 149. 2l6 THE QUARTERLY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTIQUITIES IN PALESTINE VOLUME I. NO. i JERUSALEM PUBLISHED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF PALESTINE BY HUMPHREY MILFORD OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON, E.C. 4 1 93 1 1 : ' % .. '• "V ' X, • * ", \\ ' ; ,.h * PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, OXFORD BY JOHN JOHNSON, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY CONTENTS INTRODUCTION CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE NOTE ON A CEMETERY AT KARM A L-SHAIKH, JERU- SALEM A HOARD OF PHOENICIAN COINS .... MEDIEVAL 'AJLUN. THE CASTLE .... A FATIMID COIN-DIE ‘LOOP PATTERN’ DECORATING LEAD SARCOPHAGI SATURA EPIGRAPHICA ARABICA .... A MEDIEVAL ARABIC DESCRIPTION OF THE HARAM OF JERUSALEM NOTES page i 3 » 34 » 3 6 » 37 » 44 » 5 2 THE QUARTERLY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTIQUITIES INTRODUCTION T HE issue of a periodical at, it is hoped, quarterly intervals is among the activities which, thanks to the generous assistance of Mr. J. D. Rocke- feller, Jr., the Department of Antiquities is now able to initiate. The main purpose is to publish ( a ) any discoveries resulting either from excavations carried out by the Department, or from other methods of re- search, or that come to light in a more accidental manner in the course of the Department’s ordinary administrative work; ( b ) notes upon such antiquities in the Department’s Museum, or elsewhere in Palestine, as have not already been published; (c) texts and translations of texts describing historic monu- ments and sites; (d) general news of archaeological work in Palestine. E. T. R. B I CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE Note on a recent discovery. I N the course of work begun during the autumn of last year, with the object of preserving the carved panels covering the lintels over the entrances to the church, the following came to light. The panel over the right-hand (blocked up) entrance consists of three slabs of marble; each slab is 0-67 m. deep and varies in thickness from 0-05 m. to 0-07 m. The lengths are as follows: right-hand slab at top 1-23 m., at bottom 1-26 m. Left-hand slab at top 1-32 m., at bottom 1-36 m. Middle slab at top i- 19 m., at bottom i- 125 m. Thus the middle slab is cut in the form of a keystone, i.e. with sloping sides, and its neighbours, on either hand, are shaped accordingly. The back of the right-hand slab (the face of which is illustrated in PI. I, fig. 1) was found to be carved, see PI. I, fig. 2. The date of the carving upon the face of the slab falls probably between 1150 and 1 180. 1 In the opinion of the writer the carving upon the back of the slab may be dated somewhere between the Fatimid occupation of Jerusa- lem in the last third of the tenth century and the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders at the end of the eleventh. Dr. S. Flury, to whom a photograph of the carving was sent, and who was good enough to give his opinion, states that, had the slab been found in Cairo, he would attribute it to the tenth century; but that a provincial carver might still be producing work of this character in the eleventh century. 2 E. T. R. 1 Vincent et Abel, Jerusalem Nouvelle , Vol. II, p. 1 52; and de Vogue, Les Uglises de la Terre Sainte , p. 205. 2 It is interesting to compare, in its general lines, the design of this panel with the Byzantine panel illustrated in Diehl’s Manuel d'Art Byzantin, Vol. I, p. 457. 2 Fig. 2. Church of the Holy Sepulchre— Right Lintel, back NOTE ON A CEMETERY AT KARM AL-SHAIKH, JERUSALEM T HE site known as Karm al-Shaikh is situated about 40 metres north of the north-east corner of the City wall. It is referred to by Clermont- Ganneau, who gives an account of some tomb-chambers he examined on this site. 1 He had intended, he says, to resume exploration later on, but adds ‘our other labours unfortunately gave me no leisure to do so’. He believed that these tombs ‘may have an important bearing upon the question, still awaiting solution, of the third wall of the City’. He added: 2 ‘whatever their age may be these sepulchres . . . are worth clearing out; perhaps one might find, if not an inscription, at all events some characteristic object which would enable one to decide the period to which they belong.’ The new Palestine Archaeological Museum is now being built upon this site. During the course of excavating for the foundations it was necessary to clear and to examine a number of tombs. The following is a short summary of the discoveries. The tombs were of three categories: (a) rectangular rock-cut graves; (b) caves; and (c) rock-cut chambers. Of these, 68 rock-cut graves, 5 caves, and 4 rock-cut chambers were cleared. Fig. 1 gives a plan of the site and the positions of these tombs. The rock-cut graves were rectangular in shape, measuring, on the average, i-8om. long, 0-5001. wide, and 2-00 m. deep. The majority ran either from north to south or from east to west. Fig. 2 gives a plan and section of rock-cut Grave No. 3. This grave may be taken as typical of this category. In this grave, and at a depth of 1-40 m., bones were found huddled together in the west end of the grave. Under these bones were stone slabs resting upon ledges. Beneath these was a skeleton with the skull at the west end of the grave. Round the skull were found the objects illustrated on Plate I. In Grave No. 19 the stone slabs that, in other graves, occurred usually at a depth of about 1-50 m. were found immediately beneath the surface of the ground, thus leaving almost the full depth (about i-8o m.) for burials. In this grave were found nine skeletons and the objects illustrated on Plate III. Grave No. 55 was exceptionally long, 2-35 m., 0-70 m. wide, and 2-00 m. deep. It contained, beneath the stone slabs, two skeletons. The presence of bones above the stone slabs in some of the graves, as, for 1 Charles Clermont-Ganneau, Archaeological Researches in Palestine , translated for the Palestine Exploration Fund by Aubrey Stewart, Vol. I, p. 248. 2 Ibid., p. 253. 3 example, in No. 3, suggests the possibility of a practice similar to the modern Greek Orthodox custom of burying the eldest son in his father’s grave. On opening the grave the father’s bones are collected, and placed, in a linen sheet, over the son’s coffin, and wine is poured over the bones of the father. With the exception of Nos. 19 and 55 the rest of the graves were similar to No. 3 above described. The objects found in them are illustrated on the Plates. The five caves are marked A, B, C, D, and F, see Fig. 1. As is seen on the plan. A, B, C, and D communicate with one another. The objects illustrated on Plates IX, X, and XIV were found in caves B and F. Cave B contained twenty-six skulls, and other parts of skeletons were found scattered on the floor of the cave. The four rock-cut chambers are marked E, G, H, and J on Fig. 1. In chamber E (Fig. 3) were seven rock-sunk graves. Access to the chamber was given by a rectangular opening in the roof ( i- 50 m. long, and o- 60 m. wide). This opening was covered with three slabs. Plates X and XIV illustrate the objects found in this chamber. Chamber G (Fig. 4) had two entrances: one to the south measuring 0-40 m. by 0-50 m.; the other, a circular one, of 0-50 m. in diameter, in the roof. In this chamber a coin of Arcadius was found. The other objects discovered in this chamber are illustrated on Plate VIII. Chamber H (Fig. 5) had one entrance, measuring 0-40 m. by 0-50 m., on the north side. In it were three rock-sunk graves fitted with stone slabs. For contents see Plates XI and XIII. One sarcophagus was discovered (Plate XVIII). Its box is 1*97 m. long, 0-63 m. wide, and 0-70 m. high; its lid is 0-31 m. high. It contained two skeletons and four gold ear-rings (see Plate XVIII). Surface finds are illustrated on Plates XIII and XIV. The inscribed stones illustrated on Plate XIV appear to be tombstones. The first is inscribed KAN AlA OC in three lines; and the second is frag- mentary. A summary of the coins found is given on p. 6; they are all of bronze and, as isolated specimens, comparatively unimportant; but taken collectively they may give some idea of the extent to which the site was used at different times. Two coins date from the end of the second century b.c. Six coins belong to the middle of the first century a.d. Then there are only three coins covering about a century and a half, from the victory of Titus in a.d. 70 to the beginning of the third century a.d. The period from the middle of the 4 third century to the end of the fourth is covered by twelve coins, the fifth century by two (or possibly three), and the sixth century by six or seven coins. For the twelve centuries separating the Arab conquest from the present day there are only thirteen coins (Mamluk, Crusader, and recent). Though the number of coins found on this site during the clearance of the surface soil and the examination of the burials is relatively small, it is of interest to note that the number of coins belonging to each of the periods indicated roughly corresponds, in proportion, to the numbers traceable to the same periods in the list of coins found during excavations in the Tyropoeon Valley, Jerusalem, 1 during 1927. D. C. B. 1 Published in the Palestine Exploration Fund Annual, No. 5 (1929) by J. W. Crowfoot and G. M. FitzGerald. 5 SUMMARY OF COINS FOUND 6 >>* a % g S — J J 2 -M P'S 3 & G u 3,0 aj cn Ph *4 0^3 °3 r ‘s .5 &$% r 9 A o cn u w^-^ 3 3 •S -S ' JS’H 3 j -§^ 3 -Si 2 ? 3 J- | js!^ VT) I o <s Y _. «f 3^:3 « 4 J {5 c 3 T3 £ S §■!_ U ‘-G s.s| 3 O r^ U Phi <u ^ „ 3 . oTcq :g 0 1 oo vD d ►>- CA *-H -o' 3 O .gf.§> 3 "S <u - •g^ 5 ^>•5 <* 3 £ ^ jj Q, d iyi If 8 J ^ (2 a s 3 g ^ 'eS S'5.s> HG M A d -3 1-4 J-H d3 CO CO G cn S 4 b (U 1-1 3 .5 3 c/D 3 TD ^ s ■5 '^—.3 6 3 *« 8 of £ is <; O o "3 >-< .£ *o u j3 B-l 3 3 earl A.D. °rg «‘S T3 6 £ < 3 c3 u *3 ^*3 . CD co 2 •ra M _br3 *-G 3 Uh G rt 6 hQ 3 O CD J— . U 8S c5 +0 3 O 3 >-» CD 0 < "3 _ 3 2 C3 Oh PH W & §3 £ * CO I . O 03 co.o d § *o r\ * "P> w *—-1 cn , 3 cn 3 cn . M 3 u 3 3 U va u 3 PQ 3 § 3 U 43 1-4 3 3 3 43 V-i G PQ 3 § B rtl -i=J r£3 i 4U LG o LO CO o o o W I— c »-H t-H U. hh JS u I | S° 3 & •s •V 3 -M 4— 1 o T3 z -3 fS •a j j® o*.s *x> 3 |i JS , <y I— -a UJ ^ 3 .g £ »« 1.S rC H-J -4 g .si' T3 S g T3 S W « ib-g '3 S o > < CO < cj — §- u < 3 V-. 3 3 •s cS ? > T 3 v O 3 < 3 DO $ O < 3 PQ Od 0 £ oc o > CO > X 3 "5b *-< "3 • « c >-t • — _ c4 od 5 6 .5 *5* a «s v* B 3 ^o, 3 Oh P s a >•> 3 rd d H Jtg 4-J Q, Jl Xj c n 6 .5 '3 o *C a. <u D-. r* c! C/3 Jd -u Ch £ O as oj S S .ti £* 3 *- o 5 J 3 .£ 3 s 3 i bD f-G I C+-, < °H c 8 > 5« l 3 s°E 5! -§ O -2 cj 1 H txJO .£ ^3 a . a cn * ’-" oT’o > J .§ z 'O cd e ^ j h iT'c S * I | -M 3 £ S* cn G 3 3.. ^ T 3 *T 5 -Q 3 G ' 3 $' s Cm 0 1 | PQ &2 bO 3 rtl I Z 3 h z 2 fc >*5 < O °- tj S J — T 3 3 O o adiate; O M > < CO 3 > -2 Z ’Id < V-4 3 -J <J LU <4H o 4 . cc 'S > 3< 4H 3 0 o a i PQ ccj 1 &. 6 CD o r 3 . PQ : hd 3 ^ rt tn a •| s G fl) £S . xj Jh ,04 2 JD ■3 *c 3 'So p3 Cu ^3 3 Cm O 6J0 .£ *c *«s cn 8 *5 b 3 **H ■M 3 8 ' 3 3 PQ -d a 2 <D a? s O > < 3 CCS CD .S *3 I cn 3 O a 3 PQ 8 o c* N O CS c* <S cs c< 7 8 PLATE III PLATE V Contents of Grave 14: (1) Scarab. (2) Carnelian bead. (3) Cowrie shell ■with lead cover. (4) to (6) Glass beads. (7) Three lead rings. (8) Two bronze bracelets. (9) Gold necklace. (10) Gold ear-ring. Grave 12: (11) Gold ear-ring. Grave 6: (12) Glass bottle. (13) Bronze fibula. (14) Gold ear-ring. (15) Bronze tube. (16) Fragment of glass bracelet. Grave 13: (17) Gold ear-ring. (18) Head of an ivory needle. (19) Purple glass bottle. Grave 42 : (20) and (21) Gold ear-rings. (22) Glass bottle. PLATE VII O 0 Q <*00 Op o 10 *' Contents of Grave 36: (1) Fourteen pieces of gold sheet. Grave 33: (2) Gold ear-rings. (3} Bronze bracelet. (4) Iron ring encircling the neck of a glass bottle. Grave 64: (5) Gold ear-ring. (6) Resinous and glass beads. Grave 30: (7) Gold ear-rings. Grave 29: (8) Gold ear-ring. Grave 37: (9) Gold ear-rings. Grave 38: (10) Gold ear-rings. Grave 32: (11) Glass tear bottle. (12) Iron nail. (13) Glass plate. (14) Purple glass unguentarium. Grave 33: (13) Bronze fibulae. (16) Iron ring. (17) Bronze bracelet. (18) and (20) Glass beads. (19) Glass pendant. OoBQo Contents of Cave F: (i) Gold ear-rings, (a) Gold sheet. (3) Pottery lamps. (4) Diorite button. (5) Pottery juglets. Chamber E\ (6) Two gold ear-rings (Graze V). (7) Gold ear-ring (Grave VI). (8) Gold ear-ring (Grave VII). (9) Pottery lamps (floor of Chamber). PLATE XIV Surface finds: (i) Basalt mortars, (z) Basalt pestle found with (r a). (3) Modern bronze candlestick (4) Moulded stone. (5) Typical bases of juglets found on site. (6) to (9) Pottery jug-lets. PLATE XVIII (i) Sarcophagus. ( 4 ) Jug which contained the hoard of Phoenician coins (see p. 10). c 9 also, in Cave A, I coin of the Crusader period. A HOARD OF PHOENICIAN COINS O N the 15th of August 1930, a hoard of Phoenician coins was discovered at Tall Abu Hawwam, 1 near Haifa. All the coins have the same types and belong to series attributed to Tyre. The types are: Obverse : Winged sea-horse moving r. over waves, represented by two lines, carrying a bearded male rider, 2 bust alone visible, with hair in a knot at the back (and bound with diadem ? 3 ), arms bare, wearing a garment show- ing vertical folds, resembling kandys; holding a bow in 1. hand, outstretched, and reins in r. ; cable border. Reverse : Eagle-Owl standing r., looking to front; across field, crook and flail, placed diagonally behind owl, also numerals, letters, or both; cable border. The hoard lay just over one metre below the original surface of the Tall, among stones forming the foundations of a wall of the Hellenistic period. Near the coins was found a broken jug (pi. XVIII. 4) to the inner surfaces of which still adhere short bands of silver corrosion, showing that the coins had been buried in the jug. Sixty-two coins were collected from the loose soil lying between the stones, by personnel of the Department of Antiquities, at the time of the discovery. A further batch of 47 coins, believed to complete the hoard, was sold on the same day to a Haifa antiquity dealer by an unknown individual, .probably to be identified with the labourer who found the coins in the first instance and who afterwards left the work and disappeared. A list of the coins is appended; those belonging to the batch of 47 obtained through the antiquity dealer are distinguished by an asterisk (*). The first fourteen coins in the list are Phoenician staters of thick fabric, considerably worn and apparently struck from worn or imperfectly finished 1 Tall Abu Hawwam is a small artificial mound tying between the foot of Mount Carmel and the Bay of Acre, a mile and a quarter to the south-east of Haifa Railway Station. The greater part of the mound has been demolished, in the past, to provide material for filling in adjacent swamps and, during the summer of 4930, some earth was taken from the small remaining portion to con- struct an embankment. During the latter work the hoard was found. 2 Melqarth (Hill, S.Af. Catalogue , Phoenicia , pp. 229-32) or ‘Divinite’ (Babelon, TraitL Pt. 2, Vol. II, p. 618). The appearance of the rider, his hair, clothing— so far as it is distinguishable on the coins— and manner of holding the bow, suggest an imitation of the figure of the Great King on arics; but the rider is not crowned with the kidaris which was a particular attribute of the Great King (Xenophon, Anab ., II, 5). * The rider seems to be wearing a kind of turban with loose ends on some specimens (Nos. 9, 1 <) and, on others, a tiara that almost takes the form of the kidaris (No. 99). 1 V * IO r dies; they had an outer coating of green corrosion, under which thin layers of red cuprous oxide adhered to the silver surfaces, indicating a large proportion of copper in the alloy. The remaining 9 5 coins are of Attic standard, in almost new condition or only a little worn; these had a hard rough greyish-black coating of silver chloride, varying in thickness, but with no visible signs of copper alloy. The greater number are dated to years 27 and 29. Year 33 is the latest in the hoard. As coins of the same series bearing dates up to year 37 are known, it is likely that the hoard was abandoned about three years before coins of the year 37 came into circulation. 1 The earliest coins attributed to Tyre can be arranged in four groups, differ- ing in fabric and style: B.M.C. Group I: Obverse . Reverse . No , 2 (Phoenician Staters, thick Dolphin r. over neat triple Owl with ruff indicated by i, &c. fabric. Not represented line of waves $ murex thick continuous crescent ; in the hoard.) shell in exergue. crook and flail ; in shallow incuse square . Group II: (Phoenician Staters, thick Sea-horse and rider over Owl with ruff treated natu- 1 i, 14, fabric. Nos. 1--14 in clumsy double line of rally, showing feathers; &c. list.) waves; dolphin in ex- crook and flail, letters, ergue. numerals, &c. Group 111 : (Phoenician Staters, flat Sea-horse and rider, over Owl with ruff as in Group 19, &c. fabric. Not represented neat triple line of waves ; 1 ; crook and flail; in shal - in the hoard.) dolphin in exergue. low incuse circle . Group IF: (Attic standard, flat fabric. Sea-horse and rider over Owl with ruff treated natu- 25, 29, Nos. 15-109 in list.) clumsy double line of rally (as in Group II). 32, waves (as in Group II, Crook and flail, letters, &c. but showing greater de- numerals, &c. tail) dolphin in exergue. The hoard contains coins of Groups II and IV only, in proportions that might be expected if the latter group followed the former without the inter- position of Group III. It seems possible, on grounds of style also, that 1 For a discussion as to the eras by which these coins of Attic standard may be dated see Hill, ibid., pp. cxxix ff. He regards the Seleucid era as the most probable; this would place the coins of year 37 in 276-5 b.c.j he adds, however, in a note that ‘Rouvier’s suggestion . . . that the coins of years 23-37 are dated ky the Phoenician era of Alexander and belong to 311/10-297/6 B.c., is attractive . . 2 For complete descriptions the British Museum Catalogue should be consulted. I I Group III immediately succeeded Group I; on both groups there is a neat triple line of waves, distinct from the careless double lines on Groups II and IV ; the thick continuous crescent passing below the owl’s beak, representing the ruff, occurs on Groups I and III, but the ruff is treated differently on Groups II and IV. The reverse type of Group I is in an incuse square, that of Group III in a shallow incuse circle, indicating similar methods of striking, distinct from the method used for Group II which produced no incuse impression. On the evidence of the Cilician find 1 the coins of Group III were in circula- tion before 380 b.c. They cannot be attributed to any particular ruler; possibly Evagoras I, of Salamis, introduced them after he seized Tyre in 389 b.c., but, if so, they could have been issued during a short period only (though Babelon states that they are very common 2 ) and Evagoras would have been responsible for introducing the type of rider on sea-horse. The fabric of Groups II and IV is careless and plated specimens are known; but no plated specimens are recorded in Groups I and III. It has been noted that the coins of Group II found in the hoard are of debased silver. A coin of Group IV in barbarous style, with the reverse type to 1 . is recorded. 3 A characteristic of Groups II and IV is that the types in each Group present a remarkable uniformity in size and contour, at first creating an impression that very few dies were used; but, after taking into account differences due to the re-working of some dies, there remain variations (such as changes in the position of the crook and flail or numerals in relation to the main type) which show that such an impression would be incorrect and that relatively large numbers of dies may have been prepared, by some mechanical means, from one model, each die being afterwards worked up by the wheel. For com- paring dies lantern slides were made from photographs of some of the coins; the degree of similarity between the dies could be seen by looking through two slides held together above a bright reflecting surface and adjusting them to obtain coincidence. (Half the slides were made with the images reversed, so that any pair could be held film to film, to avoid separation by the thickness of the glass.) The foregoing notes, taken in conjunction with the fact that no coins of Group III occurred in the hoard, would seem to imply that Group II followed Group III. But it is difficult to admit this, owing to the thick fabric of the coins in Group II, if both Groups were issued from the same mint. The fabric of Group II is not unlike that of imitations of Athenian tetra- 1 Newell, Num. Chron ., 1914, p. 20. 2 Babelon, Les Perses Achlmenides , p. cxc. 3 B.M. Catalogue , Phoenicia , p. 231, No. 31. 12 drachms struck in the East. Is it likely that Group II was similarly issued in imitation of Tyrian coins? Or, alternatively, that Groups II and IV came from the mint of some other Phoenician city connected with Tyre? The latter suggestion may be preferred. The hoard was found at a considerable distance from Tyre, eight miles south of Acre where Alexander had a mint, 1 yet no coins of Alexander’s types are included in it. If it is held that the coins were struck at T yre, it is difficult to see why the hoard did not contain also coins of other types which might have been circu- lating. (It can be assumed that the coins were still current when the hoard was put aside because it does not contain specimens of the latest coins in the series.) If, however, the coins were struck not at Tyre, but at a mint near the site which yielded the hoard, perhaps at Acre, they would represent the principal local currency and the absence of other types from the hoard would be less striking. Also, incidentally, it would be unnecessary to account for the fact that coins of Group III do not occur, these having been minted at Tyre. If these suggestions are admitted, can the sign o coupled with the numerals on coins of Group IV and generally read as 20, be in reality the letter SJ ? The sign for 20 does not seem to occur as a perfect circle on Phoenician inscriptions till a later date, and on tetradrachms of Alexander bearing the mint name of Acre (^o), the sign for 20 is //. If the o were a letter and not a numeral, the dates would read from year 1 to 1 7, consecutively, instead of from 1 to 3 7 with a gap which may amount to 20 years between years 4 and 23, but it would be necessary to reconsider the question of the era by which the coins are dated, and the remaining signs which represent letters, whether standing by the numerals (as 9, y) or not or, n would still have to be explained. Possible interpretations of the letters are discussed by Hill 2 and it seems reasonable to suppose that those letters which are directly associated with the numerals bear some relation, not yet ascertained, to the system of dating. The combinations which occur are: Undated (? or with numeral imperfectly struck), 7 (No. 15). Year r, ' 9 . (one series only) „ 2, uy, h. .. 3. '»?. "7. p „ 4, 1111 (on a barbarous specimen 3 ), w*. 1 Ibid., p. lxxviii. 2 Ibid., p. cxxix. 3 Ibid., p. 231, No. 31. 13 Apart from the sign o under consideration, all the letters are found on coins of years i to 4 except in the case of a specimen inscribed 1 , read as year 23, but which would read year 3 if the o were a letter and not a numeral. Sup- posing that the 0 represents V (standing for the mint name of Acre) the follow- ing combinations can be added to the list: Year 3, "k> j mo. „ 4s lino. Variations then appear only on coins of years 1 to 4, the letter accompanying the numerals on later issues being constant (always y). Hill states 2 that the mint name of Acre is found on coins of Alexander ‘until 294-293 b.c.’, and that ‘the city remained in Seleucid hands from this year until Ptolemy II recovered it (perhaps on the death of Seleucus in 281)’, but Newell 3 proposes to date these Alexander coins by an era beginning about 347 b.c. He mentions also bronze coins of Alexander bearing the inscription TY 4 and 4 °s the initial letters of Tyre in Greek and the name of Acre in Phoenician characters, one dated year 26, showing a connexion between the two mints; he further shows that some of the dies used in striking Alexander’s coins for Sidon were used also on coins struck at Acre, assuming the existence of separate mints and the transfer of dies from Sidon to Acre. Is it not also possible that the mint of Acre was employed to strike currency needed in other Phoenician cities and that such issues were not limited to the types of Alexander (which may not have been accepted everywhere when first intro- duced 5 ), but included Phoenician types as well ? The subsidiary letter *4 which is found on a coin of Group IV having the date numeral 3 (No. 21 in the hoard) occurs also on coins of Alexander’s types struck at Acre with date numerals from 26 to 29 ; 6 there may of course be no connexion, but if the Phoenician coins bearing the letter -A were struck when A' first appears on the Alexander coins ( c . 320 b.c. according to Newell) the Phoenician series represented by Group IV would have begun soon after the death of Alexander. In considering possible meanings of the letters on 1 B.M. Catalogue , Phoenicia , p. 232, No. 33. 2 Ibid., p. lxxviii. 3 E. T. Newell, The Dated Alexander Coinage of Sidon and Ake (Yale, 1916), p. 55. 4 Ibid., pp. 60-1. 5 A number of types are purely imitative and were adopted by states in order to obtain currency for their own issues.’ (Hill, Handbook of Greek and Roman Coins , p. 177.) As Alexander’s types eventually gained almost universal currency in the Near East, any need to imitate local types could have arisen only during the period of the earlier issues. Hill notes similarities in fabric between Tyrian coins belonging to the period immediately after the siege of Tyre’ (i.e. Group IV) and coins struck at Babylon by Alexander’s generals with Persian and other oriental types (B.M. Catalogue , Arabia, p. cxlii). 6 NevreU> op . dt> p . 4 / coins of the first four years it is necessary to remember that the 9 and the y appear also on Group II. But given the connexion between the mints of Acre and Tyre shown by the bronze Alexander coin of year 26 (i.e. 320 b.c. ?) it would not be difficult to accept the suggestion of Six that the X' on coins of years 2 to 4 represents Tyre. 1 To summarize, it is suggested that: (1) Coins of Groups I and III belong to Tyre. (2) Coins of Groups II and IV were struck at some other mint, perhaps Acre. (3) Coins of Group IV may have been issued for local requirements con- currently with coins of Alexander’s types struck at Acre. (4) The sign o on Group IV may be y, instead of the numeral 20; but if this is not accepted, it need not invalidate the attribution of the coins to a mint other than Tyre. C. L. LIST OF COINS IN THE TALL ABU HAWWAM HOARD Note, In this list the reading of the sign O as the numeral 20 has been retained. No. Size ( mm .). Axis. Weigh Before cleaning . ■ (£">■)■ After cleaning. Tear. Letters, numerals, &c. on reverse . Notes . 1 23 t 12-90 1272 ? 7 ' 2 23 t 12-36 I2-09 ? 7 . . Plate XIX. *3 21 4 13-06 12-82 1 ? «[-]? *4 20 13-05 I2-83 2? !.[-]? *5 21 4 13-42 13-20 4 r mi . . Plate . 6 20 t 13-22 12-99 4 * »•[-]? 7 22 \ \ 13-42 13-17 4 III! ♦ • Plate . 8 22 \ 13-29 13-07 6 r min Rev. die — 5, re-cut. Plate. 9 22 t 12-71 12-27 25? Hill"'-'? . . Plate. 10 21 ST 13-26 13-09 3 ° Plate. *11 20 t 13-22 12-94 30 12 23 \ 13-28 13-02 ? mmmm . . Plate. 13 T 9 13-18 13-09 ? Plate . r 4 24 \ 12-95 12-53 ? 7 ? *15 22 t 8-97 8*53 ? 7 Plate. 16 22 f 8-92 8-59 2 11 Same obv. die as 17, 18. Plate. r 17 22 f 8-87 8-82 3 hi r 18 23 t 9-14 8-22 3 hi V 1 Num. Chron 1877, p. 191, cited by Hill, B.M. Catalogue , Phoenicia , p. cxxix. 15 LIST OF COINS IN THE TALL ABU HAWWAM HOARD {com.) (Weight (gm.). Letters, Size Before After numerals, &c. No . (mm?) . Axis, cleaning. cleaning . Tear \ , on reverse . Notes. *9 23 t 9-14 8-47 3 in r Obv.= 20. *20 22 t 8*90 8*8o 3 ill r 21 * 9 i t 9*oo 875 3 1117 4 Part of flail curled up to 1 . P/jA? XIX. 22 22 t 8*89 8-84 3 1117 » » 23 21 t 8-84 8-82 4 llll Traces of ^ below. P/*/<?. *24 21 t 8*84 874 23 IlfO *25 20 t 9*04 8-17 23? [mo] 26 21 \ 9-08 8-31 24? [11110] Obv. = 27. 27 20 \ 8*90 878 24 IIIIO *28 21 \ 9'or 8’00 24 IIIIO *29 21 t 8-99 8-33 24 IIIIO 30 t 9-17 8-53 24 IIIIO *31 21 \ 8-8 9 8-62 25 nino P/rf/<?. *32 21 t 9*00 8*42 25 mno 33 20j t 8-8o 8-73 26 nino 1 . . . . . . Plate. 34 - 21 t 8*91 8-8 1 26 nino i Obv.= 38. *35 20 t 8*89 8-87 26 nino 1 Obv.= 36. *36 21 t 8-86 8-63 26 inn 0 1 [nino *37 21 t 8-8i 8-69 26 ? •] *38 21 t 8-93 8*42 26 ? [IIIIIO 0 39 20| t 8-86 8-43 27 IIIIIO II Rev.= 40, 41. 40 20 t 8-84 8-8o 27 IIIIIO II 41 21 t 9-02 8*28 27 IIIIIO n 42 21 t 9-17 7-96 27 IIIIIO Obv.= 43, 47. n 43 22j \ 9'°4 8-4r 27 nino Rev.= 47. n Weight (, gm .). Letters , numerals , &c. on reverse. No. Size (mm.). Axis. Before cleaning . After cleaning. Tear. Notes . 44 2 3 t 8-92 8*48 27 UJJIO (1 Obv. = 45, 46, 49. Rev.= 45. 45 20£ t 8-99 8*62 27 Hill O ["] *46 20 t 8*98 8-55 27 ? miio "to *47 21 t 8-86 8*67 27 [11/1/0 "] [MIIIO ? *48 23 t 9*12 8*27 27 ? Obv.— 52. 49 * 9 i t 8*89 8*70 27 ? [mho 3 iii] ? 5 ° 22 \ 8*92 8-57 27 IlfflO M Sr 21 \ 9*ro 8-64 27 MIIIO M *52 21 \ 9*01 8-45 27 IMHO M *53 20 t 8*89 8*86 27 IMHO M Obv.= 54. Plate XIX. *54 20 t 8-97 8*40 27 IMMO II Rev.— 56. *55 20 t 8*81 8-59 27 IMMO II *56 21 t 9'°5 8-57 27 MIIIO II *57 21 t 875 8*27 2 7 MIIIO II 58 22 f 8-85 8*72 28 lino Mil Same dies as 59, 60. *59 21 t 8-99 8-6i 28 IIMO mi *60 20 t 8-95 871 28 mio 1111 *61 22 t 8-96 8-57 28 lino Mil *62 20 t 8-85 8-6i 28 nno Mil *63 20 t 8-84 8-54 28 nno nn 64 21 t 8‘99 874 29 IIIMO Mil Same dies as 65, 66, 67; also obv.= 68. D 17 LIST OF COINS IN THE TALL ABU HAWWAM HOARD (cont.) Weight (gm.). Letters , No . Size (mm.) 1. Axis, Before . cleaning. After cleaning . Tear numerals , & c. . on reverse. 65 21 t O' CO do i 8-86 29 IMHO Ml 66 20 t 8-86 co do 29 IMHO Mil 67 21 t vr> ON do 8-82 29 IIIIIO Ml 68 21 t 9-06 8-24 29 IIIIIO Mil 69 22j t 9-ii 8-30 29 IIIIIO IMI 70 21 \ 8-89 8-70 29 IIIIIO III) 7 i 22| t 9-17 8-34 29 IIIIIO Mil 72 21 t 8-95 8*56 29 IIIIIO IMI 73 / 9*08 8-19 29 ? [IIIIIO - im] ? 74 2I I t 8*92 874 29 IIIIIO Mil 75 I 2 4 ! > i 8-94 K OO OO 29 IIIIIO Mil 76 22 t 8*92 8*42 29 IIIIIO 77 21 f 78 22 f 79 22 f 80 21 f 8 1 21 f 82 1 20 4 8*91 29 8*56 29 8*27 29 8*26 29 8*24 29 Mil O »C0 MHO Ml Plate XIX Obv.= 70, 71, 72, 90. Same dies as 71, 90. Obv.= 74, 75, 76, 96. Same dies as 75, 76, 96. Same dies as 79 ; also rev. = 87. Obv. = 81, 88> 94. Weight {gm .) . Letters , No. Size {mm.). J Axis. Before cleaning. After cleaning. Tear. numerals, &c. on reverse. Notes . ^5 21 t 8-91 8-82 29 who Mlf *86 20 t 8-87 8-63 29 iimo nit *87 22 i \ 9 '” 8-62 29 MfllO mi *88 r 9 t 8*98 8-39 29 111110 HU Rev.= 94, 97. *89 20 j t 8-95 871 29 iimo mi *90 20 \ i 9*°3 8-67 29 nmo »«[•«] *91 ' 20 t 1 1 9-01 8-43 29 nmo mi *92 ! 21 t 877 872 29 mu 0 »«W t lino HU Obv.= 93. 95. *93 19 t 8*89 8*50 29 Same dies as 95. *94 19 t 8-95 873 29 mn 0 mi i *95 *9 t 8-97 874 29 IMIIO HU *96 20 t 8*96 8-45 29 If 1110 IHI *97 20 t 9*°5 8-io 29 IMIIO IHI 98 i 20 t 8*88 8-85 30 ~o 99 22 \ 8-84 8-i 8 30 ~o Plate XIX. 100 r 9 t 8*8 r 871 30 101 ! 20} \ 8-82 874 30 ~o 102 ! 22 t 9*12 8*51 30 ~0 *103 ; 20 t 9*oo 8-53 3 ° ~0 *104 20 \ 8-93 8-54 3 ° ^0 *105 21 \ 8-94 8-58 3 ° ~o *106 20 \ 9‘o8 8-48 30 ~o 107 xo8 21* 22 \ 8-84 9 *ii 879 8-35 32 33 ll~0 ~0 III Plate . *109 21 t 9‘0i 8-49 } - - r 9 SUMMARY T'ear. Number of coins. GROUP 11 . (Undated) 5 I . . . 1 c?) 2 . • • i (0 4 • • • 3(0 6 r 25 (?) I 30 2 Total (Group II) 14 coins. GROUP IF. (Undated ?) 1 2 1 3 6 4 • 1 23 2 24 5 25 2 26 6 27 . 19 28 6 29 • 34 30 9 32 1 33 1 ? 1 Total (Group IV) 95 coins. 20 1 A HOARD OF PHOENICIAN COINS MEDIEVAL 'AJLUN I. The Castle . 1 (Qal'at ar-Rabad.) T RANS-JORDAN never formed an integral part of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Content with Palestine, which made up the greater part of the land which they could regard as theirs ‘by divine inheritance’, the kings made no serious attempt to control the marches beyond the Jordan which would have secured their conquests by cutting off communication between Damascus and Egypt. The first generation had hoped to do so. The ‘two lions’ of Montreal (1115) 2 and Kerak (1142) 3 controlled the fief of Syria Sobal (popularly known as Outre Mer because it lay east of the Dead Sea), and supported by a string of smaller posts reaching to the Gulf of Aqaba, 4 they menaced the caravans passing up and down the hajj road some thirty miles to the east. A wild and difficult no-man’s land, the Crusaders had found it empty and undefended. Farther north in the country vaguely known as outre le jlum Jordan they met with more resistance. For nearly thirty years after the first invasion they disputed it with Tughtakln, the vigorous Atabak of Damascus who fought them so doggedly that he earned a nickname among them — ‘the Big Boor’. 5 The part of his territory which they repeatedly attacked was the rich plain east of the lake of Tiberias, the Sawad, 6 meaning here as in 'Iraq, the ‘dark’ tilth bordering on the desert. 7 To the Crusaders it was the land of Suhitis, Suite, or Suet, which they not unnaturally confused with the country of Job’s friend, Bildad the Shuhite. 8 It ran south along the Jordan valley to meet the plain of the Balqa, 9 north of Kerak, and embraced the mountains overlooking 1 Works of clearance and conservation were carried out by the Department of Antiquities of the Government of H.H. the Amir of Trans- Jordan during three seasons, 1927-8-9, supervised by the late Signor P. A. Ricci, Engineer to the Department, until his death in 1928. The plan and sections were made by the writer in 1929 and the photographs taken by Mr. G. Horsfield, Inspector of the Department. To him I am indebted for the opportunity of undertaking this study as well as for many suggestions. I am also glad to acknowledge help from Mr. K. A. C. Creswell of Cairo, and M. Gaston Wiet, Director of the Arab Museum in Cairo, as well as from members of this Department. 2 William of Tyre, lib. XI, cap. 26, in Recueil des Historiens des Croisades Occidentaux , Tome I. 3 William ofTyre, XV. 21. 4 Rey, Colonies Franques de Syrie aux xiime et xiiime siecles^ 393 ff. 5 ‘Grossus Rusticus prae nimia pinguique corpulentia et vili persona in qua totus rusticus esse videbatur’, Albert of Aix, lib. VII, 16, Rec. Hist Occtd IV. 6 Sibt, ‘Mir’at az-Zaman’ Rec. Hist . Orientaux , III, p. 529; ‘ditissimam auro et argento, armentis fecundissimam’, Albert, X, 5, van Berchem ^Journal Jsiatique^ ninth series, XIX, p, 41 1. 7 Abu-l-Fida’, Geographie (Renaud), t. II, 675 II. ii. 64. 8 William of Tyre, XXII. 21 . 9 Ibn al-Athir, Rec. Hist . Or., I, p. 88 and n. 2, p. 766. 21 the Jordan valley, west and south of Jerash, known to-day as Jabal Ajlun and Jabal Jihad respectively. The latter corresponds to the medieval district of as-Salt, the former to Jabal Jarash, 1 which by the twelfth century had come to be known as Jabal Auf after a bedawi tribe who had invaded it in Fati- mite times. 2 To the east lay the desolate lava country of al-Bathaniyya, centring at Ahrid'at, the modern Der'ah. 3 Towns which were flourishing in Byzantine times appear to have been abandoned after a series of devas- tating earthquakes in the late eighth century. 4 Unprotected by the distant Abbasid government in Baghdad, they lay open to the predatory tribes in the neighbouring desert beyond the hajj road. In the twelfth century they were like Jerash, empty ruins which filled the Crusaders with amazement. 3 Apart from inciting the bedawin to raid Frankish territory west of Jordan, the amirs of Damascus left the remoter parts of this territory very much alone. Most of the fighting between Tughtakln and the Counts of Tiberias took place between Damascus and the Lake. At first Tancred had naively called upon Tughtakln to give up Damascus as well as his religion, and go and live wherever else he chose. 6 After ten years of almost annual raids Tughtakln had at last to concede to Baldwin I one-third of the revenues of the region between the Hauran and ash-Sharf'a or Outre-Mer, viz. the Sawad and Jabal Auf. 7 To secure payment the Counts built a castle sixteen miles east of Tiberias, strongly placed on a cliff above an old laura. 8 It changed hands more than once. Tughtakln, ‘mout disloiall et plein de grant felonie’, retali- ated by fortifying Jerash. Baldwin I captured this fort in returning from a raid on Damascus in 1121 but left no garrison behind him; Jabal Auf was too isolated. 9 No other effort was made to hold it; though Baldwin again attacked Damascus in force in 1 1 29. 10 The second generation came to acquiesce 1 Y aqut, ed. Wiistenfeld, II. 6 1 . 2 See below, p. 24. 2 Abu-l-Fida’, Geog. II. ii. 30. 4 Crowfoot, Churches at Jerash’, p. 5 [B.S.A. Jerusalem-, Supp. Papers , 3, 1931.) 5 ‘Civitatem quamdam mirabiliter et gloriose situ forti antiquitus fundatam, lapidibus magnis et quadris llluc erectum erat.’ Fulcher, III. 10, Ret. Hist. Occid., III. « Albert, VII. 16, 17. ^*^t, 53 7 \ Abu Shama, Livre des Deux Jardins’, in Pec. Htst. Or. IV, p. 277, writing of the fall of Tiberias, says they were halved at that time (1187) and drawn from a larger area which in- cluded as-Salt, al-Balqa, Jabal Auf, al-Hayyaniyyah, as-Sawad and also the Jaulan and the surround- ing country as far as the Hauran. According to Yaqut, II. 374, al-Hayyaniyyah is part of the Sawad over ooking the Jordan valley, situated in Jabal Hirsh jA) perhaps an error for Jabal Jarash C f - Ib " a i;^. thlr ’ 3 U a reading al-Hayyaniyyah (^UJ) for al-Jabaniyyah (AiUi). jlliam ofTyre, XXII. 15; Sibt, 529, 530, 544; Ibn al-Athlr, 286, 315, and note pp. 781’ 784; Yaqut, II 201. Sibt, p. 530 refers to itas 'Al; Ibn al-Athir calls it Habis; Yaqut, Habls Jaldik. It stood at al-Habls on the south side of the Yarmuk valley, opposite Shajara Sta. ‘(Kilo, 119-5); cf. Reichsamt fur Landesaufnahme, Berlin (1918), 37, 74-3500: ZDPF, XLIX (1926), 147 or Steuernagel, Der Adschlun, 531 ff.> also Tafeln 80-2. \ ^ h ‘t! 9 Fukher ’ IIL I0> 10 Stevenson, Crusaders in the East , 127 ff. 22 in the status quo. They did not whole-heartedly support Louis VII and Conrad in their siege of Damascus because they had come to rely upon the neutrality of the amirs. They continued to do so even after Nur ad-din’s capture of Damascus in 1 1 54. Thus the Bam Auf kept their independence, and their territory remained a no-man’s land. A change came when Saladin finally returned from Egypt in 1 182. Master of Egypt and so able to consolidate his position in Syria, he soon found that his most formidable adversary was Reginald of Kerak whose castles in Syria Sobal or Outre Mer were a standing menace to his communications. Saladin had narrowly escaped him on his march through to Damascus in 1 1 82. 1 After Reginald’s astonishing attempt to sack the Holy Cities of Arabia in the follow- ing year Saladin spared no effort to crush him. 2 He invested Kerak twice, in 1183 and 1 1 84,3 and at this juncture took steps to establish himself farther north in Jabal Auf or Ajlun, the territory which lay between Damascus and his implacable enemy. In 1 1 84-5 'Izz ad-din Usama, one of his ablest amirs was transferred to Ajlun from Bairut and the building of the castle begun. 4 It arose as a direct retort to the new Latin castle of Belvoir or Kaukab al-Hawa, ‘Star of the Air’, loftily placed on the escarpment on the opposite side of the Jordan valley, between Tiberias and Baisan. The new Moslem castle at Ajlun might deter the Latins from raiding the Sawad as they had done in the year of Saladin’s return, recapturing their outpost at Habisjaldik and penetrating as far as Bostra and Damascus; 5 but chiefly it served to check Reginald of Kerak by bringing northern Trans-Jordan under the control of Damascus. The story of the building is most fully told by a thirteenth-century writer, Ibn Shaddad al-Halabi; 6 briefly followed in the fourteenth by Abu-l-Fida’ and extensively by al-'Umarl, author of the Chancery Manuals Masaltk al-Absar and at-Ta'rif, later summed up by Qalqashandl in a similar manual entitled Subh al-A'sha? To quote from van Berchem’s abridged translation of Ibn Shaddad’s unpublished manuscript : ‘The castle of Ajlun lies between the district of the Sawad, belonging to the Jordan 1 William of Tyre, XXII. 15; Ibn al-Athlr, 651. 2 Abu Shama, Rec. Hist. Or ., IV. 230 ff.; Ibn al-Athlr, 660, cf. Stevenson, 228; Schlumberger, Renaud de Chdtillon , Chap. VII. 3 William of Tyre, XXII. 28, 305 Ibn al-Athir, 664, 666; Abu Shama, 248, 250 ff. 4 Abu-l-Fida’, Rec. Hist. Or., I. 70, 86, 143; Geographie (trans. Renaud), t. II, ii, pp. 6, 22; cf. Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems ,pp. 76, 388, 389; for the date a.h. 580, Qalqashandl, Subh al-A'sha, IV. IOS; XII. 105. 5 William of Tyre, XXII. 20, 22. 6 Van Berchem, ‘Arabische Inschriften aus Syrien, IP, in Mitteilungen und Nachrichten des Deutschen Palastina-Vereins , 1 903, pp- 54 ff- 7 Gaudefroy-Demombynes, La Syrie a Pepoque des Mamelouks d'aprfo les auteurs arabes, p. 66, for references and translation. 2 3 province, and the district of Sharat. It is new and small and stands on a projecting spur overlooking the Jordan Valley, visible both from Jerusalem and from the Nablus ridge. Its longitude works out at 69°, its latitude 32° io'. 1 The range on which it is built is called Jabal 'Auf, because a clan of the Banu Auf lived there under the early Fatimite khalifs. They had doughty and restless amirs who were at feud with one another because their families were at odds. So things stood until the time of Malik al-'Adil Saif ad-din Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub (Saladin’s brother) who gave the district as a fief to 'Izz ad-din Usama, one of his chief amirs. 2 He at once began to build a castle to protect his governors from the Banu 'Auf. But they hindered him so much that he represented to them that he was building it merely to protect them against the Franks. Then they grew amenable and helped him to build it. When it was finished he invited the sheikhs of the Banu 'Auf to the castle and set a banquet before them. When they had eaten he ordered his young slaves to seize them and lock them up. It is said that an ancient monastery once stood on the site, inhabited by a Christian named 'Ajlun; 3 the monastery falling into ruin, the castle took its place and the name of the monk. [An excursus follows in which mention is made of a book entitled Kitab al-Diyarat , “The Book of Monasteries”] . . .’ The position was well chosen. Not only does it command an uninterrupted view of the whole length of the Jordan between the two lakes and of the Palestine ridge from Jerusalem to Tabor, Kaukab, and Safad, but it also dominates one of three valleys which lead straight up to the high land on the Transjordan side. This is the middle one, the Wadi Kafrinjx; to the south parallel with it runs the Wadi Rajib, the route by which the Hasmoneans used to raid the Hellenistic colonies later known as the Decapolis; 4 to the north runs the Wadi Yabis by which the Roman road ascended from Pella (Fahl) to Jerash by way of Ba'un and 'Ain Jenni.s These wadis fall rapidly to the Jordan; only a few miles from the watershed they are huge clefts sloping steeply on either hand to a depth of not less than 1,000 feet. Above such a valley stands the castle of 'Ajlun. Its site is a round knoll at the western end of a pro- jecting shoulder of the main range, its height not much lower than the water- shed itself. The knoll is separated from the shoulder by a slight saddle, but unlike the majority of the mountain castles 'Ajlun is accessible by an easy slope on all sides (fig. i). 6 Elsewhere a rock promontory was almost invariably chosen, protected by cliffs on three sides and cut off from the mountain on 1 According to an Arabized version of the Ptolemaic system. 2 Formerly governor of Bairut; not to be confused with 'Usama ibn Munqidh of Shaizar, as yalqashandl has m his Dau\ p. 286; cf. R. Hartmann, ‘Politische Geographie des Mamluken- reichs in ZeiUchnft der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft , LXX, 1916, p. 26. 3 But cf Judges iii. 12. Yaqut, II. 6i, adopts a similar explanation for the name of Tarash, adding the genealogy of its patronymic. /Alexander Jannaeus died at the siege of Ragaba, cf. Josephus, Antlq. ed. Niese, XIII. 398 Tn( n I rr ,-ij „ . . 5 Steuernagel, Der'Jdschlun, 1927, 396. Cf. Dal man, Fltegerhtlder aus Paldstma , no. 86. 24 the fourth by a short rock-hewn fosse. At Ajlun, for lack of a position of this sort, 'Izz ad-din Usama chose the last high point on the north side of the valley and then isolated the castle by surrounding it with a rock-cut fosse. As the building was adapted to the rock surface, the ground levels vary con- siderably (Plates XX-XXIII). The crest of the knoll occurs near the western angle of the castle and forms an upper platform, falling away on the south and east. It was scarped along all four sides, outside the western angle to form the fosse, and on either side of the eastern angle, to make two lower platforms. The general direction of the slope is shown by the ramp which ascends from the central tower (i) to the inner ward (5) (cf. A-B). Farther south it is so much steeper that the fosse was formed chiefly by embanking the counter- scarp. On the other three sides it was excavated in the rock; the height of the counter-scarp, naturally less than the scarp, varies from 5 to 10 metres, the width between the scarp and the walls from r 5 to 20 metres, excepting where it was crossed. Here a tongue and a pillar of rock were reserved to carry the bridge over two spans of about 5 metres each (Fig. 2). The upper platform is occupied by a quadrilateral of four square towers (1, 2, 3, 4) connected by curtain walls; only one tower (1) still stands at its original height; (2), (3), and the outer face of (4) have been ruined almost to their foundations and since rebuilt of smaller material, like the curtain walls between them (Fig. 6). Their height and the placing of their original doors and arrow-slits is therefore a matter of conjecture. This quadrilateral in the form of a caste llum 1 seems to have been the nucleus of the castle and may be loosely called the keep. Its only entrance was in the east wall at (5), which was flanked by both of the corner towers ( 1) and (4), assuming that the present door into (4) is an enlarged arrow-slit. The arrow-slits in the east and south curtain walls, as well as in the towers (1) and (4) have mostly been masked by subsequent building, but the window openings are still to be seen on the inside. The original outer gate was probably at (6) bonded into the south-east tower (1) of the keep and connected with the north-east tower (4) by a wall which has slits now blocked by a mezzanine floor; the lower windows are of a later type and like the door are possibly alterations. The gate was protected by a machicoulis with two corbels (Fig. 5), which had to be removed after the earthquake of 1927 because they were cracked. On the lower platforms of rock under the eastern and southern sides of the keep were two baileys. The eastern was the larger and had corner towers (7) and (8), flanking the curtain walls (Figs. 2, 4). The eastern wall must have had arrow-slits, now ruined. The rock level here is low enough for a gallery to 1 Daremberg-Saglio, Diet, des Antiq. Grec . ei Rom s.v. E 25 have been built without masking the east of the keep, as the upper galleries did later. When these were put on the towers were also raised; the original height of (7) is shown by the built-up crenellations just above the second floor (Fig. 2) which eventually led out on to the roof of the top gallery. Similarly the north tower (8) may at first have been one or two stories shorter (Fig. 4). Between the south tower (7) and the gate (6) there was presumably another curtain wall which was pulled down during later alterations. The southern bailey built above the steeper slope towards the wadi had no towers, and like the eastern it originally had no upper galleries above (n) and (12). The outer wall was pierced with arrow-slits of which two are still to be seen at the west end of the outer gallery (12); the others are conjectural since the rest of the gallery is choked with debris from the upper floors, while the south wall has been largely rebuilt and the north-eastern end refaced on the outside. The open roof of these galleries could be covered by the fire of the south side of the keep. Completing the gap at the end of the inner gallery ( 1 1) we arrive at a possible plan of the castle built by 'Izz ad-din Usama in the reign of Saladin. It is a structural whole; it contains five out of the six rock-hewn cisterns within the present walls including the largest; and it is distinguished from the newer part of the completed building by heavier and cruder work, and more parti- cularly by its windows. These are of the simplest and strongest form, wedge- shaped in plan, narrowing to a slit on the outside and covered with a tapering arch (Fig. 7). These occur only in the parts already described, viz. the keep, the lower towers (7) and (8) and the outer south gallery ( 1 2), and nowhere else. Elsewhere, in the additional south tower (13) (Fig. 8), along the ramp (15) leading from the fosse to the first ward (14) as well as the upper stories of the older part, the typical window is of a more developed form. The slit is con- tained in a larger arched niche which takes up the greater part of the thickness of the wall (Fig. 7). Frequently the arrow-slit is made up of removable blocks inserted in a square opening which could thus be opened to the air in times of peace and clement weather. It partly resembles the intermediate form introduced by al-'Adil into his brother Saladin’s citadel in Cairo about 1200. 1 At 'Ajlun it is distinctive of the large southern tower (13) which is precisely dated by an inscription to the year 61 1 = a.d. 12 14-5. 2 It was put up by Aibak b. 'Abdullah, Mamluk and Major-domo ( ustadh ad-dar) to al- Malik al-Mu'azzam, son of al-'Adil. 3 From its position half-way up the east 1 Creswell, ‘Archaeological Researches at the Citadel of Cairo’ in BIFJO , XXIII C1024), 1 17, 1 18, 1 2 1, and PI. XV; cf. also XIII, A. 2 Van Berchem, ‘Arabische Inschriften aus Syrien IP in MuNDPF , 1903, p. 53. 3 The Encyclopaedia of Islam , under Atbeg , p. 208. 26 face of the tower (Fig. 8: F on the second plan) it can hardly be a later inser- tion. To Aibak then is due not only the south tower and the two outer gates, but in all probability the heightening of the older part of the building as well. He was a man of energy, especially in building, which was one of the func- tions of the ustadh ad-dar, or magister palatii . 1 His inscriptions are scattered from Tabor and Khan al-'Aqabeh by the Sea of Tiberias to the desert frontier, and they cover nearly thirty years in which he advances from a mere major- domo to amir and finally the self-styled title of ‘the great amir’. 2 Most of his work was done in the marcher district of Salkhad and Dhur'a of which he was ‘Lord’ [sahib') from 1211-12 until his banishment a little after 1238. To encourage traffic between Damascus, the Hijaz, and ' Iraq, he built the castles of Salkhad and al-Azraq near Amman, founded khans and repaired pools along the hajj road. Ajlun was one of his earliest works. 'Izz ad-din Usama was arrested and his castles besieged in 1211-12 by al- Mu'azzam the son of al-'Adil acting under his father’s orders. He was then imprisoned at Kerak and deprived of his province, viz. the Balqa, as-Salt and Jabal Auf. He had taken al-Afdal’s side against al-'Adil after Saladin’s death and was still under suspicion; ‘with this Usama’, wrote Abu-l-Fida, ‘perished the last of Saladin’s faction’. Kaukab (or Belvoir), which had been added to his province after its fall in 1 188, was now rased to the ground; 'Ajlun and the rest of Usama’s province was retained by al-Malik al-Mu'azzam, who then put 'Izz ad-din Aibak in charge of Sarkhad (or Salkhad). 3 Al-Mu'azzam can have lost no time in strengthening and improving 'Ajlun, the castle which he had himself captured, if the new tower was finished by his major-domo, Aibak, in 1 2 14-1 5. The new south tower (13) reinforced the older building where the siege had proved it to be weakest — the reflex angle between the two baileys or lower galleries. It is clearly an addition. Although the corners were bonded with the walls of the south bailey (12) it was built on a slightly different axis; the inner side of the south arm is a facing built against the outer wall of the gallery, as revealed by a straight joint in the L-shaped room on the first floor. A new ward (14) was built on at the north corner, joining it up with (7). Its outer gate (Fig. 9) was protected by a machicoulis looking down from the first floor. Each of the springers of the arch spanning the gateway has a device in relief; only one of them is at all recognizable, and seems to be a pair of 1 Quatremere, Histoire des Sultans Mameluks , I. a, 25. 2 Van Berchem, MuNDPF , 1903, 33 ff.; ‘Eine arabische Inschrift aus dem Ostjordanlande’ in Z DPV, XVI, p. 85; Dussaud-Macler, Mission dans les regions desertiques de la Syrie Moyenne., pp. 326 ff. ; 336 f. 3 Abu-l-Fida’, Rec. Hist. Or ., 1 . 86; MuNDPF , 1903, 55; Journal Asiatique , ninth series, III. 397, 465, IV. 298 ff. (n. 29). 2 7 fighting peacocks. A corridor along the south-eastern face of (7) protected the ramp ascending from the bridge. The outermost gateway was pro- tected by a machicoulis of nine openings, four of which covered the arch- way (Fig. 3). At the same time both sets of galleries were raised, possibly to their final height of two floors. These upper galleries are now badly ruined ; the level of the floors must be deduced from the doors communicating with the towers, or from the mortar adhering to their faces where the vaults abutted. The inner of the two tall galleries over (9) and the part west of (10) alone remains (Figs. 10, 12); here the more finished cutting of the voussoirs agrees very well with the arching and corbelling in the new south tower (13) (Fig. 7). The airy rooms above the south-western tower of the keep (2) at the highest point of the building — doubtless the Commandant’s quarters — may also belong to Aibak’s improvements. Though the roof of every tower has gone the earlier example preserved in (7) suggests that they were similarly embattled (Fig. 2), while a section of the western walls has been restored upon the analogy of the bailey wall at Kerak, which is thirteenth-century work. The two western towers of the keep (2) and (3) are also almost complete ruins; it is assumed that like (1) and (4) they were two floors high. Of the fosse three sides had no doubt been excavated when the castle was first begun, if only as a limestone quarry; the scarping of the south side however, with its vaulted cistern ( 1 6), must be Aibak’s work since it follows so closely the line of his additions. Apart from the difference in the windows and in the finish of arches already referred to, the later construction is indistinguishable from the earlier; scarcely thirty years had elapsed. The external masonry of both periods was in the local rusticated style, tubzt mazmul or quarry-faced, chisel-dressed a few centi- metres deep around the margin (Fig. 1 1). In appearance it resembles the rectangular towers of al-'Adil’s time in the citadel at Cairo (1 207-8), 1 or the contemporary work in the Jerusalem citadel such as the lower part of the Mosque tower which bears an inscription of al-Mu'azzam dated 610 a.h., a year earlier than Aibak’s at Ajlun. 2 These are only the two most accessible examples of many that exist; it is a robust and economical style of dressing that has been traditional in the country at least since Roman times, though there are still older examples. The present appearance of the western and southern angles of the castle (Fig. 6) is obviously due to a later repair. The main defensive walls were all from 2 to 3 metres thick, yet they were regularly bonded with through stones and well bedded; unlike the run of yzantine and medieval work consisting of ashlar skins with a rubble filling, 1 Creswell, loc. cit. 2 Van Berchem, CIA , II, Syrie du Sud, I. i, no. 43, p. 131. 28 the Ajlun walls seem to be almost solid masonry. The coursing is fairly even, varying from 70 cm. near the foundations to 60 cm. in the upper stories. The stones are generally i\ to 2 metres long, 60 to 70 cm. wide, though the quoins of the south tower are as much as 24 metres in length; the upper stones are naturally smaller, sometimes no more than half the size of the lower. 1 The quarry faces were hammered almost flat, and the margins worked flat with a pointed chisel ( shokeh ) or comb-pick ( shahuta ) ; in the later work the voussoirs were chiselled all over with flat bosses projecting some 3 or 4 cms. from the margin. The vaults are all in the local tradition, most of them barrel-shaped (' aqd. ’ enbub ) built of tapering field stones set in lime mortar (Fig. 12); some diagonal groined vaults occur {salib = cross). They usually spring from the top of the ashlar, a metre or two from the floor, but in the newer work corbels were used (Fig. 7). They were usually rendered, together with the internal faces of the walls. Indeed the common tradition of the country runs through the whole building. A few relics of the Roman occupation survive. A well- cut limestone conch and some limestone mouldings were found in the top room of the new tower, mostly double cyma recta of shallow cut. A piece of boldly cut relief, a lintel crudely carved with a cross, and one or two finely dressed stones were also built in. With the possible exception of the mouldings this was secondary material taken from some ancient ruin either on the same site, or else from a Byzantine town in the valley on the site of modern Ajlun. That an older building may have existed on the same site is suggested by some very fine masonry which was laid bare in the course of buttressing the southern angle (of 12). Of Crusading work, that is, of later Western influence, there is no trace apart from one or two stones with the characteristic diagonal chisel-dressing. If the village of KafrinjI on the opposite side of the valley was really inhabited by Franks as its name suggests (Kafr al-Franj); and if they were prisoners who were forced to work on the building they contributed nothing distinctive such as the cut-stone vaulting which is common in the twelfth-century churches. Such Frankish features as the castle has, or such as modern travellers have detected, 2 were the fruit of local tradition and of common experience in the wars rather than of direct foreign influence. Aibak then left the castle much as it is shown in the sections; it was after- wards restored but no important additions were made. By extending the outer defences he strengthened it where it was weakest, but in doing so he masked the keep and somewhat obscured the original plan. Apart from the long staircase returning from the wall of the eastern gallery (9') to the roof, 1 Schumacher seemed to think that the difference in size represented two periods, Steuernagel, Der ! Adschlun , 31 1. 2 Cf. Le Strange, in Schumacher’s Across the Jordan (1 886), pp. 285 ff. 29 the keep remained a self-contained whole, yet it was less defensible on account of the surrounding galleries which shortened its field of fire. Aibak placed greater reliance upon the outer enceinte, principally upon the new south tower, a lofty bastion covering the whole of the south side, and next upon the two extra gates, each covered by a machicoulis , still a recent invention. Not that the castle had to withstand any determined siege. When the Latin king- dom and Kerak fell only a few years after its foundation it had outlived its strategic usefulness. In the thirteenth century it became an administrative centre in the south march of Damascus, the head -quarters of a governor ( naib ) directly responsible to the royal naib in Damascus. 1 The naib had a resident warden [wait) who was specially responsible for the maintenance and defence of the castle. Naib and wait are Mamluk ranks but their relationship is well illustrated by al-Mu'azzam and Aibak. Qalqashandl’s compendium of Mam- luk official procedure (Subh al-A'sha) gives a typical warrant of appointment which specifies the duties of the two officials: to keep the castle in repair and guard it against all strangers, to collect revenues in kind in order to keep it pro- visioned in readiness for a siege and to do justice. 2 Thus Ajlun became an arsenal also; in 1 2 1 7 for instance it was one of the centres where supplies were concen- trated for the relief of Damietta. 3 The long, gloomy galleries outside the keep were perhaps magazines rather than inhabited quarters, and timber, charcoal, and iron their particular stock. The pride of Ajlun is still its trees, chiefly small scrub oak; thus charcoal was to hand. Good iron ore occurs near the surface at the southern end of the range, on the north side of the Zarqa valley. 4 It was mined and smelted as late as the time of Ibrahim Pasha, within the memory of families still living there. There must have been similar work- ings near 'Ajlun which are now forgotten. The heaps of iron slag which are to be found all over the eastern and southern slopes of the castle hill, and in the modern village of 'Ajlun where it has recently been used as road metal, point to a considerable number of small bloom furnaces. Nor is it likely that all the refined metal was sent to Damascus to be worked, since a small knife- making industry is still carried on in KafrinjL It is not surprising that an exten- sive suburb grew up round the foot of the hill, which was large enough to give the castle its later name, Qal'at ar-Rabad, ‘the castle with the faubourg’. From the archaeological evidence it was inhabited from the thirteenth until the end of the fifteenth century; the medieval town of 'Ajlun two or three miles farther up the wadi, now the centre of the district, flourished at the same time. In 1 Gaudefroy-Demombynes, La Syrie a Vepoque des Mamelouks , 1923, p. 179. 2 Ibid., cviii, n. 5. 3 Rohricht, Geschichte des Konigrekhs Jerusalem , 1898, 726, n. 3. 4 Possibly the ‘Iron Mountain’ of Josephus, Bell. Jud. (Niese), IV. 455 (= viii. 2). 3 ° 1355 Ibn Battuta found it ‘a fine town with good markets and a strong castle. A stream runs through the town and the waters are sweet and good’. 1 Dimishql who came about 1300 also found ‘fruits of all kinds and provisions in plenty’. 2 He first saw the fortress four days’ march away, or nearly fifty miles off, pre- sumably from across the Ghor, i.e. the Jordan valley. Its exceptionally lofty position made it an excellent beacon-station; and in the shorter Mamluk geographical hand-book (at-Ta'rlf) 'Ajlun is mentioned as a link between at- Turra and Tayyibat al-Ism via Ibzlq in the chain of beacons and pigeon posts by which an alarm of the Euphrates frontier could be conveyed to the Sultan in Cairo between sunset and sunrise or sunrise and sunset. Ajlun and Irbid picked up the south-bound signals from at-Turra, a beacon on the hajj road a few miles west of Der'a, and passed them back to Tayyibat al-Ism just south of Shaikh Sa'd on the hajj road and actually farther north than at- Turra. From there, however, they were visible at a special station situated on the hills overlooking Baisan and at the same time at points along the regular postal route which crossed the Jordan at Jisr al-Majami' and passed through Jenin, where the news could also be received via another beacon at Ibzlq north-east of Nablus. From Jenin the chain ran on to Gaza, thence to Cairo by pigeon post. 3 The rulers of Ajlun who followed al-Mu'azzam are given in the manuscript by Ibn Shaddad, already quoted in van Berchem’s translation. ‘After his [al-Mu'azzam’s] death in Dhu-l-Qa'da, 624 [1227], it fell to his son Malik Nasir Dawud, who held it along with Damascus, Kerak and Shaubak. When Malik Kamil came into possession of Damascus and handed the city over to Malik Ashraf, the former left to Malik Nasir Kerak, Shaubak, and the lands of the Jordan Valley, but 'Ajlun fell to Malik Ashraf until his death on 4 Muharram, 635 [1237]. Then the Amir Zahir ad-din ibn Sunqur al-Halabl, who was in the Malik Nasir ’s service at Nablus, entered into correspondence with the then governor of 'Ajlun and offered him 40,000 dirhams, a robe of honour, a riding horse and various stuffs, in order that the latter should hand over the castle to the officers of Malik Nasir Dawud. When Dawud took the Amir Saif ad-din 'All ibn Qilij Nurl into his service in Dhu-l-qa'da in 639 [1242], he gave him the castle to hold; he held it until Malik Salih Ayyub [of Egypt] occupied it in the year 643 [1 245-6]. When the latter died on the 1 5 Sha'ban 647 [1249] it remained in the hands of the representative of his son Malik Mu'azzam [Turan-Shah] until his death in Muharram 648 [1250]. Then Malik Nasir [Yusuf], lord of Aleppo, put himself in possession of Damascus and Ajlun. . . . When the Tartars conquered Syria and brought N asir’s reign to an end the latter fled from Damas- cus. His governor in 'Ajlun had refused the castle to the Tartars until Malik N asir took refuge there and himself surrendered it in Rajab [658 = 1260]. The enemy consumed 1 Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems , p. 389. 2 Ibid., 388. 3 Trans. R. Hartmann, ZDMG , Vol. LXX, 1916, pp. 503 ff. 3 1 all the provisions and stores there . . . threw down the battlements, but kept possession until they were routed at the battle of 'Ain Jalut in Ramadan 658 [1260]. Then Malik Muzaffar [Qutuz of Egypt] gained possession and had it put in order. When he was killed in Dhu-l-Qa'da and Malik Zahir [Baybars] became ruler of Egypt and Syria, he made for 'Ajlun as soon as he had entered Damascus in Safar, 659 [1261], put the castle in order, revictualled it and appointed 'Izz ad-din Aibak Allan! as governor. The latter looked after it until he was offered the newly captured castle of Safad and was replaced here by the Amir Saif ad-din who is warden at the present day, that is, at the time when we began to write this book [about 674 (12.75—6)]. When Malik Zahir died on 28 Muharram 676 [1277] it went to his son Malik Sa'ld Muhammad Barakat-Qan, then on the 18 Rabi' II. 678 [1279] to his brother Malik • Adil Salamish . . ., then on the 25 Rajab of the same year to, Malik Mansur Qalawun, who sent there his governors, and it is still in his possession.’ In 1 288-9 twenty-eight years after his first appointment 'Izz ad-din Aibak b. Abdallah [al-' Allan!] formerly mamluk of Malik Mansur [Qalawun], amir, general, still describes himself in an inscription as warden or military governor (mutawalli) of 'Ajlun. 1 About the same time the commissioner (naib) of the province was the amir Rukn ad-dxn Mankuwlresh, a former page of Malik Mansur. 2 A civil governor [hakim) of the early fourteenth century is also known, an Egyptian judge, Taj addin Muhammad al-Ikhna'I. 3 The history of the fabric since the first Aibak’s extension is mostly conjec- ture. Restoration was certainly carried out shortly before the Tartar invasion; the work is recorded in an inscription recovered in 1927. 4 It took place ‘in the time of our lord the Sultan al-Malik an-Nasir Salah ad-din Yusuf, son of al-Malik al-'AzIz, God be praised, may He preserve his kingdom’. It was done ‘under the direction of Muhammad Zaid, lord of 'Aintab’ who had pre- sumably followed his lord, ‘Malik Nasir, lord of Aleppo’ of the previous extract, southwards when he made himself Sultan of Damascus in 1250. Al-Malik an-Nasir surrendered 'Ajlun to the Tartars early in 1260 and died the same year ; 3 the work must therefore have been done some time between 1250 and 1260, probably between 1253 and 1260 since the lord of 'Aintab before 651 was not Muhammad Zaid. 6 The inscription lay on the vault of the outer eastern gallery at (E) on the plan and sections, having fallen from one of the walls. Burckhardt may have seen it in position as late as 1812; ‘as 1 Inscription commemorating restoration of wait of Shaikh 'All of Mashhad on a peak west of Ajlun, MuNDPV \ 1903, pp. 61 ff. 2 Inscription from northern suburb of castle, from mosque, MuNDPFj 1903, p. 58. 3 Inscription beside door of Ajlun mosque, MuNDPF ' 1903, p. 66. 4 To be published in a later number. 5 Zambaur, Manuel de Genealogie et de Chronologie pour PHistoire de P Islam , 1927, p. 100. 6 Tabbakh, Adam an-nuhala\ IV, 331. 3 2 PLATE XXI PLATE XXIII -<f *< appears from several Arabic inscriptions’, he wrote ‘[the castle] was built by- Sultan Szelah-eddyn’, confusing the greater Saladin with the lesser. 1 How far the castle was damaged by the Mongols and to what extent it was altered in the course of repairs it is hard to tell. During their rapid sweep through the country in the spring and summer of 1 260 they cannot have had much oppor- tunity for destroying at all thoroughly the nine castles which they captured. Fourteenth-century travellers were as much impressed as ever with the impregnable strength of Ajlun. It can hardly have been in the sorry state which called for such hasty rebuilding as the patchwork of smaller masonry along the western faces of the keep, or at the south-west angle of the castle. This corner was so shattered that it has had to be heavily buttressed. Masonry of this sort cannot compare with the Mamluk additions to Kerak. On general grounds the suggestion that it belongs to Fakhr ad -din, the seventeenth-century pasha of Acre, is not unlikely. 2 Or perhaps it represents nothing more than local efforts on the part of the inhabitants to make good the effects of earth- quakes, the common doom of the best buildings of the country. The castle seems to have suffered heavily in the great earthquake of 1837. Before the recent work access was difficult, yet when Burckhardt visited the castle in 1812 it was still inhabited ‘by about forty persons of the great family of Barekat’. His experiences with the residents are perhaps more remarkable than his observations on the building itself. He wrote: 3 ‘It is the residence of the chief of the district of Adjeloun. The house of Barekat, in whom the authority has for many years resided, had lately been quarrelling about it among themselves; the chief, Yousef al-Barekat, had been besieged for several months in the castle; he was now gone to the Aga of Tabaria, to engage him in his interests; and his family were left in the castle with strict instructions not to let any unknown person enter it, and to keep the gate secured. I had letters of recommenda- tion from Yousef, the Mutsellim of Damascus; when I arrived at the castle gate all the inhabitants assembled upon the wall to enquire who I was and what I wanted. I explained to them the nature of my visit, and showed them the Mutsellim’s letter, upon which they opened the iron gate, but continued to entertain great suspicion of me until a man who could read having been sent for, my letter was read aloud; all the family then vied in civilities towards me, especially when I told them I intended to proceed to Tabaria. . . .’ C. N. J. 1 J. L. Burckhardt, Travels in Syria and the Holy Land , 1822, p. 267. 2 Revue Biblique , 1928, p. 432, where a small garrison of Ibrahim Pasha is also mentioned. 3 Travels , 1822, p. 266. (To be continued .) F 33 A FATIMID COIN-DIE I N October 1926 the Museum acquired a coin-die (Inventory No. 1. 1070) reported to have been found at Amman. It consists of two cylinders made of bronze, now slightly corroded. Their total height is 1 1 7 mm., and the diameter of each face measures 28 mm. The bottom of the pile has been cut into a tooth-shaped form probably for the purpose of driving it into a wooden stand. The top of the trussel is slightly spread as from the blows of a hammer. The designs are engraved in both trussel and pile. The inscriptions on the coin-faces read as follows: Obverse (produced by the pile): First margin: Apostolic mission up to J1 ^ ^ Second margin: illegible. 4j)l fj am N *Xa2c-4 in centre: , J ' J) & Reverse: First margin: "^1 ^ ^ 4JI iJt* .oil ^ Second margin: ^1 jlyj < 0)1 Jut In centre: pellet within circle. The die served, therefore, in the production of gold coins of the Fatimid Khalif Abu Mansur Nazar al-'AzIz billah in the year 372 h. (a.d. 982-3) in Cairo. The subject 5 of coin-dies ‘is one in which it is particularly desirable to guard against forgeries. 51 Bearing this warning in mind, we examined our coin-die with special care before it was acquired. There is no doubt that the die is an ancient object, but the problem that does arise is whether it was actually used in the official mint (dar al-darb ), or in the workshop of some forger. Comparing the coin-face of our die with two dinars of Nazar struck in Cairo in 372, casts of which are reproduced on PI. XXVII, fig. 3, 4,2 W e note two points of difference. One of these is an addition to the text, the words • tr^L^ 5 M et ^ 0l ^ s Coining 1 , Numismatic Chronicle, 1922, p. 13 n. 33. Similar warnings i" , Munzstempel des Nationalmuseums in Sofia’, Numismatische Zeitschrift, N.F., Vol. XVIII, 1925, pp. 133-5. J 5 Lane-Poole, B.M. IV, No. 58, p. 15; Lavoix, Catalogue, Egypt e et Syrie, No. 145, p. 62. 34 ’ ‘ ‘Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah, 'All is the Friend of Allah’, in the centre of the obverse of the die being missing in the dinars in London and Paris, both of which show a pellet within a circle instead. The other point of difference is in the character of the engraving on the dinars; for whilst the letters on the cast have graceful and well-set vertical strokes occupying as large a space as possible of each circle, those on the die are thinner and show much more of the background of their respective circles, and are engraved in a rather unsteady hand. The die obviously being an ancient counterfeit, the question arises as to the originator of the fraud. Was it a private individual or an organized body? Naturally we should think first of those Crusaders who freely copied Fatimid coins. But comparing the die with the coins published by Lavoix, 1 we observe two differences: one as to date, the other as to style. The examples quoted by the French numismatist are modelled after dinars of very late Fatimids (457 and 516 a.h.), whereas our die served to produce coins dated 372 a.h.; moreover, the script of the Crusaders’ forgeries showed a tendency, as time went on, to become flat and wide, like the letters on their own Latin coinage, which is just the opposite to what we considered to be the main characteristics of our dinar as compared with genuine pieces. We are probably justified, therefore, in assuming that we are here dealing with a die made by some private individual under the Fatimids, very likely before the time of the Crusaders, and possibly not long after 372 a.h. L. A. M. 1 Monnaies a legendes arabes, frappees en Syrie par les Croisis , Paris, 1877. 35 ‘LOOP PATTERN’ DECORATING LEAD SARCOPHAGI I N November 1926 it was reported that, some years prior to that date, lead sarcophagi had been seen by local inhabitants when digging up stones in a plot of land situated a little east of the hamlet known as Khurbet al-Khasas (about 2 kilometres east of Ascalon). A sounding was consequently made and disclosed the remains of a burial chamber; and, at a depth of about 3 metres, a platform constructed against the southern wall of the chamber. On this platform were fragments of a lead sarcophagus. To the east of this platform the floor was found at a depth of 5 metres. The area of this floor measured approximately 4 metres (north and south) by 2- 50 (east and west). In this area three lead sarcophagi were discovered orientated east and west. The two northernmost sarcophagi contained nothing, and their lids were broken; but the southernmost was undamaged. In it the following objects were found: (1) a gold ‘mouthpiece’; (2) a gold necklace; (3) a gold head-band (?); (4) six pieces of gold-foil of looped form; (5) bronze coins of the time of Constantine or a little later, too corroded to be legible; and (6) some gold thread. These objects, with the exception of the coins, are illustrated in PI. XXVIII, and the sarcophagus itself in PI. XXIX, 1 , 2. The sides of the sarcophagus (which is now in the Palestine Museum) are decorated with a vine pattern; the lid is similarly decorated but has, in addition, a number of rope-like loops of a form resembling that of the gold-foil loops found in the sarcophagus. In the spring of 1927 another lead sarcophagus (also in the Museum) deco- rated with similar loop forms was found at Ramallah (PI. XXIX, 3). It is suggested that these loop forms may represent bread; and, in support of this suggestion it has been observed that, at the present day, there is a custom among members of the Orthodox Church in Palestine (at such festivals as those of Easter and of the Assumption, and, even more, on the occasion of the weaning of an infant) to make bread in the form of loops with free ends, a form identical with that of the loops decorating the sarcophagi illustrated in PI. XXIX. PI. XXX represents examples of the forms in which this bread is made. E. T. R. 36 PLATE XXIX SATURA EPIGRAPHICA ARABICA I U NDER this title we propose to edit from time to time Arabic inscriptions, both unpublished and inadequately published, of which photographs or squeezes have been deposited in the Records Office of the Department of Antiquities. NABLUS Shrine locally known as Shaikh Budran. i Inscription 1 over the entrance door. Cf. Plate XXXI, i. <iil y\ # <i)T ^ C*t (!) dll il jlLUl J JbtJl lajb, ^ jsj\ ( 2 ) ajL^l <U)l Jfr j £»A)Ij Li Ail yvllall ( 3 ) j J*L«All ^jAJI JU- aS, ^^a!I d^L*il aa^ j * i ^ ^ C^) 4jil 4*>-j ^ jA» A;^! ^iil S^il y < A- ^jli* dlii, (5) [1 word] A*5t4 ^ *\ cjj <U1 A*aJlj 4 . . . Qur’an IX. 18 up to: and the last day . . . This mosque was renewed in the days of our lord the Sultan al-Malik az-Zahir, Rukn ad-dunyawa-d-din Bay bars, 1 Published by the Rev. Father J. A. Jaussen, Inscriptions arabes de Naplouse ( BIFJO , t. 27, 1927), No. 9, pp. 96 f. As a new squeeze taken by the Department of Antiquities in 1929 enabled us to establish several names and the date, we have thought advisable to reproduce it here and to publish the inscription for a second time. 37 may God make his victories glorious , under the direction of the Grand Councillor Jamal ad-din of Damietta , with the help of God. The supervisor of this construc- tion was Shaikh ' Imad ad-din , son of the late Shaikh Badr , whose tomb this is, may God have mercy on him , in the year 6j2 of the Hijra of the Prophet ( 1 273-4) . . . Line 3. There can be no doubt with regard to the proper reading of the name Bay bars. The half-round first stroke is misleading, but the J in ajLail, the j in ajUl in the same line, and the _> in in the next line are built in the *• * , » * same way. Furthermore the reading ojLoj'I <Ull -ts besides being out of keeping with the usual wording of this formula, leaves us with an unexplained letter which does not belong to any word in the neighbourhood. At the end of the same line there is the nisbeh the middle part of which is quite legibly placed above the dal and the ta of this word; by reading it no account is taken of the j , of the vertical stroke of the U, and of the fj which has to be written as a separate syllable. The last word but one presents some difficulty as it looks more like than like j but as the former reading would make no sense, I venture to suggest that in this word, squeezed at the end of the line, the head of the , has been cut off. TIBERIAS Shrine, 1 to the south of the town, marked on the P.E.F. Map (1 : 63,360) Sheet VI. Q.h. Sitti Sekineh. 2 Construction Text. 694 a.h. Slab of marble embedded in the western wall of the shrine. Dimensions, measured on squeeze, 93 X56 cms. Five lines of elegant mamluk naskhi, many differentiating signs, some of them in the shape of ornaments filling the intervening spaces. 2 Cf. Plate XXXI, 2. °- r r " °* - V * 3-0 f 9 J*’ aJJ ( Uj I 1 Other tombs of Sukaina are shown at Damascus and Madina. * J/ei reported the discovery of this inscription in Beobachtungen vom See Genezareth (Z DPF, IX, 1886, p. 88)5 J. B. van Kasteren, Nachtrage und Correspondenzen {ZDPF, XII, 1889, p. 130) and Schumacher, Von Tiberias zum Hule-See (ZDPF , XIII, 1890, pp. 65 f.), transcribed portions of lines 2-5, but with many mistakes. 38 jAj ,i))Lil ‘A^-ii! 2)1**) j*\ ( 2 ) ft M ^ ty.' ui <> ft w w ^ <U) ^-jLjill 1 £?* ^y # ^^3 ( 3 ) J u " dDUl ‘CkUl , jl* i£jj+a ^ I JiUl JU\ ^jZ\ (jf^l (J*J& (4) ♦ W WWW j 1 4JL**> t._ ->>*j 4-b-LJI^ A-oua-^JI^ ^«Ai2-^H ( 5 ) Ui 4 iI*Lm<j . . . Qur’an XXXIII. 33.... Ordered the building of this blessed shrine of the Lady Sukaina, daughter of Husain b. Alt b. Abt Talib , and of Abdallah b. al-Abbas b. Alt b. Abt Talib , peace be upon them , the servant yearning for God the Exalted, Faris ad-din Ilbaki , the cup-bearer , ( officer ) of ( al-Malik ) al- Adil and of ( al-Malik ) al-Mansur, Governor of the provinces of Safad, Shaqif and the Maritime Plain. This (was done ) on the 1st Rajab 6 g 4 [=17 May I2 95]- 3 Endowment Text. Rajab 694-Muharram 696 a.h. Slab of marble, em- bedded in the western wall of the shrine below the previous inscription. Dimensions measured on squeeze, within the frame, 103 X90 cms. Eight lines of elegant naskhi with many differentiating signs, often disguised as ornaments filling the intervening spaces. Unpublished, cf. Plate XXXII, 3. 0-*- 5 ' (l) dA)i JaI JU) O ' jjW Ou Jof sj* jj li Jo* 5 ' ( 2 ) 39 j\lw~j o*j\) ,x4 ( 3 ) -yjdl l>^J jljyU* jljjT^>-j 4^' (4) * * * ' ^iill aJI <LSj (jiJIj jLJl iJ^r 4/“ hf^i ( 5 ) JL" 4jj| Jl JC m < d)L*ll aA* iS*** 4 (^) 4_i*-w « ^ ^ jjlpell 4 jL^!I ^JjJ j)l b^T - a -o a f - t yj .. » - , a -o - - # ■> o - tf - * - - . - - o ^ ^ - o - - -- <1)1 J)l <J j!4^j 1 <%-Tl UJii 4 **-** L 4 Ujlj aJ*Xj ^*3 (8) * .* *■***> j^“ . . . These are the sites jounded as waqf for the benefit oj the shrine of Lady Sukaina according to the decision of the court , viz., two faddans of Tiberias land out of a property containing thirty faddans in all \ two pieces of land each known as al-Harithiyya, the land known as al-Minbar, the land known as Bustan al- Qassls, the garden known as al-QasIl, two gardens in the neighbourhood of this blessed shrine , the garden Karm Dar Masrur, two pieces of land, one known as al-Bi’r, and the other as ar-Rujm al-Kablr, a garden known as Umm Rujm, a land known as al-Bustan; and the one who made them a waqf was the servant yearning for God the Exalted, the Amir Faris ad-dln Ilbaki, the cup-bearer , [the officer ) of {al-Malik) al-Mansur and {al-Malik) al-Adil, founder of this building , ( the waqf ) consisting of the whole of the Bustan al-Hannanah, in the vicinity of the town of Tiberias and its lake. The boundaries of this are made clear in the two waqf deeds, ‘ But he who alters it after that he has heard it — 40 the sin thereof shall be upon those who alter it; verily God doth hear and know' (Qur’an II. 177). The main interest of this inscription is of course of a topographical nature. An investigation conducted on the spot showed that some of these place- names are still known at Tiberias; all identified sites are either within the present city walls, or at a distance not exceeding 2 kms. from the centre of the town. Al-Harithiyyah ( = track of ploughed land) is a plot of land below the so-called Qasr bint al-Malik , between the latter and the wadi immediately to the south. Al-Minbar ( = the pulpit) is near the sea-shore, to the south of the new Government School. Al-Qasile, an open space opposite and north of the Governorate, serves to-day as a playground, especially for football. The property known to-day as Bustan al-Hannaneh ( = artificially watered garden) or Hannanet al-Qassis , cannot be identical with the one mentioned in the inscription, as the latter — if I understand rightly — refers to a garden in which the shrine was situated, whereas the Bustan al-Hannaneh indicated to me by two natives of Tiberias, a shaikh and a broker in lands, was to the north of the town, about a quarter of an hour’s walk from the Hotel Tiberias. The garden pointed out to me as Bustan al-Qassis ( = garden of the priest) is evidently modern, the plot of land now so called owing its name to the Scottish Mis- sionary Station. There are several places called al-Bi’r ( = the well) or al- Bustan ( = the garden), so that in the absence of more specific details, the places under reference could not be identified. There is nothing to indicate the exact date of this inscription. It should be assumed a priori that the two inscriptions are not contemporary, IlbakI being styled in one as al-'Adill al-Mansuri and in the other as al-Mansurl al-'Adili. The fact that in the first inscription, dated within the reign of al- Malik al-'Adil Kitbugha, the relatif dl appartenance al-'Adili precedes al- Mansurl, suggests that the first relative indicates the reigning sultan, 1 and consequently that the second inscription was made under one of the two sultans, called al-Malik al-Mansur, who reigned during Ilbakl’s lifetime, viz. either Qalaun or Lajin. Qalaun is ruled out, as IlbakI calls himself in the inscription ‘founder of this building’ which proves that it was written at least five years after Qalaun’s death, and that the possibility of al-Malik al-Mansur referring to Qalaun and al-Malik al-'Adil to Salamish need not be considered. 1 Similar cases in van Berchem, Inscriptions Arabes de Syrie , pp. 466, 4^45 ‘Arabische Inschriften aus Syrien’ (in Mitteilungen und Nachrichten des Deutschen P alastina-Vt ereins, 19035 P- 4 ^) j Sobern- heim, Baalbek in islamischer Zeit, No. X, p. 19; cf. van Berchem, ‘Notes IIP (in Journal Asiatique, 1904, p. 36), but Yalbugha was called an-Nasirl al-Ashrafl on a lamp made under al-Ashraf Sha'ban (Wiet, Lampes, p. 1 74, no. 1 1 7) and Asandamur was called al-Mansiirl al-Ashraft on a coffin made under al-Ashraf Khalil (Ja'far al-Hasanl, Dalil , p. 41). G 4 I Lajln seems to be equally ruled out, as IlbakI fled on the former’s accession to the throne and returned only after Lajxn’s death. Therefore we shall have to conclude that in cases where there are several relatifs d' appartenance their sequence does not necessarily indicate which of them refers to the reigning Sultan, and consequently that in the case under discussion, both inscriptions have been made under Kitbugha. BIOGRAPHY OF ILBAKI 1 2 Faris ad-din Ilbaki b. 'Abdallah az-Zahiri , 3 the cup-bearer, dubbed amir under Baybars, held many important offices up to the time of his imprisonment by his master. Qalaun set him free and appointed him Governor of Safad, a post he held until Lajin’s accession ten years later. Having ill-treated Lajln while in Safad, Ilbaki fled to Ghazan (697) whose service he entered. On his return to Syria (699) he was favourably treated by the Sultan, who appointed him Governor of Hims in 700, which office he retained until his death on 8 th Dhu-l-Qa'da 702 (24 June 1303). 'ARAQ AL-MANSHIYYEH Ruined shrine to the north of the village, marked on the P. E. F. Map (1 : 63,360) Sheet XX. H.v. Sh. Ahmed el'Aretnt. 4 Founder’s Text, 717 a.h. Slab of limestone embedded in the northern wall of the shrine to the left of the entrance door. Dimensions within the frame measured on squeeze, 40 cms. x 5 1—2 cms. Elegant provincial mamluk naskhi. 1 -^hix-i-Fida , ed, Reiske, Vol. V, pp. 132, 140, 164, 166, 176, 190, ed. Constantinople, IV, pp. 36, 1. 16} 38, 1. 5 b (from bottom); 44, L ult.; 45, 1. 14; 47-8, 51, 1. ult.; Zetterst&n, Beitrage, PP- 47 > • 9 j 1 7 > 1 9 > 4 °> H* 2 > 25; 55 -> 1 - 16; 79, 1 . 14; 80, 1 . 9; Mufaddal, ed. Blochet, pp. 438 and n. 1, 444, 455, n. 2, 470, n. 1, 490, n. 1; Ibn Habib, pp. 295, 298VQuatremere, SM. II b, p P' * 2 ?/V b . n ^ a J ar > s - v - ( MS - Br - Mus. Or. 3043, fo. 7 6 r ); Ibn Taghrlbirdl, ManhaL s.v. (MS. Pans, Ar. 2069, fo. 8 r ); Weil, IV, 234, 236. 2 In Zettersteen, lx., p. 47, 1 . 9; 80, 1 . 9, this name is spelt in Ibn Habib, p. 295 1; In Ibn Hajar, l.c. Jill; Blochet, l.c., p. 438, n. 1, remarked that the Persian spelling of this name gives the full form, namely JL J>1, the name meaning ‘tres puissant’, van Berchem ( MC 1 J Jeru- salem, Ville , p. 267, n. 6) explained it as le prince du pays. 2 Not to be confounded with Faris ad-din Ilbaki b. Qutlumalak b. 'Abdallah, Governor of Gaza, and its hinterland («> UJi, LkUl JuSb ixUJl ^JU), who flourished half a century later, cf. Mujlr ad-din, al-Uns al-jalil , II, p. 390, 1 . 1 0 b. 42 PLATE XXXI Fig. i. Nablus. Shaikh Budran. 672 a.h. Fig. 2. Tiberias. Sitt Sukaina. 694 A.H. Diacritical points almost throughout, a few differentiating signs and filling ornaments partly disguised as vowel-signs. Unpublished; cf. Plate XXXII, 4. ^ojT ^ p - ’. (0 oll>- cilji ,v» I jA~ AJ T*>- jl (2) » ’ - ^ - " ’ s SS 9 9 ^ O *■ Q ^ ~ > - OJ O -C - O- O 0 ^ bj*** dU J*st-u cib?* (3) jJLaJI -UiJI iJjLil I A* AAjLj (4) 4 i^ail ^lU Jt ^ (5) ( 6 ) . . . Qur’an XX Y. 1 1 . . . Ordered to build this blessed caravanserai the servant yearning for God , the Exalted , the pilgrim Almalik , one of the amirs in the province of Egypt. This was done in the year 717 (began 1 6 March 1317)... A glance at the ruin shows that the inscription, made to commemorate the erection of a khan, is not in situ. Erected on the top of a mound accessible only by means of a steep path, neither suitable nor wide enough for a caravan- serai, the present shrine could never have formed part of such a building, nor could it have been built over the ruins of one. No trace of a khan was found in the village of Araq al-Manshiyyeh, although the latter is situated on the very important road leading from Gaza to Kerak via Bait Jibrin and Hebron. The post stations of this road are well known from various contemporary sources and as Araq al-Manshiyyeh is not mentioned in any one of them I venture to suggest that the above inscription refers to a caravanserai that once existed in the now abandoned Umm al-Laqis, which, in the Middle Ages, was the nearest post station to Araq al-Manshiyyeh. . , . Our inscription furnishes us with an additional detail of Almalik s bio- graphy. 1 It has hitherto always been assumed that he made only one pilgrim- age to Mecca, viz. in 728, and van Berchem pointed this out as the reason why Almalik is not called hajj in his inscription in Cairo, dated 7 r 9 * # ® ut our present text, written about ten years before Almalik met Ibn Battuta in Mecca, shows that he must have made an earlier pilgrimage prior to the end of the year 716. . L - A - 1 Almalik’s biography and the reasons for transcribing his name Almalik and not Yl-malak will be found in my Saracenic Heraldry , chap. Armorial Roll, s.v, G 2 43 A MEDIEVAL ARABIC DESCRIPTION OF THE HARAM OF JERUSALEM T HE first volume of the encyclopaedia Masaltk al-absar by Ahmad b. Fadl- Allah al-'Umari contains descriptions of many important buildings, religious and otherwise, erected before the middle of the fourteenth century. Among others there is a detailed description of the Haram in Jerusalem, to a great extent copied from the Silsilat al-asjad Ji stfat as-sakhra wa-l-masjid 1 by the vizier Taj ad-din Abu-l-Fada’il Ahmad b. Amin al-Mulk and added to from his own observations, made either during several journeys from Cairo to Damascus, or, what is more probable, during- his ‘small’ pilgrimage. 2 As the information contained therein seems to be worthy of being made known to a wider public, an English translation has been attempted, and in order to preserve the character of the original it has been made as literal as possible. All technical terms and words with regard to the translation of which there is any doubt have been accompanied by their Arabic equivalents transcribed within brackets. The translation has been based on Ahmad Zeki Pasha’s edition, Cairo, 1924, p. 140 ff., and checked with the manuscript of Oxford (Bodl. MS. Pococke 191). (140). 3 We will begin with the description of the Noble Rock and the structure surrounding it, and say: The blessed building stands in a court paved with polished ( masqul ) flag- stones; it is 18 ells in height, and above this rises the tambour ( kursiyy al-qubbah ) 10 and £ ells high, with a circumference of 103 and f ells. The drum wall is pierced with 1 6 gilded glass windows, covered externally with gratings. (The whole building) is octagonal in shape. Each side of the octagon ( tathminahy is 29 and f ells long. On the outside it is covered with white, veined ( mushajjar ) marble to a height of seven ells. Above it, reaching as far as the rain-water spouts, that is, to a height of seven ells, the entire Mujlr ad-din, al-TJns al-jalil \ p. 378, 1 . 13 ff. quoted it under the slightly different title of Al- asjad fi sifat al-aqsa wa-l-masjid by Taj ad-din Ahmad, son of the vizier Amin ad-din Abu Muhammad 'Abdallah, the Hanafi. Taj ad-din (f75S) was a contemporary of the author of Masaltk. 2 Safadi, A yan^ s.v. (MS. Berlin, Codex Wetzstein, II, 298, fo. 20 v , 1 . 4) mentions that when the plague made its appearance in Damascus, Ibn Fadl- Allah intended to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, but changed his mind and went to Jerusalem, where his wife died. In Dhu-l-Hijja 745 he visited Hebron, Masaltk , p. 1 70, 1 . 3 from bottom. 3 The numbers indicate the pages of the Cairo edition. word is used promiscue for 'octagon’, 'side of an octagon’, and ‘the octagonal space between the wall and first row of columns’, or ‘between the first and the second rows of columns’. 44 surface is covered with gilded, veined mosaics of various designs. Each side of the octagon has 7 windows, 2 blind lateral ones, and 5 of glass, provided on the outer side with iron gratings. Above the rain-water spouts rises a (parapet) wall, 4 ells in height, covered with mosaics, as described above. On each side of the octagon are places for 13 niches (mihrab). The building has four doors: the door to the South is 6 and £ ells high, and 3 and £ and £ ells wide. In front of it, outside, is a portico covered with white and veined marbles. It runs in an east-westerly direction, and is 2 1 and £ ells long, and 4 wide, and has a flat, painted ceiling. The centre, which faces the door, is spanned by an arch, covered with gilt mosaics and supported by eight marble columns, of which the two at the ends are crow-coloured (_ ghurabiyy ), four myrtle-green, and two speckled red and white (shahm wa-lahm). Between the crow-coloured and the green column is a marble basin , 1 i and £ ells in diameter, decorated on the outside with reliefs. The water drains from the rain-water spouts into this basin. (141). The doorway mentioned above has two wings plated with yellow copper in relief work. On entering, one walks between wooden r ailin gs (darabzin), f of an ell high, which are to be found only at the head of the first side of the octagon. The space measured from the inner edge of the threshold of this door and the columns, of which mention will now be made, is eight and | ells. Above the columns, at a height of 15 ells, a flat ceiling painted in various colours, is borne on the wall of the Dome of the Rock. 2 Inside the octagonal walk the columns and the wall are wholly encased in marble, without mosaics, with much (?) carved and gilded marble, about one ell (high). The ceiling of each of the sides of the octagon is carried on two piers, encased in veined and beautifully coloured marble. Each of these piers measures eleven and | ells in circumference and eight and f ells in height. The side which faces the Rock has two angles. With each pier are two columns, one speckled red and white, the other myrtle-green. The distance between each pair of columns is five ells, and the girth of each column is two and f ells. Its height above the bases of the columns is six and £ ells; above it there are tie-beams ( basatil ) encased with yellow copper in relief and gilded over the reliefs. Above the tie-beams rise arches with beautifully gilded mosaics. This first octagon consists of eight pillars and sixteen columns. Of these, ten are white and blue, three myrtle green, and three speckled red and white. 1 Which has since disappeared, 2 The Author, as many others, often uses the word sakhra ( ~ Rock) for qubbat a$~sakhra ( = Dome of the Rock) or bina as-sakhra ( =the structure surrounding the Rock). This is tacitly put right in the following pages. 45 The distance from the face of the bases of these columns to the second octagon 1 is ten ells. Thereon rests a ceiling with gilded ‘dishes’ ( maqali ). Its height is equal to that of the other ceiling. Because of the dusting of the ceiling the ‘dishes’ are fixed in place without nails. The roof covered with lead is five ells above the inner ceiling. At the border of this octagon 1 a balustrade 2 runs round the full extent of the dome. The dome rests on four square piers, which, (142) like the former, are encased in marble. Between each pair of piers there are three columns of speckled red and white, and myrtle-green marbles. Above them rise arches, covered on both sides with gilt mosaics, and on the soffits ( al-batin ) with white and black marble. The dome is carried in all by twelve columns, seven of which are myrtle-green, and five speckled red and white. He said: I have measured one of these columns; it was speckled red and white. Its girth was three and £ ells, and its height above the bases of the columns seven and f ells. From the apex of the gilt wooden dome to the outer surface of the Noble Rock it is 47 ells, and from the outer surface of the Rock to the floor of the cave six ells. From the outer surface of the wooden dome to the second lead- covered dome it is one and a half ells. He said: I have measured the girth of the tambour supporting the dome on columns and piers, and it was 103 ells. Description of the iron screen between the columns and piers. It has four doors; the North door is locked, the remaining three are open. The South door is gained by ascending two steps. From the inner edge of the threshold of this door to the face of the Rock the distance is 4 and £ and £ ells. The part of the Rock on this side is encased in coloured marble to a height of 2 ells. The Rock is enclosed on all sides by a carved wooden railing. Its circum- ference is 74 ells. At the end of this marble-clad Rock, on the north-western side, there lies a small stone, borne on six small columns. It was said that it was the footprint of the Prophet, may God bless him and give him peace, left on the night of his ascent to heaven. Opposite the said foot (-print) there is a mirror of seven metals, called the ‘Buckler of Hamza’. 3 It is supported on three fine columns, two of which are twisted ( 'ruhan Jtjasad). (143). The height of the iron screen is 4 and f ells. Over it stretches a 1 This is in reality not an octagon, but a circle. 1 It is evident from the description that the gallery between the tambour and the dome is meant. 3 This is a very interesting confirmation of Clermont-Ganneau’s theory ( Archaeological Re- searches in Palestine , I, p. 220), since accepted by everybody, that the ‘buckler’ was in reality a mirror. On the other hand his statement (ibid., p. 219 n.) that Ibn Battuta was the earliest author to mention the ‘buckler’ must be revised. 46 longish panel of painted wood. Above the panelling iron candlesticks are ranged. The niche in which the prayer-leader of the Dome of the Rock prays lies to the right as one enters from the South gate, on the inside of the wooden r ailin g mentioned above. Opposite the prayer-niche lies the entrance-door to the cave of the Noble Rock, spanned by an arch of fine marble, supported on two pillars like wax-candles ( sham'iyy ). Fourteen steps lead down into the Cave, the interior of which measures io ells in length east-west, and 7 and £ ells in width north-south. The entire floor of the Dome of the Rock and of the Cave is covered with marble flags. In the interior of the said Cave there are two prayer-niches, one to the right, and one to the left. Each of the prayer-niches is flanked by two fine marble columns. In front of the right-hand prayer-niche there is a bench called ‘Place of al-Khidr’ (i.e. the prophet Elijah). The length of this bench from east to west is 1 and f ells, and from south to north 2 and J ells. Opposite the bench there is a marble column which reaches to the ceiling, and a diagonally placed column which leans against the wall of the cave. In the northern angle of the cave there is a bench, cut in the rock, called ‘Place of the Friend’ (i.e. Abraham). Its depth from south to north is 1 and § ells; from east to west 1 and £ ells. The east gate of the Dome of the Rock consists of two doors, one within the other. The outer door was made to protect the inner against rain and snow. The doorway is covered with marble. The space between the two doors is 4 and £ ells in width, and the portico 1 2 and £ ells in length. To the right, as one leaves, there is a room for the gate-keeper; in it is a niche carried by three beautiful columns. To the left, as one leaves, there is a room for the candles, carried on four myrtle-green and blue columns. (144). The vaulted ceiling between the doors is covered with gilded mosaics. From the threshold of the second door to the columns it is 7 and f ells. This gateway carries a flat roof. From the outer face of the columns to the iron screen there are 1 1 ells. From the inside of the iron screen to the wooden railing which protects the Rock are 4 and £ ells. And from the edge of this eastern gate, to the left as one enters, there stand, at a distance of 9 ells, in a southerly direction, two myrtle-green columns. Over them a gilded duqaisiyy through which one ascends the roof of the Dome of the Rock, and the dome. The north gate is called the Gate of Paradise. Like the East Gate it has a portico. It is also of the same structure, and shows the same decoration. 47 Between the two pillars, in front of the gate, inside the gilded wooden railing, there stands a beautiful prayer-niche to indicate the black marble slab at which the people pray. This marble slab was long ago lost and replaced by a slab of green marble. And the people worship and pray there(at). The west gate has a portico, like the East gate and the North Gate. The distance between the octagons of the Dome of the Rock from the inside is the same as that from the North Gate (to the Rock), less the distance from the iron screen to the wooden railing of the Dome of the Rock, namely 6 and f ells. So much for the description of the Rock and of the octagonal structure surrounding it. The court surrounding the structure is paved in its entirety with splendid polished flagstones. Its length North and South is 229 ells. Its width East and West is 223 and £ ells. (145). And the distance between the portico to the South of the South door of the Dome of the Rock and the top step of the flight of steps leading to the Mosque, is 53 ells; and from the top step to the threshold of the Mosque it is 1 50 and £ and £ ells. At the head of this flight of steps there are four arches which are carried j on three columns and two masonry piers. Of these, two columns are of red flint, 1 the one in the centre of white marble with a square recess. History books say that a prayer offered up at this spot is answered. s To the East of these arches, at a distance of 40 ells, there are similar arches I with two myrtle-green columns. And between these two arches, at the lower level of the Haram, there is a large platform (sujfah ) called the ‘Ramp of the Seven Steps’. This platform is said to be the trysting-place of the pious j and the pilgrims by night, who kneel down upon it in prayer. | At the side of the first of the arches mentioned above, there is a painted j prayer-niche flanked on either side by a fine marble column. In its western supporting-pier there are two marble cupolas, one above the other, each of them formed of a single piece, called the ‘Dome of the Balance’ (jqubbat al- mlzdn), carried on r 2 columns of marble speckled red and white, and resting on ‘waxen’ bases. The cupola thereon resembles the cupola mentioned, 8 and f ells in height. The lower column is 2 and £ ells high, the upper 1 and £ and £ ells. The cupola is also known under the name of ‘Dome of the Secret Discourse.’ In the south-western corner of the Court there is a place known under the | name of the mu'azzamiyyah school. Its external length is 34 ells, and its | width from South to North 7 ells. It has two doors which open to the North. | 1 Mr* E. T. Richmond suggests that here (and also on page 50) is a textual error for I i- e - the granite of Assuan. I 48 At both sides of them stand three marble columns, each column consisting of four tiny twisted ( arba'ah ft jasad nsoahtd) and ringed ( malfufah mutha'banah) columns. 1 Adjoining them are two fine columns. The height of the building measured from the ground of the court of the Dome of the Rock is 9 ells. Through the two above-mentioned doors one enters a hall, whose length is 18 and \ ells, and the width 6 ells, and which has a gilded Syrian ceiling of 13 square (ells). In its South fa$ade there are three windows which look on to the Haram and the Gates of the Mosque. On its western side is a domed room on arches. The South, North, and West sides have three windows each. On its eastern 2 side an entrance-door from the above-mentioned hall, and a window giving on to this hall. On its eastern side there is a domed room more beautiful than the other. It serves as a living- room for the Imam and for the locum tenens, and as a store-room for oil. Al-Malik al-Mu'azzam provided a single Imam for this school to recite the five prayers. He also provided 25 men from among the students of grammar, and a Shaikh, on condition that they be Hanafis and pupils of his school out- side the Haram. For the benefit of this institution he endowed a village, called Bait Liqia, in the Jerusalem district, as waqf. On its ceiling it is re- corded that in the year 60 8 3 he was engaged in erecting the building. In front of the northern window-gratings in the West dome of this hall, at a distance of about 5 ells, there is a vaulted passage with 1 7 steps, each step 1 ell in width, through which one descends into the lower part of the Haram. In front of the eastern dome of this hall there is a bench with a carved marble slab, which serves as a clock to tell the hours of the day. Its length from east to west is 2 and f ells, its depth 1 and $ ells, and its height 1 and | ells. (147). Opposite this school, in the East corner of the court, there stands a beautiful domed chamber, whitened on the outside as a cell for one of the professors of the Haram. The door of the cell faces north. All three sides have a window each, giving on to the Haram. At the West and North wall of this court there are two platforms, one of which is spanned by a dome in the West, the other by a dome in the North. Over it, a roof resting on two marble columns on which the prayer-leaders say the five prayers. 1 Little is left to-day of the original facade of which a photograph had been published by Wilson, Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem, PI. 5^5 Courtellemont, Jerusalem, p. 48; and a drawing by Max van Berchem, Mat iriaux pour un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum , Jerusalem, Haram , No. 155, p. 61, fig. 11. Cf. also Schick, Tempelplatz , p. 26. 2 In the Cairo edition, by mistake: western. 3 a.d. 1 21 1— 12. In the inscription published by van Berchem l.c., p. 61 ff. a different date is given, namely 604 (1207-8), recorded also by Mujir ad-din, l.c, p. 386, 1 . 5- 49 From the threshold of the East door to the flight of steps — the end of the paved court of the Dome of the Rock in an easterly direction — it is 76 ells. At the top of this flight of steps there are five arches spanned over four columns and two pillars, at the south and north sides of which there are two cells, intended for the poor who live, pray and meditate in the Haram. The arch of this arcade is 1 o ells high, being the same height as the arches over the other (flights of) steps. There remain three arches which are open and through which one reaches the flight of steps called the buraq steps. There are 36 steps. Between the first step of this flight of steps to the east wall it is 156 and £ ells. It is 5 and £ and £ ells from the outer door of the east entrance to the dome of the chain. This dome is carried on 12 1 columns, myrtle-green and speckled red and white. The height of the columns above their bases is 3 and £ and £ and £ ells. The height of its roof, which is flat and covered with lead, is 8 ells. (148). The entire intermediate space between the columns is left open 2 ( makhruq ). Between the columns there are supports ( muttakayah ) of smoothly polished flint, only a hand’s breadth (in height). The length of each of these (supporting pieces) is 4 and \ ells, and the width between the two columns of the prayer-niche 5 ells. The prayer-niche is lined with coloured marble. At both sides of the prayer-niche there are two columns of white marble. Above these columns there are arches covered with gilded and green vari- coloured mosaics. The height of these arches is 2£ ells, their breadth from the prayer- niche to the end is 18 ells. In the interior of this domed chamber there is a dome, carried on six myrtle-green and red columns flecked with white. The space between the columns is 4 ells, the diameter of the dome 8 and £ ells. Above the columns rise arches set with mosaics. Their height is 4 and £ ells, and the wooden dome rises above them. From the north door of the Dome of the Rock, called the Door of Paradise, to the end of the court which surrounds the Dome of the Rock, that is, to the three arches which rest on the two marble columns and the two piers, it is 108 ells. (149). Through these arcades one goes down eight steps into the Haram. In front of this flight of steps there is a Iongish flagged walk 5 and £ 1 In reality there are only eleven. \ the Arabic original mahruq (burnt down) which does not make sense. The above trans- lation is based on a suggestion made by Omar Eff. Salih al-Barghuti of Jerusalem. 5 ° ells wide, which ends in a northerly direction at the Haram gate known under the name of ‘The Gate of the Honour of the Prophets’. The length of this walk is 178 ells. This gate, God willing, will be described in the mention of the gates of the Haram. To the right and to the left of this arcade, at the North end of the court, there are two platforms. Both of them, measured from East to West, are 8 and \ ells long, and from South to North 2 and § ells wide. People pray on both platforms. Translated by L. A. M. (To be continued .) 51 d I NOTES The High Commissioner laid the Foundation Stone of the Palestine Archaeological Museum on 19 June 1930. . During the present year excavations have been conducted at the following sites: Ain Shams {Beth Shemesh ) by Dr. Elihu Grant for Haverford College, Pennsylvania. Baisan {Beth Shean ) by Mr. G. M. FitzGerald for the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Magharat al-W ad {Wadi al-Maghara, near Athlit) (prehistoric cave site) by Miss D. A. E. Garrod for the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. Magharet al-Zuttiyyeh and the Dolmen field S.E. of Kerazeh, and N. of Tall Hum by Mr. F. Turville-Petre for the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. Caves on the Mount oj Olives and at al-Isawiyyeh by Dr. E. L. Sukenik for the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Tall Bait Mersem by Professors W. F. Albright and M. G. Kyle for the Xenia-Pittsburgh Theological Seminary and the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem. Tall al-Far'a and Tall al-Ajjul {near Gaza ) by Professor Sir Flinders Petrie, assisted by Mr. Starkey, for the British School of Egyptian Archaeology. Tall al-Mutasallem {Megiddo) by Mr. P. L. O. Guy for the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Tall al-Sultan {Old Jericho') by Professor J. Garstang for the Institute of Archaeology, University of Liverpool. A clearance of the ruins of the Crusaders’ Castle at ‘Athlit has been begun by the Department of Antiquities, with a view to making records and taking measures for conservation. 5 2 THE QUARTERLY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTIQUITIES IN PALESTINE VOLUME I. NO. 2 /r/xisTPRGatuii », : /vv.v * - - U > Jry / 4 >‘ ' 4 ?,,; ( A'o JERUSALEM PUBLISHED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF PALESTINE BY HUMPHREY MILFORD OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON, E.C.4 I 93 I PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, OXFORD , BY JOHN JOHNSON, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY CONTENTS A ROCK-CUT TOMB AT NAZARETH ' . A HOARD OF BYZANTINE COINS . NOTE ON THE OBVERSE TYPE OF THE TETRA- DRACHMS OF THE SECOND REVOLT OF THE JEWS COINS IN THE PALESTINE MUSEUM A MEDIEVAL ARABIC DESCRIPTION OF THE HARAM OF JERUSALEM CONCISE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EXCAVATIONS IN PALESTINE THE NAME OF KHAN EL AHMAR, BEISAN . JERUSALEM: ANCIENT STREET LEVELS IN THE TYROPOEON VALLEY WITHIN THE WALLS P a g e S3 » 55 » 69 >, 7° » 74 „ 86 » 95 » 97 ERRATUM To the references to the plates in article ‘Note on a Cemetery at Karm al-Shaikh’ in Vol I, No. i, pp. 3-5, three should in each case be added to the number quoted, thus for Plate I read Plate IV, and so on. Palestine Quarterly 2 . A ROCK-CUT TOMB AT NAZARETH W HILE excavating rock for the purpose of laying the foundations for a private house near the Government Secondary School at Nazareth, and about 250 m. south-west of the Terra Santa Convent, a tomb was dis- covered. Naim Effendi Makhouly, Inspector of the Department of Anti- quities, visited the site on 7 October, 1930. The process of excavation had made a breach in the rock roof of the tomb (vide plan and section, p. 54). The tomb-cave consists of a rectangular chamber barrel-vaulted and cut in the rock. In this chamber was a shaft tomb, and opening from the chamber there were nine loculi in all of which human bones were found. The following objects were recovered: Tomb No. 1. A glass kohl vessel (PI. XXXIII. 5), a fragment of chain armour and nine beads. Tomb No. 2. Nine paste and glass beads. Tomb No. 3 . A Phoenician glass pendant with lion and star carved in relief (PI. XXXIII. 4); two glass beads, an iron nail, and a small bronze disk. Tomb No. 4, One iron ring, one bronze ring, and two glass beads. Tomb No. 5. Twenty-three beads (PI. XXXIV. 1 right), two miniature blue glass bottles (PI. XXXIII. 2, 3), a small bronze bell, fragments of a silver ring, and bronze and iron rings and bracelets. Tomb No. 6. Small bronze and iron fragments. Tomb No. 7. Fifty-eight beads (PI. XXXIV. 1), bronze and iron fragments, and a small bronze bell. Tomb No. 8. Eleven glass beads (PI. XXXIV. 1), a miniature glass bottle, a glass kohl vessel (PI. XXXIII. 5), and a coarse red juglet without handles (PI. XXXIV. 2), and bronze and iron fragments. Tomb No. 9. A glass vessel (PI. XXXIII. 5, second from left), three beads, and one bronze ring. Tomb No. 10. Two glass vessels (PI. XXXIII. 5, third and fourth from left), six Hellenistic lamps (PI. XXXIV. 2), and iron, glass, and pottery fragments. E. T. R. H 53 A HOARD OF BYZANTINE COINS T HREE hundred and twenty-five Byzantine jolles were discovered on ii February, 1928, at Khirbat Dubel on Mount Carmel; they were delivered to the Department of Antiquities by the finders, who stated that the coins had been found lying loose in a heap of small rough stones which were being removed from the surface of the ground to prepare it for cultivation. No jar or fragments of pottery were found near the coins. The coins range from Anastasius I to Heraclius, 1 the majority being of Justin I and of Justinian, from the mint of Constantinople. The latest coin in the hoard is dated year 2 of Heraclius (=a.d. 6 1 1-1 2). The hoard is, therefore, likely to have been abandoned not long after that date, perhaps at the time of the Persian in- vasion. Of the coins struck at Antioch, none bear the mint name in the form: eYrroAS . 2 There is only one coin of Justin II. Some of the coins of Justin I, and of Justinian, show faint traces of restriking; these are generally thinner and on slightly broader flans. The coins of Justinian struck at Con- stantinople with officina marks: A, b, r, and A, have, on their reverses, a star 1. and a cross r.; but the coins with: € have stars, 1. and r., or crosses, 1 . and r., or a cross or a star 1 . and a crescent r. With this exception, no definite combinations of crosses, stars, or crescents seem to be associated with particular mints or officinae. The same applies to the forms in which the stars and the crescents are represented. On No. 129 in the list of the coins appended, the crescent almost takes the form of a bow. The coins with crescents are not very numerous. It does not appear that the combinations or the forms are capable of being related to the dates of the various issues but they are of interest from the point of view of their origin and possible significance. It has been shown that ‘The Byzantine coinage in its choice of types follows the custom of earlier kings and Emperors, its types being in the main either Imperial or religious’. 3 The cross is some- times found on late Roman coins, while stars and crescents occur as symbols and occasionally as the main type on Roman coins of most periods. 4 Though 1 The principal varieties are published in the Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum (1908), Vol. I. 2 Ibid., p. 53, No. 266, &c. 3 Ibid., p. lxxxv. 4 A star is found alone as a principal type but the crescent is usually shown with either one star or seven stars. Cf. Bernhart, Handhuch zur Miinzkunde der romischen Kaiserzeit (1926), Tafel 55 > No. 7 and Tafel 54, No. 10, illustrating commemorative coins of Faustina I and Faustina II; the 55 there is nothing new in the representation of stars and crescents on Byzantine coins, Diehl 1 has shown that Byzantine decorative motifs owe something to direct oriental influences; at the Church of Saint Sophia and in the decoration of other buildings 2 the cross is represented as taking the principal place among the heavenly bodies which formerly were associated with pagan divini- ties; so, on the coins, the stars occupying subordinate positions to the cross may have similar religious significance. Also, the star and the crescent were Persian emblems, appearing on Sassanian coins of the period, and their occa- sional association on Byzantine coins may have reference to events in the struggle between the Byzantine empire and the Persians . 3 C. L. reverse types are, on the first, a single star with legend AETERNITAS, and, on the second, a crescent with seven stars and the legend CONSECRATIO. Stars and crescents are frequently connected with divinities (e.g.the Dioscuri wear caps surmounted by stars ; Antinous, after deification, was identified with a star — Hastings, Enc. of Religion and Ethics , Vol. IV, p. 532). The following is quoted from Smith, Diet, of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), Vol. I, p. 140, concerning apotheo- sis: — ‘In the later times of the republic, under the influence of Asianized Greek ideas, many . . . held that ... the souls ... of the great and good were divine (Cic. Legg, II, ii, 27), and that they ascended to the heavens and the stars (cf. Hor. Od, III, 2, 21; Virg. Jen, IX. 641).’ 1 Manuel d'art byzantin, 2 Ibid., p. 1655 alsop. 127. 3 Cf, British Museum Catalogue , p. xxvi, suggesting that these emblems on the obverse of a coin of Heraclius may commemorate his final victory over the Persians. 56 LIST OF THE COINS (See also Plates XXXV and XXXVI.) Anastasias I. a.d. 491—518. Constantinople. Nos. 1 Bust r. wearing diadem and military dress; around : DNANASTA SI VSPPAVG Reverse'. 2 - 5 The same, but officina '8 j> jj 9-i 1 » » *2—25 )} )) 26-32 „ „ (illegible). (Stars also have forms : »C and 33 Bust r. as on No. 1 ; around: D NANAST[ASIY]SPPAYG Reverse : ANT[X] ANTIOCH. Justin 1. a.d. 518-527. 34-36 Bust r. wearing diadem and military dress; around: Reverse'. CONSTANTINOPLE. DNIVSTI NVSPPAVG 37—40 The same, but officina B 4 I_ 43 y> » 44— 5 3 » » A 57 Nos. 54—55 The same, but officina € 56-69 „ „ (illegible). (Cross on L, instead of star, on No. 54 ; stars sometimes : X.) 70 Bust r., as on No. 34 ; around : DNIVST[l ] NVSPPAVG Reverse'. CON 71—72 Bust r., as on No. 34; around: DNIVSTI NVSPPAVG Reverse: * * CON 73—85 The same, but officina B 86—94 „ „ r 95-102 „ „ A 103-116 „ „ € x 17-127 „ „ (illegible). (On No. 105, pellets below stars; No. 77 double struck, perhaps with cross, instead of star, on r. ; stars also have forms X and on some specimens.) 128 Bust r., as on No. 34 ; around: DNIVSTINVSPPAVCS Reverse: 129 Bust r., as on No. 34; around: DNIVSTINVSPPAYCI Reverse: ANTIOCH. 58 ANTX Nos. 130 The same, but officina r, crescent: u 1 3 1 Cross above head on obverse ; inscr. reads : DNIVSTIN YISPPAYCI officina illegible; crescent: u 132 Bust r., as on No. 34; around: DN 1 VSTINVSPPAVCS Reverse'. ANTI X 133 The same, but officina r, crescent: C 134— 135 „ „ (illegible) crescent: u 136 Bust r., as on No. 34; around: DNIVSTI NVSPPAVG Reverse: NIKM NICOMEDIA. 137-138 The same, but officina & {Obverse inscr. ends PPAV on No. 137, and PPA on No. 138.) 1 3 9- 1 40 Bust r., as on No. 34, but with cross above head; around: DNIVSTI NVSPPAVG Reverse: * NIKM 14 1 The same, but officina & 142 „ „ (illegible). Justin I and Justinian I. a.d. 527. Constantinople. 143 Bust of Justin I r., as on No. 34; around: DNIVSTIN€IVfST]INIANPPAVG Reverse: * CON 59 Nos. 144 The same, but officina € (Star: X). 145 Bust r. and inscription as on No. 143. Reverse: CON * Justinian I. a.d. 527-565. 146-152 Bust r. wearing ANVSPP 4 VG CONSTANTINOPLE. diadem and military dress; around: DN I VS TIN I Reverse : CON 153— 164 The same, but officina & (On No. 164, illegible). 165-169 „ ,, r 170-182 „ „ A 183-192 „ » (illegible). (Obverse inscr. ends PPAV on Nos. 148, 1 5 2 > 1 5 ^> I 57 > it continues round the head without a break on No. 156; it reads: DNIVSTINI ANIVSPPAV on No. 166. The reverses of Nos. 163 and 164 show, on r., a cross on globe. On some coins the stars are: X or ^.) 193-198 Bust r. and inscription, as on No. 146. Reverse : CON 199-202 Bust r. and inscription, as on No. 146. Reverse: * C CON (Cross above head, on obverses of Nos. 200-202. Officina illegible on No. 202.; 60 Nos. 203-207 Bust r. and inscription, as on No. 146. Reverse : t ^ T CON (Mark of officina and mint name retrograde on No. 205 ; officina illegible on Nos. 206 and 207.) ANTIOCH. 208 Bust r., as on No. 146; around: DNI VSTINI AVNSPPAVC (sic.) Reverse : ANTIX 209 The same, but inscr. : 210 211 212 » 5 ) 33 3 ) [D]N I V STI N I 4..PPAVG officina DNIVSTINI 4VSPP4VG (sic) „ DNI VSTINI 4NVSPP4VG „ PNIYSTINIANYSPPA.CS „ (on reverse, long cross.) 213 Bust r., as on No. 146; around: DNI VSTI - - SPPAVG A r A A Reverse : -M, A[NT]lX (Cross above absent or obliterated; officina illegible.) 214-224 Bust r. and inscription, as on No. 146. Reverse : •tfl* + THCqP + 225-227 The same, but officina 228-231 „ „ & r Nos. (Obverse inscr. reads: DNIVSTINI AVNSPPAYC on No. 224; Obverse inscr. reads : DNISTINI . VSPPAYS on No. 231 ; and ends: AV on No. 215; the reverses of Nos. 2x4, 216, 231, and 232 have long crosses.) NICOMEDIA. 235 Bust facing in military dress; r. hand holding cross on globe; in field r., a cross; around: DNIVSTINI ANVSPPAVI. Reverse: NIKO (Same obverse die as PI. VII, No. 3.) 236-237 Bust r., as on No. 146; around: DNIVSTINIANVSPPAVG Reverse : NIKM (Cross above absent or obliterated.) 238 Bustr.,asonNo. 146 but with cross above forehead; around:— l[A]NVSPP A VG Reverse'. NIKM 239-240 Bust r., as on No. 146; around: DNIVSTINIA NVSPNVG (sic) on (No. 239). - - NIANVSPA/G (on No. 240). Reverse: 62 NIKM Nos. Justin II. a.d. 565-578. 241 Justin II and Sophia seated to front on throne, between them cross on globe; around: VTHN - Reverse : ANTIOCH. each holding sceptre; THeUP' (Year 7 = a.d. 571/2.) Tiberius II. a.d. 574-582. Constantinople. 242 Bust facing, wearing crown having cross above and consular dress; in 1 . hand, sceptre with cross; in r., mappa; around: "DIDTlbco NTANTPPAV Reverse : + CONB 243 244 245 246 The following (Nos. 243-246) differ only in inscriptions, officinae and dates, as shown : ■OlTlTIbCON TANTPPA CONI' year: <11 (inscr. obscure.) CON A ,, „ TDfDTlb- TANTPPAVC conc „ „ (Sceptre with small banner ?) <i QITBCONS TA - - PP A CON A „ II ANTIOCH. 247 Bust facing, as on No. 242, but plumes instead of cross on crown, and sceptre with eagle; around: niTNOCto AITANPPIV Reverse : T THOIPS The following (Nos. 248-274) differ only as shown: 248 - OCI v> <\> ITNTATIPP - 249 T>(TVriNOCT<v — (in ex., TH€MPO). 250 niTATO - - - AITIPPV 251 - - TINOC^ « TIANTAPPV year 1 1 1 252 (inscr. obscure.) 5 ) 3 > 253 riNTITI-n. - - NPPOV 3 > 3 ) 254 - AITIOCw - - PPV 33 33 63 Nos. *ss -- TIOC </5 year 111 . 256 OHITITOO OITITAPP 35 33 257 - AITIT - - 33 33 258 oriAmoc</> (0 ITITAITPPV 3 ) 33 259 riTAN - - co AITNAqqiV 33 II II 260 OrilATNCO</> to NAITAPPIV 33 33 261 - - APPV 33 33 262 - - c 8 A 0 ITAPPV 33 33 263 riNAITN-n- ■n.ATAITAPPV 33 M 264 OnAINOC-n. ■alTNTAPPV 33 33 265 vnTISCONS TANTPPVit 33 33 266 OniTINOC^ colATA - - 33 33 267 - - oc<« ITAI AT APPV 33 <1 268 ffTIBCONcn T ANTPPVcr 33 33 269 0 - - <0 IT . T APPV 33 M U 270 n ITNC to ITI ATAPPIV 33 33 271 ■DmiTICO<? STA - - 33 <\ II 272 nNT - - co IAT - - 33 III 11 273 ■OmTIbCON STA - - 33 33 274 TimTIUCONS T ANPPAVI 33 <4 1111 NICOMEDIA. 275 Bust facing, as on No. 242, but sceptre bearing small banner; around: - - Tlb€ - - ANTPPA/C Reverse : + im- NIKOA 276 The same, but inscr. : - - - NTPPA/ officina B 277 » „ -ONI TAN-- „ A Maurice Tiberius, a.d. 582-602. Constantinople. 278 Bust facing, wearing helmet with cross and military dress; in r. hand, cross on globe; around: DNTIbGR mAVPPA Reverse: . _ ^ O I A 64 CON Nos. The following (Nos. 279-284) differ in inscriptions, officinae and dates, as shown. 279 DN(T) - RCPPAVC 280 ONQHVR Tlb€RPPA/ (Plume, instead of cross, above helmet.) 281 ONffiAV Tlb€RPPS (Plume.) 282 DN^AVRI - - (Plume.) 283 DNCHAVR -RIPPAVS 284 DNmAVRIC TlbCRPP A (Plume.) officina: € year: II 33 r „ <ii „ B year: Jj 3> A 33 33 A B 33 >3 M ll Phocas. A.D. 601-6 IO. ANTIOCH. 285 Bust facing, wearing crown with cross above and consular dress ; in 1 . hand, sceptre with eagle; in r. mappa; around: DNpOCA - - Reverse'. d 1 rHeup 286 The same, but inscr. : - FOCA X€P€AV Heraclius. a.d. 610-641. Constantinople. 287 Bust facing, wearing helmet with plumes and military dress; in r. hand, cross on globe: around: DN . . RA CLIOSPPAV Reverse : II CON (Year 2, the latest in the hoard, = a.d. 61 i /12.) ni co media. 288 Bust facing, as on No. 287, but helmet with cross instead of plumes; around: DUvCRAC LI08PPAVC Reverse: itfl NIKO 289-325 Legends and types mainly obliterated; all have the reverse type M and the majority belong to Justin I or Justinian, mint of Constantinople. 65 TABLE OF SIZES AND WEIGHTS BHil MEM No . Size. (mm) Weight . (s™) No. Size . (mm.) Weight . (grm) I BessS! 18*1 6 49 3 ° 14-98 97 29 I 3-58 2 31 15-99 5 ° 28 18-06 98 3 ° 15*01 3 3 1 16-23 5 i 3 2 17-20 99 3 2 14-87 4 33 15-94 52 3 ° 14-92 100 31 I2-4I 5 3 2 16-95 53 3 2 15-10 101 3 i 15-85 6 36 17-97 54 3 ° 15-39 102 3 2 15-43 7 34 15-41 55 32 13-96 IO3 32 14-79 8 32 16*76 56 3 ° 17-20 I04 3 2 16*57 9 33 16-23 57 3 i 17-28 105 3 i 14*88 IO 31 14-82 58 3 ° 15-57 106 27 I 4 *l 6 ii 32 15-89 59 3 ° 13-60 I07 29 13-75 12 35 18-43 60 3 ° 19-32 I08 3 2 l6*52 13 37 17-20 6 r 3 ° 14-60 IO9 3 i 1577 14 34 - 1577 62 3 ° 16.47 no 30 13-74 15 32 i 5 ,3[ 3 63 31 17-80 III 3 ° 17-09 16 33 17-55 64 31 15-04 1 1 2 3 ° 16-14 17 3 * 14-51 65 29 I 5-12 ”3 31 15*68 x8 32 1574 66 3° 16*84 114 31 I4-28 19 3 2 1170 67 3 ° 13-93 115 3 ° 15-06 20 3 1 14-13 68 31 16-39 116 29 1573 21 33 15-69 69 29 14-20 n 7 3 i I 5-34 22 33 16-27 70 3° 16-91 118 3 2 13-41 23 32 16-01 71 31 17-32 119 29 15-00 24 32 17*18 72 32 16-84 120 28 12-97 25 33 12-65 73 29 13-83 121 3° 13-05 26 3 2 13-80 74 29 16-32 122 29 ”•53 27 33 15-35 75 32 17-17 123 31 1973 28 33 14-49 76 3 ° 17-22 124 33 17-21 29 37 18-11 77 32 17-07 * 2 5 33 16-93 3 ° 36 16-85 78 33 17-39 126 31 15-21 3 * 37 1 6-44 79 3 ° 14-56 127 31 16-57 32 35 1675 80 3 i 13-89 128 32 14-30 33 33 15-03 81 29 15-45 129 34 13-42 34 3 i 17-08 82 29 14*28 13° 32 14-88 35 30 12-53 83 3 i 14-96 131 3° 14-92 36 29 15-17 84 32 14-42 13 2 37 14-12 37 3 i 16-63 85 33 1470 31 15-82 38 3 i 16-23 86 3 ° 9-86 i 34 29 1576 39 3 i 16-23 87 3 ° 14-24 i 35 32 15-62 40 29 15-68 88 32 15-88 136 32 15-94 4 i 30 15-97 89 3i 12-76 137 32 14-86 42 29 14-86 90 28 15-59 138 3° 13-86 43 2 9 14-50 9i 29 14-52 139 3° 14-96 44 30 16-78 92 3° 15-59 140 3° I5-83 45 29 15-12 93 33 14-22 141 32 14-36 46 30 17-46 94 29 u -86 142 3 1 15-04 47 28 16-57 95 3° 15-08 143 32 13 - 3 ° 48 32 H-44 96 30 14-48 144 3i 16-17 66 TABLE OF SIZES AND WEIGHTS No. Size. ( mm .) Weight. <>«•) No. Size. (mm.) Weight. (£"»•) No. Size. (mm.) Weight . (g™-) H 5 3 ° 18*16 193 3 ° 15-65 241 34 15-67 146 32 16*16 194 3 ° I5*62 242 3 i 12-95 1+7 3 ° 16*72 x 95 31 l6*I3 243 30 I 3*03 148 29 16-37 I96 30 15-53 244 29 11-83 149 3 ° l6‘29 197 30 l6*24 245 29 12*82 150 29 14-89 I98 32 i6*ii 246 30 12-74 151 28 1 8-1 1 x 99 3 2 15-47 247 30 II*84 152 29 13-87 200 29 14-39 248 28 12*06 153 28 16-94 201 29 17-27 249 30 I2*8o 154 29 i 7'35 202 3 i 15*66 250 3° 11*82 155 29 I5’06 203 30 15-29 251 30 10*91 156 32 14*93 204 30 16-44 252 30 11-51 157 3 ° 15-73 205 32 I 4 - 3 I 253 28 12*70 158 32 l8*58 206 3 ° 16*00 254 30 12*56 159 29 15*86 207 30 14-52 2 55 28 12*13 160 28 I5*06 208 35 13-08 25 6 29 12*28 161 3 i 1 6-35 209 3 2 15-98 257 27 11*48 162 3 i 14-85 210 3 2 14*19 258 29 12*01 163 29 16*67 21 1 3 i 12-57 259 30 13*20 164 3 ° 15*86 212 33 I4*l6 260 29 12*01 165 3 ° 15*10 213 3 i x 5-55 261 29 I 2 *i 8 166 30 18*22 214 3 i 14-51 262 30 12-85 167 30 1 8-22 2 IJ 30 12*22 26 3 29 ir *94 168 27 I 3 -I 7 2l6 3 i 14*20 264 30 12*88 169 30 15-88 217 3 i 13-63 265 3 i 14*82 170 3 i 15-53 2l8 33 n -33 266 30 ii*6o 171 29 17-92 219 3 2 12*58 267 30 i n -74 172 2 9 I 5 - 7 I 220 30 x 3-85 268 30 13*80 17 3 3 i l8.8l 221 3 2 13*82 269 28 12*82 174 30 1572 222 3 i 13-64 270 3 i n -95 175 29 l6-28 223 30 13-57 271 3 ° 12*86 176 30 16-03 224 3 i 13-62 272 3 ° 12*20 177 30 18-03 225 3 i I 3-48 273 29 11*42 178 30 I 5 - 4 I 226 3 2 15-14 274 3 i 1276 179 30 X 7-03 22 7 3 i 14-44 275 28 12-54 180 2 9 I 5-40 228 33 15-65 276 28 11*92 181 30 I 5 - 4 I 229 30 1376 277 27 11*64 182 30 17-24 230 3 2 x 3-55 278 29 12*40 183 3 2 1670 23I 3 i I0*29 279 2 9 11*62 184 28 15-80 232 3 i 14-96 280 27 11*51 185 3 i 14-29 2 33 33 12-57 281 30 13*03 186 3 2 12-79 2 34 3 i 15*06 282 29 11*84 187 3 i 1475 235 33 1770 283 30 12*49 188 29 16-81 236 29 17*14 284 3 ° 11*29 189 3 ° 17-32 237 3 ° 18*50 285 26 8*72 190 3 ° 14-40 238 29 16*21 286 2 9 9*54 191 3 i 14-50 239 3 i 16*07 287 3 ° 12*13 192 30 15-26 240 3 ° 15-94 288 2 9 11*10 (Nos. 289-325, having principal legends and types obliterated through wear, are not shown in this Table.) 67 MINTS Constanti- nople . Antioch . Nicomedia. [Mint illegible.) Totals. Anastasius I 32 1 33 Justin I . 94 8 7 Justin I and Justinian I 3 3 Justinian I 62 27 6 95 Justin II . I 1 Tiberius II 5 28 3 36 Maurice Tiberius 7 1 I \ 7 Phocas .... 2 i 1 2 Heraclius 1 I 2 (Ruler’s name illegible) 24 I 12 37 Totals . 228 67 18 12 325 C. L. 68 s NOTE ON THE OBVERSE TYPE OF THE TETRADRACHMS OF THE SECOND REVOLT OF THE JEWS T HE type shows a structure resembling a temple-portico having four fluted columns with capitals apparently in Corinthian form and Attic bases, on podium represented by two horizontal lines connected by short verticals, the architrave being indicated by two lines, sometimes dotted. In the centre is the dotted outline of a chest, seen end- ways, showing semi-cylindrical lid, square side on which are two projecting bosses, and two short legs. The type has been identified with the screen of the Tabernacle and the Ark; 1 alternatively the columns may be intended to show the Tabernacle, as on a frag- ment of the frieze at the ancient synagogue of Caper- naum. 2 This fragment is believed to represent the (See also Pi. XXXIII. i) Tabernacle journeying in the wilderness. 3 The represen- tation apparently attempts to adapt contemporary ideas of architecture in stone to the description of the Tabernacle given in the Book of Exodus (ch. 26); it shows a small building with a barrel vaulted roof, a side having five fluted columns, with capitals and bases as on the coins, and an end consisting of a double ( ?) door with vertical panels; to conform with the barrel roof the panels end on a level with the springing and give place to a conch; the building is mounted on a wagon two wheels of which are seen. Rogers describes the chest as ‘The ark and mercy-seat symbolically repre- sented’ 4 and adds that the two dots, or projecting bosses, are the ends of the staves upon which the Ark was carried ; they could also be the rings in which the staves were inserted for carrying. The chest is of a type known in ancient Egypt from the old Kingdom onwards; 5 Egyptian chests of this type usually have single bosses at the ends. C. L. 1 Hill, British Museum Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Palestine, p. 284; also pp. cv f., citing Rogers, Num. Chron., 1911, pp. 205 ff. 2 Kohl and Watzinger, Antike Synagogen in Galilaea , 1916, p. 34 ) Fig- 68; also Orfali, Caphar- naum et ses ruines, Paris, Picard, 1922, p. 36, Fig. 52. 3 Kohl and Watzinger (p. 194) describe it as the ceremonial coach of the Patriarch in Galilee, in the form of a Roman carucca. 4 Num. Chron., 1911, p. 205. 5 Cf. Blackman, The Rock Tombs of Meir, Pt. IV, PI. XIX, 2, — North Burial Chamber : — W est Wall of Recess — chest in row 1. Also Carter and Mace, The Tomb of Tut Ankh Amen, Vol. I, PL XXI and PI. LVIII. K 69 M. 14 mm. 1-42 grm. M. 13 mm. 2-09 grm. &. 14 mm. 1 grm. (a) JE. 16 mm. i- 6 y grm. COINS IN THE PALESTINE MUSEUM ( Local varieties , unpublished or little known . ) Seleucid. Head of Alexander Balas r. wearing diadem ; dotted border. \ Reverse'. Aphlaston; on 1 . and r., upwards in four lines : SEP BASI AAEZ ASK dotted border. (C. 39.) PI. XXXVII, No. 1 Struck at Ascalon and dated year 1 66 of the Seleucid era (= 1 47/6 b.c.) Maccabaean. Inscription in wreath: ft 3 a/ HUB (- I - pnvr) - 1 - f Reverse: Double cornucopiae and poppy-head; dotted border. (C. 597.) ^ / ' PI. XXXVII, No. 2. John Hyrcanus I (?). The inscription is practically limited to the name; the characters are bigger than usual and were (apparently) unfamiliar to the die engraver. The reverse is well executed. Herodian. Inscription: BACIA £YCH [P£l]AHC dotted border. \Reverse : Anchor, in a wreath. (C. 354.) PI. XXXVII, No. 3. The inscription is almost complete but the form of the omega is not clear. Madden 1 published specimens on which the name was missing and attributed them to Herod I. Roman Procurators in Judaea. Wreath containing : 1 0 Y AIA dotted border. 70 1 Madden, Coins of the Jews (1881), p. 1 13, No. 21. \ Reverse: Two cornucopiae, crossed, with caduceus between; above, traces of: [TlB€PIOY] in field, 1. and r.: L T dotted border. (70-1) PI. XXXVII, No. 4. (b) EL. Wreath containing: KAI 15 mm. dotted border. CAP 1 81 grm. jR everse ; Three lilies ; in field, 1. and r. : L r dotted border. (72-1) Two coins of Valerius Gratus, dated year 3 of Tiberius (— a.d. 16-17). The types of both are well known 1 but with obverse legends inter- changed. 2 /R. Vine-branch, 3 with leaf, bunch of grapes and tendril; below, from 1. : 18 mm. Jj-hP jyw (jiycti') 3- x 7 grm. dotted border. \ Reverse: Lyre, chelys shaped, with three strings; around, from r.: /•V<F B/S 1 " nni> a b>) dotted border, (ioo-i.) PI. XXXVII, No. 7. M. 17 mm. 5-27 grm. Bunch of grapes with leaf on 1. ; around : / J f < jw=i. < } B/SW -tn^ a v) dotted border. \ Reverse: Palm-tree with two bunches of dates; across field: 01 V x 3 "‘? >> 37 m jr 3" F n a ([nan irvi’N) dotted border. (112-1.) (Second year with name of El'azar.) PI. XXXVII, No. 8. Aelia Capitolina. EL. Bust of Hadrian r. laureate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass; 22 mm. around: . C _ D n n -- AETR -- 9 g rm * dotted border. / Reverse : Head of Jupiter Capitolinus (? with horns of Ammon) r.; around: __ cap dotted border. (i66(i> 1.) PI. XXXVII, No. 9. 1 Hill, British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins , Palestine, pp. 252 f. 2 KAI CAP is usually found on (< 2 ) and I OY A I A on (£), but an example of the latter with KAI CAP is recorded by de Saulcy, Num. de la Terre Sainte, PL III, No. 10. 3 Same obverse die as B.M.C., p. 291, No. 20; reverse has different form of lyre (i.e. kithara). 71 M. 29 mm. 16-14 grm M. 25 mm. 14-94 gr ™ m. 28 mm. 19-68 grm, M. 25 mm. 1 5-02 grm. M. 21 mm. 7-53 grm. Bust of Antoninus Pius r. laureate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass; around: )M PANT0 NINVSAVGPPP dotted border. f Reverse: Wolf r. suckling the twins, on the base of a column inscribed: CAP above wolf: COA[E] dotted border. (176(1)- 1.) PI. XXXVII, No. 10. Bust of antoninus Pius r. laureate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass; around: imPANTON PPP dotted border. \Reverse : Wolf suckling the twins; on 1 ., Venus standing r. resting 1 . hand on a shield; on r., Mars standing 1 . resting r. hand on a rudder; above: in ex.: COL AEL CAP dotted border. (176(2)- 1.) PI. XXXVII, No. 11. Bust of commodus r. laureate; round: IMPCA --- COMMODVS dotted border. f Reverse: crispina (on I.) standing r., wearing a long garment with folds, and extending r. hand to grasp r. of Emperor (on r.) standing 1 ., wearing toga; around: CRISPINAAV iaex. : CAC dotted border. (190(1)- 1.) PI. XXXVII, No. 12. Bust of commodus r. laureate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass; around: r » - [A VR]CO MMOD -- dotted border. f Reverse : Bust of Sarapis r., wearing kalathos and draped : around : [COLAE] LCAP dotted border. (192(2)- 1.) PI. XXXVII, No. 13. Bust of elagabalus r. laureate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass; around. IMPCM AV[R]ANTONI -- dotted border. t Reverse: Bust of Sarapis, as on preceding; around: COLAELC. PCOMMPF dotted border. (201(1)- 1.) PI. XXXVII, No. 14. 72 JE. Bust of elagabalus r. laureate, as on preceding; around: 25 mm. MAV. ANTONIN - 10-09 g rm - dotted border. j Reverse: City-goddess 1 standing 1 . with r. foot placed on uncertain object, wearing turreted crown, short chiton and mantle hanging down from 1. shoulder, holding a human bust in r. hand, outstretched, and resting 1. on spear ; around : COLAELCAP COMMPF dotted border. (204(1)- 1.) PI. XXXVII, No. 15 M. Bust of trajan decius r. laureate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass; 27 mm. around: 11-79 grm. IMPCGMESQJRADE dotted border. f Reverse : Sarapis, 2 wearing kalathos, seated 1 . on throne, resting 1 . hand on sceptre and holding r. over (PKerberos — obliterated by crack in flan); around: COLAEL K APCOMPF dotted border. (209(1)- x). PI. XXXVII, No. 16. Acknowledgement is due to the British Museum Catalogue for guidance in identifying and describing the types. C. L. 1 Cf. types of Trajan Decius, B.M.C . , p. 99. 2 Cf. types of Marcus Aurelius, B.M.C . , p. 88, No. 36. 73 A MEDIEVAL ARABIC DESCRIPTION OF THE HARAM OF JERUSALEM 1 (149) At a distance of forty-two ells to the west of this northern gate a platform was made, the height of which above the paved courtyard is a third of an ell. Its length from east to west is thirteen ells and a third, its width from south to north is ten ells. A domed octagonal chamber was built over it, called ‘The Dome of the Ascension’ [qubbat al-mi'raj). Its door opens to the north, it (the door) is one ell and a third in width and two ells and a third in height. On the outside of the above-mentioned domed building are thirty columns of white marble supporting the corners ( arkan ). The height of each column above the base is two ells and two-thirds. (Each) side of the octagon between the columns is covered with slabs of royal blue-veined marble. Three marble steps lead up to the door and similar (steps) down into the interior. Its floor is covered with white marble and so also are the walls on the inside, as they are on the outside. Inside there are also eighteen columns. Above the aforementioned marble there are three half-windows similar to the plaster variety called al-mukandaj , and four of glass. Above the windows is the drum of the dome. Its width from east to west is seven ells, and from south to north six ells and a quarter. The width of its prayer niche is one ell and two-thirds. It stands on the edge of the platform on the southern side. The door and the flight of steps are at the rear on the northern side; people pray on the remaining portion of the platform. (150) From the apex of the dome to the floor is sixteen ells. Outside, on the top, is a fine cupola in the place of the crescent, supported by six small marble ‘waxen’ columns, each about an ell high. From the west door to the top of the arches, which are opposite it at the far end of the court of the Dome of the Rock on the western side is eighteen ells and two-thirds. There are four arches springing from three columns of blue design, and two pillars. From these arches one descends by twenty- four steps into the Haram. It is eighty-five ells and a third from the edge of this flight of steps to the western wall — the one in which is the new gate, known at present as the Gate of the Bazaar [bab al-qalsariyyd ) ; also the Gate of Ablutions ( bab al-mida a), and all the other western gates, which will be described, if God wills, when the Gates of the Haram are mentioned. On this court appear seven cisterns, and over the mouth of each is a well- 1 Continued from No. 1, pp. 44-51. 74 head of marble or dressed stone. There are nine openings to the cisterns. Among them, on the southern side, a well known as the Pomegranate ( rummana ) has two openings, one in the court and the other on the lower level of the Haram, opposite the Mosque. On the eastern side are two wells, one known as the Thorn (shauk), and the other as the Rose Well {btr al-ward). The latter has two openings, both of them in the court of the Dome of the Rock. On the northern side is the well known as the ‘Door of Paradise’ ( bab al-janna ). On the western side are three wells, one known as the Goblet (kas) because there is a tall marble goblet over its mouth, another with two openings in the court, and another with a single mouth. (151) Having mentioned the cisterns of the court we will now mention the cisterns in the lower level of the Haram and say (that): In the lower part of the Haram are fifteen cisterns, six on the southern side, one near the Monastery of Fakhr ad-din {zawiya Fakhriyya ), one at the gate of the Mosque, one inside the eastern gate of the Mosque, called the Well of the Leaf {btr al-waraqa) which has two openings, one inside the gate of the Mosque and another one where the carpentry work of the Haram is done, the Black Well ( al-btr al-aswad) with three openings through one of which one descends by steps, a cistern known as the ‘Little Sea’ {al-buhaira) with two openings, and a cistern in the garden near the Eastern Gate which has two openings, one in the garden and the other outside. On the eastern side are three cisterns, one near the Gate of Mercy ( bab ar- rahma= Golden Gate) with two openings. On the northern side there are three cisterns, the Well of the Pool of the Children of Israel {btr birkat Barit Isratl), a cistern at the Gate of the Honour of the Prophets, and a cistern in the portico above which is the Monastery of the Levite {zawiyat al-Larn ), and the Monastery {khanqah) of al-Is'ardl. On the western side there are three cisterns, one in the Gate of the Banu Ghanim {bab al-Ghawanimeh ), another at the Gate of the Monastery of al-Mansur {bab ar-ribat al-mansurt) with two openings, one in the garden and the other outside. The latter is known as the cistern of Ibn 'Urwah, and a cistern at the Iron Gate {bab al-hadtd) covered by the mats of the porticoes. These twenty-two cisterns are full of water. Besides these there are also three ruined and abandoned cisterns. One at the steps of the Balance, and another at the prayer-niche of 'Umar, and a third one under the olive-tree on the eastern side of the Haram. (152) We have exhausted now the description of the Court of the Dome of the Rock and its contents. 75 We shall mention what there is inside the Haram by way of Mosques, places of pilgrimage, buildings, and the rest. Let us now begin by mentioning the Wall surrounding the whole of it. Description of the southern wall and of the Mosques and other Buildings adjacent to it. This wall begins on the western side with a platform the length of which, measured from the prayer-niche northwards is six ells, and the width six and a half. In front is a prayer-niche, next to it on its eastern side is the door of the Zawiya Fakhriyya, and the door of the Zawiya Fakhriyya is followed on the eastern side by a platform ten and a quarter ells (long), three and a half wide. Next to this platform is the door of the Jami' al-Magharibe. The length of the Jami' al-Magharibe from its prayer-niche to the end of the corridor is thirty-one and a half ells, and its width eleven and a half. It has a fine prayer-niche resting on two fine columns of marble. Between the out- side of the wall of this prayer-niche and the wall of the Jami' an-Nisa 5 there is a projection into the Zawiya Fakhriyya which adjoins it. The length of the portico (of the Mosque) is eleven ells and two-thirds, and its width four and two-thirds. On the inside of its eastern wall is a fine platform one ell and a half wide, eight ells and a half and a quarter and an eighth long. In the thickness of the wall are fine cupboards for lamps and objects belonging to the guardians. It has one door opening to the north, four ells in width and five in height. (i 53) We have used the expression Jami' al-Magharibe because this name is the most commonly used. Had we said Masjid al-Magharibe the people of Jerusalem would not have understood it; this is also the case with the Jami an-Nisa 5 . None of these are Jami's in which sermons are delivered, but each has a single Imam who conducts the five prayers there and nothing else. At the side of the Jami' al-Magharibe there is a large open space, and beyond that the Jami' an-Nisa 5 . The length of the latter from east to west is sixty-two ells and a half, and its width from south to north twenty-two ells and two-thirds. It consists of two aisles, the ceilings of which are made up of twelve vaults, each aisle has six vaults carried in the middle by six supports; in its facade there are five windows. The width of the first window is two ells and a half, and its depth in the wall three ells, which is the width of the whole wall at this place, its height is three ells and two-thirds. All the other windows are smaller. In its western wall there is a window opening on to the Magharibe Quarter. The door of this Mosque opens to the north, on each side are four twisted columns of white marble, their height above the base is two ells less a quarter. 76 In front of it there are two great walnut-trees, beneath them is a platform on which people pray. One enters (the Mosque) through the aforesaid gate and descends five steps to the above-mentioned aisles. At a distance of twenty-seven ells to the east of the Jami' an-Nisa’ is the western door of the Mosque known now as the Jami' al-Aqsa. (154) Description oj the Eastern Wall. It has been mentioned that in the corner of the southern wall is the Cradle of Jesus, Peace be upon Him; to the north is a portico of six vaults, the platforms (mastaba) of which, belonging to ancient structures, have been destroyed. Portions of its floor are covered with mosaics. It is forty-three ells in length and to the south is an open space extending as far as the Cradle of Jesus. To the north of this portico, at a distance of three hundred ells, is the Mosque of the Gateof Mercy. Its length from east to west is thirty ells, and itswidthfrom south to north fourteen ells and a half. The width of its prayer-niche is three ells and a quarter. A single Imam prays there. (The Mosque) is vaulted with dressed stone so as to form six domes, two high ones and four saucer ones (resting) on two central columns of white flint and two central piers, the length of each column being eleven ells, and its circumference four ells and a half. This Mosque occupies the inner space between the two gates called ‘The Gate of Mercy’. These are two old gates. They have been blocked up. On both of them (hang) two leaves of wood covered on the outside with iron, each of them eleven ells high and six ells and a half wide. Behind each are two doors of the same description, except that they are covered with yellow ornamented copper. Both of them have been nailed to and cunningly locked. It is said that they are remains of Solomonic buildings. They have been called ‘The Gates of Mercy’. At the end of the eastern wall there is a portico sixteen ells and a half in length from south to north, seven and one-third from east to west. It is followed at the beginning of the northern wall by the ‘Gate of the Tribes’, if God wills, this will be mentioned later. (155) In this eastern wall there is no gate at present through which the Haram is entered, nor was there any in olden times, except the two above- mentioned gates. It is said that 'Umar b. al-Khattab, may God be satisfied with him, locked both of them when he conquered Jerusalem. They have not been opened up to the present. People have taken (land) outside this wall for a cemetery in which to bury their dead. The tomb of Shaddad b. Aus is there. By the above-mentioned cemetery is a deep valley known as the Wadi 77 L Jahannam, it is cultivated and there are vineyards and gardens. There is a road from there to a spring. In (this valley) are wonderful buildings and strange monuments, sculpture, and ancient places of worship. It is a pious foundation for the benefit of the Madrasa Salahiyya. The eastern limit of this Wadi is the Mount of Olives, of which it is said that from it God the Exalted raised Jesus, Peace be upon Him (into heaven). The Tomb of Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya is there, it is visited for a purpose. Between the eastern wall and the court of the Dome of the Rock are trees, olive, celtis, mulberry, and fig. There are about one hundred trees. People sit in their shade and pray. • • ■ • • * * * » • (157) Description of the Northern Wall and there are several Gates therein. The first of them is on the eastern side, a gate called the ‘Gate of the Tribes.’ Adjoining it is the above-mentioned portico which forms the end of the eastern wall, the height of this gate is five ells, and its width three ells plus a half, plus a quarter, plus one-eighth. On the western side adjacent to this gate is a vaulted portico having ten piers. Its length is seventy-two ells, and its width eight. Its facade has four windows overlooking the Birkat Ban! Isra’ll, an ancient and deep pool. Adjacent to this portico is an open space through part of which flows water to the Birkat Ban! Isra’ll. Part of it is an open space upon which it was intended to build porticoes, but up till now they have not been finished. Its length is seventy-four ells. Adjacent to this land is the Karimiyya School. The porticoes in front of it have two walls, west and east, two arbours were made in front of it. The length of this school is twenty-five ells from east to west. In front of these porticoes a platform was made which one ascends by four steps which project into the Haram. Its length from south to north is sixteen ells. This school was built by Karim ad-din 'Abd al-Karlm, Keeper of the Privy Purse of Sultan an-Nasir. Adjacent to the school is a gate called Bab Hitta, its width is four ells and two-thirds, and its height eight ells. In front of it is a walk ( I 5^) P ave d with flag-stones, it is one hundred and seventy-eight ells in length, and five ells and a little more in width. From the end one goes up by steps to the three arches on two marble columns and two piers. Through these one enters the court of the Dome of the Rock. On either side of the gate (Bab Hitta) are two fine benches, each two ells wide, the eastern one abutting on the above-mentioned Karimiyya School and the western one adjacent to a portico seventy-two ells long and of the width mentioned above. 78 In its wall there are three windows of the monastery [rib at) of 'Alam ad-din ad-Dawadar. Commencing from the east there is a window facing the mausoleum of (al-Malik) al-Auhad the Ayyubid. Abutting on this portico is a gate known as the ‘Gate of the Honour of the Prophets’ (bab sharaj al-anbiya ). It is eight ells long and four wide. In front of the latter there is a walk similar to the one mentioned above. This was also mentioned before. Abutting on this gate is a vaulted portico forty-seven ells long, seven ells and a half wide having eight piers. At the beginning of it there are two windows, one of them open, through which is reached the monastery of the Vizier Amin ad-din, known as Amin al-Mulk. Adjacent to both of them is a gate through which the Monastery of the Levite is entered. Adjacent to the gate is a platform with a cistern. This portico is adjoined on the west by another having two vaults resting on three piers. It is nineteen ells and a half long and nine ells wide from north to south. Nowadays a few women here say the five prayers behind the Imam. ( 1 59) Above this portico is the school of the Amir Saif ad-din al-Hajj Al- Malik, the polo-master, and the monastery of Majd ad-din al-Is'ardi, the merchant. At its beginning, near the cistern already mentioned, steps lead to the school and monastery mentioned above. Adjacent to this portico is an open space on which there are no porticoes, it is in the shape of a high platform through the middle of which one goes down by six steps to the Haram. At the highest point of this wall there are five windows of the school of the Amir 'Alam ad-din Sanjar al-Jawli, may God have mercy upon him. There is no way from it to the Haram, and at the end of this open space towards the west there are two cells, each having a door opening to the south to the Haram. The interior of both is entirely inside the northern wall, and they are (cut in) the solid rock like caves, it is said that they were known of old as the Cave of Abraham. In the eastern one (of the two cells) is a fine window, and at the side of these two cells is the cell of the Shaikh of the Haram with two windows facing the Haram. It is sixteen ells long and opposite to it is a plat- form of the same length, and four ells and a third in width. Above this cell is another cell to which one ascends by a flight of seven steps to the edge of the door opening to the east. Adjacent is a portico with two arches, fifteen ells in length from west to east, and nine and a half in width. Next to it is a very long staircase from the top of which a minaret is ascended as well as a house belonging to the Banu Jama'a family. This minaret is at the farthest point of the western wall, it 79 is fifty-three ells high. In its upper part there are carved wooden railings, (the minaret) is crowned by thirty-one fine marble columns. (i 60) Description of the Western Wall. It contains seven gates including the Gate of Ablutions, which at present is not in use. Opposite each gate is a big tree, either a celtis-tree or mulberry, and under which is a platform on which people pray or sit in the shade, except in the case of the Bab al-Ghawanimeh which has nothing in front of it. The wall begins at the above-mentioned minaret. The first of the gates from this side is the Bab al-Ghawanimeh, it is four ells in length and three in width. Ten steps lead up to it from the Haram. On its northern side is a cell for the doorkeeper, projecting about five ells into the Haram. From the end of this cell to the above-mentioned minaret is thirty- five ells, and from the above-mentioned gate, at a distance of eighteen ells in a southerly direction, is a fine door leading to a cell in the thickness of the wall, where some of the devotees live. At a distance of twenty-four ells from the side of this cell, and below a house founded as a Waqf by 'Ala’ ad-din al-A'ma, is a garden with trees and vines. This man was a superintendent of the Haram with the rank of a Commander, he left some beautiful monuments in the Haram: places of assembly and buildings. The length of the garden in a northerly direction is forty-five ells, and the width a little over seven ells. From the end of the garden to the farthest point of the wall — which is the above-mentioned minaret — is an open space without porticoes. Abutting on this garden to the south is a large gate called the Gate of ar-ribat al-Mansurl, it is six ells long and five and a half wide. In front of it is a walk by which is reached the flight of steps leading to the court of the Dome of the Rock opposite the Iron Gate to be mentioned presently. (161) At the side of the above-mentioned gate, in a northerly direction, is an arch (resting) on two pillars, its length is nine ells and its width that of the garden and the other porticoes adjacent to it. This arch is the first of the arches in the Western Wall. In the thickness of the wall, which at the beginning is the thickness of the pier, a small cell was made for the guardian and the doorkeeper of the above- mentioned gate. In those days the Superintendent and his officials used to sit under this arch in order to examine the affairs (of the people). Next to the afore -mentioned gate (is a portico) the width of which is the width of the porticoes, and its length one hundred and eight ells. It spans sixteen pillars. About ten ells from 80 the beginning is the window of a hall which serves as lodgings for the Superintendent of the pious foundations of the Haram. It is a waqf of the Haram. At the end (of the portico) is a fine cell used as a living room by the guardian and as a store-room for lamps. A gate called the ‘Iron Gate’ comes next. Its height is four ells and a half, its width two and two-thirds. In front of it is a paved walk by which a flight of steps leading to the court of the Dome of the Rock is reached. Its width is twenty-three ells and a half and it has twenty-one steps. On top of it there are no arcades as on the other flights of steps. Next to this gate is a portico with eight pillars, fifty-eight ells long and equal in width to the other porticoes. At the end of it is a fine door leading to the cell of one of the devotees. Next to this portico is a big gate recently made and newly opened to which ten steps lead down, on either side of it are platforms, each seven ells long, and an ell and two-thirds wide; (162) it is well built, eight ells in height and five in width( !). It has arches ornamented on both sides with coloured stone and a band of inscription in gold engraved in the stone. Its doors are covered with fretted copper-gilt and are well built and decorated. From it the new bazaar street is reached consisting of two rows of shops, some of them pious foundations for the benefit of the Haram, and some of them for the madrasa and khanqah, both constructed by the Amir Saif ad-din Tankiz, God’s Mercy be upon him; if God wills they will be mentioned later. To the side of this gate is a portico resting on two very large piers, which is fifteen ells in length and seven ells and two-thirds in width (measured) to the far side of either pier, and five ells and a half to the near side. In its fafade is a window of a hall which is a pious foundation of the Haram. To the side of the window is a fine cell for the guardian and doorkeeper. At the side of this portico is the Gate of Ablutions, it consists of two lavatories, one for women and one for men. The lavatory for men contains twenty-three rooms and a large fountain. On the top of the lavatory for women are lodgings leased for the benefit of the pious foundations of the Haram. Four steps lead from the ground level of the Haram to the Gate of Ablutions. The height of the gate is four ells and two-thirds, its width three and an eighth. After this there are seven steps leading to a longish corridor by which one reaches the lavatory for men and the flight of steps to the upper floor of the lavatory for women. The lavatory for women is at the beginning of the corridor to the right as one enters. Adjacent to the Gate of Ablutions is a portico sixty-three ells long, and seven and a half wide, spanning nine pillars. 81 (163) Here in the thickness of the wall are two doors leading to two cells, one of them for the guardian and the other for a devotee. At the end (of the wall) on the southern side is a prayer-niche abutting on the minaret. One prayer is said there by a single Imam. Next to it is the minaret belonging to the Haram, forty-eight ells high, in its upper part are two wooden railings, it is crowned with eight fine marble columns. Adjacent to the minaret are two doors, the northern one is closed and nailed up, die minaret adjoins it. The open door is called the ‘Gate of the Chain’ (Bab as-Silsileh), it was known of old as Bab as-Sahara, it is five ells and a third wide, and eight and a half high; so is the closed one. In front of this gate is a walk by which the flight of steps to the court of the Dome of the Rock, opposite the Mu'azzamiyya, is reached, it measures seventy-seven ells and a quarter. Next to the gate is a portico spanning ten pillars, fifty-seven ells in length, and seven and a quarter in width, the height of its arch is ten ells and a half. It is similar in height to the ceilings of the other porticoes of the Haram. This portico has two windows to the Madrasa Tankiziyya, the shutters of both are of ebony and ivory; inside is the school. Above (the portico) is the Khanqah Tankiziyya. At the end is a fine door leading to the upper floor of the madrasa and the lodgings of sufis. At the end of the piers are six large granite columns. Next to this portico, on the south, is a platform one ell high, thirty-eight ells less an eighth in length from south to north, and having the same width as the above-mentioned portico. On measuring thirty-three ells from this platform you will find the ‘Gate of the Magharibe Quarter,’ it is three ells and a quarter wide, and four ells and a half high. (164) At a distance of three ells from the above-mentioned gate is a plat- form. It forms the end of the western wall and the beginning of the southern. This platform is adjacent to the Zawiya al-Fakhriyya which is at the beginning of the southern wall from the west. It has been mentioned before. Having exhausted the description of the surrounding wall we shall now mention, as we promised, what it contains besides the court of the Dome of the Rock. We will begin with what is to be found below the court of the Dome of the Rock. There are nine cells, one has been made into a storeroom for the pro- visions of the Haram, three of them are on the southern side, some of them having at their doors platforms and arbours. Here are the doors of the Portico of al-Mu'azzam, below his madrasa. It is used as a praying place for Hanbalites with a single Imam. On its eastern side there are two storerooms in which the oil of the Haram and the provisions are stored. 82 On the eastern side are four cells below the court of the Dome of the Rock, in front of the doors of some of them a garden was made and planted with trees. On the northern side are neither cells nor storerooms. On the western side are two cells, one of them has been made into a store- room for the provisions of the Haram. In it are doors leading to the Portico of al-Mu'azzam, and opposite the doors of the Portico of al-Mu'azzam, on the western side is the Qubbat Musa, Peace be upon him. It stands in front of the Bab as-Silsileh and the Portico of the Hanbalites. Between the platform on which it stands and the Bab as-Silsileh it is twenty-eight ells. The platform is twenty-four ells in length from south to north, and twenty-one ells and a half in width from east to west, and half an ell high. On the southern side of the platform is the above-mentioned Qubbeh, its length on the outside from south to north is ( 1 65) ten ells, and its width from east to west the same. The height of the drum on the outside of the platform is eight ells. Inside, this domed building contains a floor paved with marble. Its door opens to the north, its width is an ell and a half, its height two ells and two-thirds. On either side are two iron gratings, the height and width of the door. In each side (-wall) it has two iron window-gratings. On each grating hangs a pair of shutters. The dome is carried by supports, between each wall and the next is the arch of a vault. Above the drum of the dome is another drum containing five glass windows. Above the second drum is the vaulted dome, its approximate height from the top of the second drum is eight ells. It is completely without marble columns, even at the sides of the prayer-niche. Description of the Qubbat Sulaiman , Peace be upon him. This domed building is on the northern side of the Haram. It is in a line with the cistern and the flight of steps by which al-Khanqah al-Is'ardiyya and the Madrasa of Saif ad-dxn Al-Malik are reached. From the front of the cistern to the door of the Qubbeh it is forty-eight ells. The door opens to the north, it is two ells and a half high, and one ell and an eighth wide. It is flanked by two marble columns and two platforms, a right one and a left. The length of each is five ells and a quarter, and the width the same. On either side of the above-mentioned door are two windows overlooking these two platforms, the height of each is two ells and two-thirds, and the width an ell and two-thirds. The octagonal domed building is entered by this door, all sides of the octagon are blocked. There are twenty-four marble columns, each column is two ells and a half high above its base. In each of the eight blocked octagonal sides 8 3 (166) are four columns carrying the marble slabs which is (part) of the arch of the arcades. The prayer-niche is flanked by two fine columns, each of them an ell and a half high. At the end of the columns, that is, at the end of the drum of the dome, there are glass windows in the circumference (of the drum). The dome is six ells and a half in diameter. The height from the apex of the dome to the ground is twenty ells. To the right of the (man) praying, at the prayer-niche, is a small piece of rock two ells and a quarter long, from the southern side an ell wide, from the northern one two-thirds of an ell. Visitors pray at it. It is said that it is one of the (structural) remains of Solomon and that a prayer (said) there is answered. On the outside of the southern wall of this domed building are two marble columns. These two columns complete the thirty columns which are in this domed building. Description oj the meeting-place built by Solomon , Peace be upon him , novo called Solomon's Stable. The Vizier Taj ad-din said: this meeting-house is built more wonderfully and more solidly than the Mosque above. Inside the Khanqah Salahiyya (which is near the pulpit for preaching, where a shaikh at present resides, known as al-Khatnl, after whom it is now called) there are two flights of steps, one of thirty-six steps leading down to part of the above-mentioned meeting- house, and another of fifty-four steps leading down to the remaining part of the above-mentioned meeting-house. He said: The place has much light because of the many apertures and cleverly built windows which have been made in it. It consists of porticoes, the vaults of which are carried by columns of flint and pillars. The width of these aisles is from south to north, some of them are eight ells wide, others are nine, (167) others ten. The height of the vaults, from the ground on which the doors are to the top of the Wadi of 'Ain Silwan, is in parts approximately twenty ells high and in parts approximately fifteen. It is said that through one of these gates the Prophets used to enter. In one of its piers is a ring to which, it is said, Buraq was tethered during the night-journey. All these porticoes run from east to west; some of them, being accessible, made the measuring of their length possible, it was approximately ninety-three ells; some of them could not be measured as their length was divided by walls; some of them are, in our time, filled with dust; some of them are storerooms, and some of them are lodgings and accessories for the inhabitants of the above-mentioned Khanqah. 84 He said: Language is too poor to exhaust the description of this meeting- house, but places to which access can be gained, and projecting parts which could be reached by walking, indicate that the building {buq'd) called the Jami' (i.e. the Masjid al-Aqsa), now the place of the (Friday) Sermon, and the Jami' an-Nisa’, as well as most of the walks in the Haram and the trees planted there, are all over these arches and piers. I said: I entered some of these places and I saw there wonderful buildings, enough to fill the eye. I entered them through the Zawiya, known as the Lodgings of al-Khutnl, and then passed on to the vineyards and (the place) outside the Mosque. Translated by L. A. M. {To be continued.') M 85 CONCISE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EXCAVATIONS IN PALESTINE AS implied by the title, this bibliography includes accounts of spade-work l\only. Exploration without actual digging is excluded. It is, however, not confined to excavations conducted by scholars on behalf of scientific institutions, but includes also references to the results of illicit digging by peasants or dealers and their agents. Experience has shown that, useful as a full bibliography is, an absolutely complete bibliography in most cases lacks lucidity. We have therefore ex- cluded all works of popular character where scientific reports are available, all reviews, all articles devoted to single objects found in excavations (such as the many articles about the main inscription of 'Ein Duk, or the inscription on an ossuary from Bethphage), and, last but not least, summaries, which (very useful as they mostly are, if published during or a short time after the field-work) would be of little value in a work like this. The spelling of names of sites is based on the transliteration system adopted by the Government. For the sake of convenience an index giving the names of sites in other spellings will follow. Names of sites with which English readers are well acquainted either from the Bible or from current works of history, e.g. Bethlehem, Jericho, Carmel, Tiberias, are given in their Europeanized form only. For the years 1 895-1924 the compiler acknowledges his great indebtedness to the Palastina-Literatur of Professor Peter Thomsen. ABU GHOSH Excavations conducted by the Abbe Moreau in 1901 . Moreau (Adolphe): Memoire sur les fouilles d'Abou-Gosch (Palestine). Sens, XVI, 34 pp., Front., 7 Pis. Casual discoveries made by the Sisters of St. Joseph in 1906. Germer-Durand, J.: ‘Decouvertes archdologiques a Aboughoch’ (in RB> 1906), pp. 286 f., illus. Casual discovery by school-children in 1920. Abel, F. M.: ‘Ddcouverte d’un tombeau antique a Abou Gh6ch (in RB, 1921), pp. 97-102, Pis. I, II, 3 Figs. Casual discovery by Benedictine Fathers in 1923. Abel, F. M.: ‘Deux tombeaux a meule k Abou Ghoch’ (in RB, 1925), pp. 275-9, PI. XIII, Figs. 5, 6. ASCALON Excavations conducted by the British School of Archaeology , Jerusalem , on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1920-2. 86 [i] Garstang, John : ‘The Fund’s Excavation of Askalon’ (in QSt., 53, 1921), pp. 1 2-1 6, Pis. I— III. : ‘The Excavation of Askalon, 1920-1’ (in QSt., 1921), pp. 73-5, Pis. I-II. : ‘Askalon Reports. The Philistine Problem’ (in QSt., 1921), pp. 162 f. Phythian-Adams, W. J. : ‘Askalon Reports. Stratigraphical Sections’ (in QSt., 1 921), pp. 163-9, 1 PI. Garstang, John: ‘The Excavations at Askalon' (in QSt., 1922), pp. 1 12-19, Pis. Phythian-Adams, W. J. : ‘Report on the Stratification of Askalon’ (in QSt., 1923), pp. 60-84, Pis- 1 — IV, Figs. 1-4. " Garstang, John: ‘Askalon’ (in QSt., 1924), pp. 24-35, ^ s - I-HI, Figs. 1-5. 'auja el hap!r Cleared in 19x3-16. Hansler, Heinrich: ‘Audscha el Hafir’ (in HL, July 1916), pp. 155-64, illus. : ‘Nachtrag zu Audscha el Hafir’ (in HL, Oct. 1 9 1 6), pp. 1 8 9-203, illus. balata Excavations carried out by the Vienna Academy of Science in 1913 114, by the Vorderasiatisch- agyptische Gesellschaft in 1926 [y, and the Archaeological Institute of the German State (for the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft) since 1928. Sellin, Ernst: ‘Vorlaufiger Bericht liber die diesjahrige Frtihjahrskampagne der Ausgrabungen in Balata-Sichem’ (i riAnzAWW, 1914), No. 7, pp. 35-40, and No. 1 8, pp. 3-6 (of the offprint). : ‘Die Ausgrabung von Sichem. Kurze vorlaufige Mitteilung liber die Arbeit im Friihjahr 1926’ (in ZDPV, Vol. 49, 1926), pp. 229-36, Pis. 29-31. : ‘Die Ausgrabung von Sichem. Kurze vorlaufige Mitteilung liber die Arbeit im Sommer 1926’ (in ZDPV, Vol. 49, 1926), pp. 304-20, Pis. 32-43. Bohl, Franz M. Th.: ‘Die bei den Ausgrabungen von Sichem gefundenen Keil- schrifttafeln’ (in ZDPV, Vol. 49, 1926), pp. 321—7, Pis. 44—6. Bohl, F. M. Th.: ‘De Geschiedenis der Stad Sichem en de opgravingen aldaar’ (in Mededeelingen der K. Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, Afd. Letterkunde Deel 62, Serie B, No. 1, 1926), pp. 1-24, 5 Pis. : De opgraving van Sichem. Bericht over de voorjaarscampagne en de zomer- campagne in 1926. Zeist, 1 927, 40 pp., 4 Pis. Sellin, E.: ‘Die Ausgrabung von Sichem. Kurze vorlaufige Mitteilung fiber die Arbeit im Friihjahr 1927’ (in ZDPV, Vol. 50, 1927), pp. 205-11, Pis. 11-21. _ : ‘Die Ausgrabung von Sichem. Kurze vorlaufige Mitteilung liber die Arbeit im Sommer 1927’ (in ZDPV, Vol. 50, 1927), pp. 265— 74, Pis. 22—30. Welter, Gabriel: ‘Deutsche Ausgrabungen in Palfistina I’ (in Forschungen und Fort- schritte, Vol. IV, 1 November 1928, No. 31), pp. 317 f., 2 Figs. BATN EL HAWA Casual discoveries in 1904. V[incent], H.: ‘Nouvelles de Jerusalem’ (in RB, 1904), p. 430. : ‘Fouilles diverses en Palestine’ (in RB, 1904), pp. 590 f., 2 Figs. [ 2 ] 87 Casual discovery, excavated by the Ecole Biblique et Archeologique Frangaise in ig22 . Abel, Fr. M.: ‘Jerusalem: Tombeau a Batn el-Hawa’ (in RB, 1923), pp. 108-11, Figs. 1,2. battIr Casual discovery in ig og. Vincent, H.: ‘Une mosaique byzantine k Bettir’ (in RB, 1910), pp. 254-61, Pis. I, II, illus. Sejournd, P.-M.: ‘Une mosaique avec inscriptions grecques trouvee k Bettir pres de Jerusalem’ (in CAIBL, 1909), pp. 975-8) 2 Pis. BEISAN Excavations conducted by the Pennsylvania University Museum since igsi. Fisher, Clarence S.: ‘Beth-Sean’ (in MJ, 13, 1922), pp. 32-45, ill. _ : ‘Bethshean. Excavations of the University Museum Expedition 1921-1923 ’ (in MJ, Dec. 1923), pp. 227-48, 11 figs. Ovenden, George J. H.: ‘Notes on the Excavations at Beisan’ (in QSt., 1923), pp. 147-9, 158 f. Fisher, Clarence S. : ‘The Expedition to Palestine. Beisan as seen from the air. Royal Air Force Photographs’ (in MJ, 1924), pp. 101-5, 3 Pis. : ‘The Church at Beisan’ (in MJ, 1924), pp. 171-89, 10 Figs. Rowe, Alan : ‘Discovery of the Temple of Ashtaroth. Report on the expedition to Palestine’ (in My, 1925), pp. 307-13. : ‘The Temples of Dagon and Ashtoreth at Beth Shan’ (in MJ, 1926), pp. 295- 304, 7 Pis. : ‘The Discoveries at Beth-Shan during the 1926 Season’ (ftxMJ, 1927), pp. 9-45, 15 Pis., 12 Figs. : ‘The Expedition at Beisan’ (in MJ, 1927), pp. 411— 41, 8 Pis., 18 Figs. : ‘Excavations in Palestine. The New Discoveries at Beth-Shan’ (in QSt., 1927), pp. 67—84, 1 Pi. : ‘The Discoveries at Beth-Shan. Additional Remarks’ (in QSt., 1 927), pp. 148 f. Fitzgerald, G. M. : ‘Two inscriptions from Beisan’ (in QSt., 1927), pp. 150-4, Pis. VI-VII. Rowe, Alan: ‘The 1927 Excavations at Beisan. Final Report’ (in MJ, 1928), pp. 145-69, 6 Pis., 10 Figs. : ‘Excavations at Beisan during the 1927 Season. Two Temples of Thothmes III, &c.’ (in QSt., 1928), pp. 73-90, x Plan, Pis. I-V. : ‘The New Discoveries at Beisan’ (in Discovery, May 1928), pp. 137—41, 4 Figs. : ‘The recent finds at Beisan’ (in Antiquity, 1928), pp. 192—5, Pis. I— III. : ‘The Palestine Expedition. Report of the 1928 Season’ (in MJ, 1929), pp. 37—98. : ‘Palestine Expedition of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Third Report — 1928 Season’ (in QSt., 1929), pp. 78-94, Pis. II-XVI. : The Topography and History of Beth-Shan with details of the Egyptian and other inscriptions found on the site (Publications of the Palestine Section of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, vol. 1), Philadelphia 1930, XXII, 62 pp., Fr., 58 Pis. 88 [3] Fitzgerald, G. M. : The Four Canaanite Temples of Beth- Shan. Part II. The Pottery (Publications of the Palestine Section of the Museum of the University of Penn- sylvania, vol. 2), Philadelphia 1930, V, 43, Pis. XLI-LI. : ‘Excavations at Beth-Shan in 1930’ (in QSt., 1931), pp. 59-70, Pis. I- VI. BEIT jibrIn Excavations conducted by the Palestine Exploration Fund in igoo. Bliss, F. J.: ‘Report on the Excavations at Tell Sandahannah’ (in QSt.. 1 qoo\ pp. 319-38, 3 Pis., illus. Bliss, Frederick Jones and Macalister, R. A. Stewart: 1 Excavations in Palestine during the years i8g8-igoo, . . . with a Chapter by . . . Wiinsch,’ London, 1902. (Chapter V. The Excavations at Tell Sandahannah by F. J. B[liss], pp. 52-61), Figs. 25-9, Pis. Necropolis discovered in igo2. Thiersch, H. und Peters, John, P. : ‘Neu entdeckte Graber bei Bet Dschibrin’ (in MuNDPF, 1902), pp. 40-2. Peters, John P. and Thiersch, H. : ‘The Necropolis of Mareshah. Preliminary Notice’ (in QSt., 1902), pp. 393—7- Peters, John P. and Thiersch, Hermann: Painted Tombs in the Necropolis of Marissa (Mareshah)^ edited by Stanley A. Cook, London, 1905, XVII, 10 1 pp., 1 front., 22 Pis., 24 Figs. Casual discoveries in 1913. Moulton, Warren J. : ‘An inscribed tomb at Beit Jibrin’ (in AJA , 2nd ser., Vol. XIX, I9 I 5), pp. 63—70, 3 Figs., 5 facsimiles. ( — Art and Archaeology , Vol. I, No. 2, 1914, pp. 62—71.) Moulton, Warren J. : ‘A painted Christian tomb at Beit Jibrin’ (in AASOR , II/III, i 9 2 3 )j PP- 95 -r0 4 , front., 4 Pis., 6 Figs. Excavations conducted by the Ecole Biblique et Archeologique Frangaise in 1921 and 1924. Vincent, L. H.: ‘Une villa greco-romaine k Beit Djebrm’ (in RB, 1922), pp. 259- 81, Pls.VIII-X, 4 Figs. Abel, F. M.: ‘D&xmvertes recentes a Beit-Djebrin’ (in RB, 1924), pp. 583-604, Pis. X-XVI, 4 Figs. Excavations conducted by the Ecole Biblique et Archeologique Frangaise in 1923. Abel, F.-M.: ‘Tombeaux rdcemment decouverts k Marisa’ (in RB, 1925), pp. 267- 75, PI. XII, 4 Figs. BEIT JIMAL Excavations conducted by the Benedictine Fathers of the Dormitio, Jerusalem, in 1916. Gisler, Mauritius : ‘Das Grab des hi. Erzmartyrers Stephanus’ (in HL, January 1917), pp. 15-21, 1 Fig. Abel, F. M.: ‘Une chapelle byzantine a Beit el-Djemal’ (in RB, 1919), pp. 244-8, 2 Figs. Gisler, Maurice: K Acj)APr AMAAA The burial place of St. Stephen ^ the Proto- Martyr and S.S. Nicodemus, Gamaliel, Abibo, rediscovered at Beitgemal , Palestine, by the Salesian Fathers of Dorn Bosco, 1923, 33 pp., 23 illus. [ 4 ] 89 BEIT SAHUR Excavated by the Benedictine Fathers of the Dormitio, Jerusalem , in 1908. Hansler, Heinrich: ‘Archaologisches aus Jerusalems Umgebung’ (in HL, 1908), pp. 187-93, illus - BEIT SURflC Mosaic pavement casually discovered ', and immediately afterwards almost entirely destroyed. Vincent, H.: ‘Une mosaique avec inscription a Beit Sourik’ (in RB, 1901), pp. 444-8, 1 Fig. Clermont-Ganneau, Ch. : ‘L’inscription en mosaique de Beit Sourik’ (in RAO, V, ! 903 ) 5 PP- 46 - 9 > IIIB - beitIn Soundings made by the American School of Oriental Research in 192 7 . Albright, W. F.: ‘A trial excavation in the Mound of Bethel’ (in BAS OR, No. 29, 1928), pp. 9-1 1. BETH ALPHA Excavations conducted by the Hebrew University in 1929 . Sukenik, E. L. : njnin) NaijN-n'ane* P'nyn Oman nu’ [The Ancient Synagogue at Beth-Alpha. (Preliminary Report)] (in Tarbts , Vol. I, 1929), pp. 111— 17, Pis. I-V. BETH PELET See Tall el Fari'a. See Beisan. See 'Ein Shams. BETH SHEAN BETH SHEMESH BETHANY Casual discovery by P as sionist Fathers in 1914. Vincent, H. : ‘Un hypogee cananeen a Bdthanie (in RB, 1914), pp. 438-41, Fig. 9. BETHAR See Battir. BETHLEHEM Casual discovery in 1894. Sejournd, Paul-M. : ‘Chronique de Jerusalem. Decouverte d’une necropole chretienne a Bethleem (in RB, 1895), pp. 439-444, Fig. 1. Casual discovery in 1923. Cheneau, Paul: ‘L’ancien carillon de Bethleem’ (in RB, 1923), pp. 602-7, Pis. XII-XIV, 1 Fig. BETHPHAGE Excavated in 1910. Orfali, Gaudence: ‘Un hypogee juif 4 Bethphag6’ (in RB, 1923), pp. 253-60, PL V, Figs. 1-6. 9 ° [ 5 ] Casual discovery in 192 j. Barrois, A.: ‘Tombes nkemment ddcouvertes a Jerusalem. 2. Tombe chrdtienne k Bethphag<f (in RB, 1928), p. 262, Fig. 2. CAPERNAUM See Talhum. CARMEL See Mount Carmel. DEIR DAKHLE Casual discovery in 19x9. Drake, F. M.: ‘A recently discovered mosaic’ (in Burlington Magazine , Vol. XXXIV, 1919), pp. 144 f-, PI. DORA 1 See Tantura. ED DAWEIMA Casual discovery of the tombs in i88y. Van Kasteren, J. P.: ‘Neuentdeckte Grabkammern.’ I. In ed-duweimi (in ZDPF, 1889), pp. 24-7, Figs. 1-3. 'EIN 'ARRUB Casual discovery in 1902. Barton, George A. : ‘The Mosaic recently found at Ain 'Arrub’ (in Journal of Biblical Literature , XXII, 1903), pp. 41-4, 1 Fig. 'ein duk Casual discovery by a bombshell during military operations in 1918. Clermont-Ganneau, Charles: ‘La mosaique juive de 'Ain Douq (in CAIBL , 1919), pp. 87-120, 1 Fig. Excavations conducted by the Ecole Biblique of Jerusalem in 1919 and 1920 . Vincent, H. : ‘Le sanctuaire juif d’ 'Ain Douq’ (in RB, 1919), pp. 532-63, 2 Figs. Vincent, L. H. : ‘Le sanctuaire juif d’ 'Ain-Douq’ (in RB, 1921), pp. 442 f., PI. VIII, Fig. 2. Vincent, L. H., et Carrifere, B.: ‘La synagogue de Noarah’ (in RB, 1921), pp. 5 79— 601, Pis. XV, XVI, 1 Facs. ' " " 'ein shams Excavations conducted by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1911 and 1912. Mackenzie, Duncan : ‘The ancient site of 'Ain Shems, with a memorandum on the prospects of excavation’ (in QSt., 1911), pp. 69—79, 1 3 Figs- : ‘The Fund’s excavations at 'Ain Shems’ (in QSt., 1911), pp. 139—42, 1 PL, pp. 169-72. : ‘The excavations at 'Ain Shems, June-July, 1912’ (in QSt., 1912), pp. 171-8. : ‘The Excavations at Ain Shems’ (in PEF Annual, Vol. I, 1911), pp. 40— 94, Pis. VII-XIV, 28 Figs. (Vol. II, 1912-13), 104 pp., Front., Pis. I-LXI, 11 Figs. [6] 91 Excavations conducted by the Haverford College from 1928 onwards. Grant, Elihu: ‘Work at Beth Shemesh in 1928’ (in QSt., 1928), pp. 179-81. ; Beth Shemesh (Palestine). Progress of the Haverford Archaeological Expedi- tion. Haverford, 1929. : ‘The Haverford College Excavations at ancient Beth Shemesh, 1928’ (in QSt., 1929), pp. 201-10, Pis. I— III. : ‘Beth Shemesh, 1930’ (in QSt., 1930), p. 133 f. EMMA us See 'Imwas. GAZA Casual discovery in 1910 . Macalister, R. A. S. and Knesevich, Emil G. : ‘An old sarcophagus at Gaza’ (in QSt., 1910), pp. 294-6, 2 Figs. Vincent, H.: ‘Un hypogde hellenistique a Gaza’ (in RB, 1910), pp. 575 f., 2 Figs. Holes in the Northern Escarpment of the Mound dug out between 1911 and 1920 . Garstang, J.: ‘The Walls of Gaza’ (in QSt., 1920), pp. 156 f. Excavations carried out by the British School of Archaeology, Jerusalem, in 1922 . Phythian-Adams, W. J.: ‘Reports on Soundings at Gaza, &c.’ (in QSt., 1923), pp. 11-14. : ‘Second Report on Soundings at Gaza’ (in QSt., 1923), pp. 18-30, 5 Figs. GERAR See Tall Jamma. See Mount Gerizim. GERIZIM GEZER Excavations carried out by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1902 . Macalister, R. A. Stewart: ‘First Quarterly Report of the excavation of Gezer’ (in QSt., 1 902), pp. 3 1 7-75, 1 1 Pis., 23 Figs. _ : ‘Second Quarterly Report of the excavation of Gezer’ (in QSt., 1903), pp. 7—50, 10 Pis., 5 Figs. Macalister, Alex.: ‘The bodies of the second burial cave’ (in QSt., 1903), pp. 50 f. Macalister, R. A. Stewart: ‘Third Quarterly Report of the excavation of Gezer’ (in QSt., 1903), pp. 107-25, 3 Pis., 6 Figs. : ‘Fourth Quarterly Report of the excavation of Gezer’ (in QSt., 1903), pp. 195-231, 4 Pis., 16 Figs. : ‘Fifth Quarterly Report of the excavation of Gezer’ (in QSt., 1903), pp. 299- 322, 6 Pis., 7 Figs. Macalister, A.: ‘Report on the human remains found at Gezer 1902—3’ (in QSt., 19 ° 3 )> PP- 3 22 “ 6 . 9 2 [ 7 ] Macalister, R. A. Stewart: ‘Sixth Quarterly Report on the excavation of Gezer (in QSt., 1904), pp. 9-26, 3 Pis., 8 Figs. : ‘Seventh Quarterly Report on the excavation of Gezer’ (in QSt., 1904), pp. 107-27, 4 figs. : ‘Eighth Quarterly Report on the excavation of Gezer’ (in QSt., 1 904), pp. 1 94— 228, 6 Pis., 9 Figs. Pinches, Theophilus G. : ‘The fragment of an Assyrian tablet found at Gezer’ (in QSt., 1904), pp. 229-36, 2 Pis., illus. Macalister, R. A. Stewart: ‘Supplementary notes on the Eighth Report’ (in QSt., 1904), pp. 355-7- : ‘Ninth Quarterly Report on the excavation of Gezer’ (in QSt., 1904), pp. 320-54, 4 Pis., 8 Figs. : The Excavation of Gezer 1902-5 and 1907-9, 3 Vols., London, 1912. XXIV, 401 pp., PI., illus. ; XVI, 488 pp., PL, illus. [with Index], 15 pp., front., 226 Pis. HARBAJ See Tall el Harbaj. Tmwas Excavations conducted by Captain Guillemot in 1876(f). Guillemot, J. B.: ‘Emmaus-Amoas’ (in Missions Catholiques, March 1882), pp. 103-6, illus. Excavations conducted by the Ecole Biblique et Archeologique Fran false inig24. Vincent, L. H.: ‘Fouilles de l’Ecole a la Basilique d’ 'Amwas’ (in RB, 1926), pp. 1 17-21, PL III. IRBID Excavations carried out by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1865. Wilson, Charles W. : ‘Notes on Jewish Synagogues in Galilee’ (in QSt., 1869) pp. 37—42, especially p. 40 (copied almost verbatim in Special Tapers, pp. 294-9). Kohl, Heinrich und Watzinger, Carl: Antike Synagogen in Galilaea (29. Wiss. Veroffentlichung der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, 1916), pp. 59-70, Figs. 1 12- 35, Pis. VIII, IX. ‘Isawiya Cistern cleared by Sir [then Mr.} John Gray Hill in i8gg. Gray Hill: ‘A remarkable cistern and newly discovered spring at Aisawiyeh’ (in QSt., 1899), pp. 45 f., x Fig. JERICHO Excavations carried out by the Palestine Exploration Fund in i86g. Warren, Charles : Notes on the Valley of the Jordan and Excavations at Ain es Sultan. London 1869. N [ 8 ] 93 Excavations started by the Ministry of Education , Vienna , and continued by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft in 1907, 1908. Selim, Ernst: Kurzer vorlaufiger Bericht tiber eine Probeausgrabung in Jericho (in MuNDPV, 1907), pp. 65-71, Figs. 5, 6. (Sellin, Ernst, Watzinger, Carl, and Langenegger, Felix:) ‘Vorlaufige Nachrichten uber die Ausgrabung in Jericho im Fruhjahr 1908’ (in MDOG, 39, Dec. 1908), pp. 1 -41, 18 Figs., 2 Pis. (Sellin, Ernst, Watzinger, Carl, and Noldeke, Arnold :) ‘Vorlaufige Nachrichten tiber die Ausgrabung in Jericho im Friihjahr 1909’ (in MDOG , 41, Dec. 1909), pp. 1-36, 2 Pis., 15 Figs. Sellin, Ernst und Watzinger, Carl: Jericho, Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen (22. Wissenschaftl. V erofientlichung der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 1913), IV, 190 pp., 4 Plans, 219 Figs., 45 Pis. Casual discovery in the Garden of the Russian Hospice , a few years prior to 1911 . Abel, F.-M.: ‘Le tombeau de l’higoumene Cyriaque a Jericho’ (in RB, 1911), pp. 286-9, 1 Fig*, p- 44°* Excavations conducted by the Palestine Exploration Fund since 1930 . Garstang, John: ‘Jericho. Sir Charles Marston’s Expedition of 1930’ (in QSt., 1930), pp. 123-32, Pis. I-X. JERUSALEM Will be published later. JIFNA Casual discovery in 1912 . Vincent, Hugues: ‘Un hypog6e juif a Djifneh’ (in RB, 1913), pp. 103-6, Fig. 1 1. Casual discovery. Abel, F.-M. : ‘Une villa romaine & Djifna’ (in RB, 1 923), pp. 1 1 1-14, Figs. 3, 4. EL JISH Soundings conducted by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft in June 1903. Kohl, Heinrich und Watzinger, Carl: Antike Synagogen in Galilaea (29. Wiss. Veroffentlichung der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, 1916), pp. 107-11, Figs. 204-17, PI. XV. L. A. M. (To be continued '.) 94 [ 9 ] THE NAME OF KHAN EL AHMAR, BEISAN A FEW minutes walk to the east of the railway-station at Baisan are the ruins of a large building, once a caravanserai, since used as a temporary shelter for Bedouins working in the vicinity. As early as 1874 Guerin 1 drew attention to this monument, later it was measured and eventually published by the Survey Party of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 and quite recently the Arabic inscription commemorating its foundation by Salar in Jumada I, 708 (October-November 1308) was published by the Rev. Pere J. A. Jaussen O.P.a The caravanserai has been visited by many travellers and pilgrims, and mention of it is frequently made in literature, either without a name being given* or under the names Khan el Ahmar (‘the red caravanserai’)* or Khan el Ahmar, 6 the later having been translated as ‘the caravanserai of the asses’. The spelling Khan el Ahmar, given by the authorities quoted above and supported by local pronunciation of to-day, is undoubtedly correct. Why then should the Survey Party have adopted a spelling, and consequently a translation, presupposing a form which occurs neither in classical nor vulgar Arabic? There must have been some good reason for this assumption. Obviously the name must have been misheard in an unconscious effort to explain away the difficulty arising out of the fact that a building on which nothing red is to be seen should be called the Red Caravanserai. Or it might be asked whether there was something in the building in the past which might have been the origin of the adjective, such as the green tiles to which Yeshil Jami' owes its name, or the blue ones after which the Gok Jami' is called. Khan el Ahmar is not in a good state of preservation, 7 but there is enough of it left to show that neither its walls nor its roof were of red stone; moreover, 1 Description de la Palestine , Samarie , I, p. 299. 2 Memoirs, II. 119 f. and fig. 3 ‘Inscription arabedu Khan al- Ahmar kBeis&n (Palestine)’ (in BIFAO. XXII, 1923, pp. 99 ff.). 4 Burckhardt, Travels in Syria and the Holy Land, London, 1822, p. 343 (‘a large khan’), copied verbatim by Robinson, Biblical Researches , London, 1841, Vol. III, p. 175; Guerin, l.c. (‘Khan Musulman’). 5 Seetzen, Reisen II, p.165 (‘chan el achmar’) ; Baedeker, Palestine and Syria, 1 9 1 2, p. 24 1 (‘Khan el» Ahmar’); La Palestine, Guide historique et pratique par des professeurs de Notre-Dame de F ranee & Jerusalem, 1922, p. 655 (‘caravans6rail rouge’); Jaussen, Lc. (‘Kh&n al- Ahmar’); Thomsen, Palastina-Literatur, IV, p. 682 (‘chan el-ahmar’j; Rowe, The Topography and History of Beth - Shan, p. 3 (‘KMn el-’ Ahmar’). 6 Name List, p. 162; Memoirs, 1 . c. 7 Cf. Rowe, 1 . c., Pl. 10, 95 Conder’s description based on observations made in 1874, makes any such suggestion impossible. I think we shall be safe in assuming that it is not the colour of parts of the building, but that of the soil which gave the caravanserai its name. Among the buildings erected by Salar, a list of which is given at the end of a biography of his friend Sanjar el Jawll, 1 this caravanserai is referred to as 2 d L) ^ ‘the caravanserai on the red ground of Beisan’. That the soil of the plateau on which the khan was erected is red has been noted by European scholars too, 3 but that the soil gave the name to the building has not been suggested before. Yet it is not the only example of its kind. There is another and more famous Khan el Ahmar in Palestine, better known to Europeans as the ‘Inn of the Good Samaritan’ half-way along the Jerusalem-Jericho road, which owes its name not to its appearance but to the red soil on which it stands, just as the Chastel Rouge of the Crusaders, immediately above it, was in all probability not red itself, but so called after the red hillock on which it was built. 4 Other examples are furnished by the names of the following sites: Birkat el Beida (P.E.F. Map, Sheet Vl.O.g. 6-5), 'Ein el Beida (IV. Q.e. 4-4), 'Ein es Sauda (IX.Q.k. 5-3) and Khirbat el Hamra (IX.P. 1. 10-5), all of them called after the colour of their surroundings and not after the colour of the water in the case of springs or that of stones in the case of buildings. L. A. M. 1 Safadl, J'yan, s. v. (MS. Berlin, fo. 49 v , 1 . ult.)j Maqrlzl, Khitat , II, p. 398, 1 . 4 from bottom (ed. A.H. 1326, vol. IV, p. 248, 1 . 1 1) where is a scribe’s error for 2 The Berlin MS. has *3 an obvious mistake for a Lj. 3 Guerin, 1 . c., ‘sur un plateau . . . dont le sol est rougeatre’; Picard, ‘Zur Geologie der Bgsan- Ebene’ (in ZDPF, 1929, p. 46) ‘Im gleichen Landschaftsabschnitt findet man . . . rotbraunen . . . Kalk’. 4 The outer layer of stones having been stripped off it is impossible to assure that it was not built of the hard red limestone, locally known as ‘mizzi ahmar’ or * mizzl yahudi’, which is very common in the district of Jerusalem. 96 JERUSALEM: ANCIENT STREET-LEVELS IN THE TYROPOEON VALLEY WITHIN THE WALLS T HE main drainage of Jerusalem-within-the-walls has hitherto depended upon a sewer crossing the City from north to south along the western slope of the central cleft which formerly separated the eastern and western hills, viz. the Tyropoeon Valley of Josephus, now indicated by a main thoroughfare still called the Valley Street (Tariq al-Wad). The sewer follows a more direct course than the street. Beginning just outside the Damascus Gate ( Bab al-Amud, ) at St. Paul’s Hospice, now used as central Government offices, it follows the street almost as far as ‘David’ Street, Tariq Bab as- Silsila, the main thoroughfare which descends from the Jaffa Gate (Bab al-Khalil ) to the Haram; here the street is diverted. They meet again outside the ‘Wailing Wall’ Synagogue and separate again before reaching the south wall, the street twisting towards the Dung Gate (Bab al-Magharibeh), the sewer going straight on to empty a little to the west of it. Here its contents are jealously shared by the market gardeners of Silwan upon the slopes of the eastern hill which was formerly Ophel. At the synagogue the sewer is joined by the corresponding side drain falling from the Jaffa Gate. Above this junction and on either side of ‘David’ Street the main sewer has recently collapsed at several points owing to the cumulative pressure of debris and buildings piled up against the street, which is itself carried several metres higher than the surrounding level by part of the ancient viaduct known after its discoverer as ‘Wilson’s Arch’. The Municipality of Jerusalem have con- sequently decided to carry out a thorough reconstruction of this section of the sewer. To divert the flow during these operations a pumping shaft has been sunk northwards or up-stream at the nearest convenient point in the Valley Street, about 25 metres south of Suq al-Qattariin, the central western entrance to the Haram. In this shaft two ancient street levels have been discovered (Fig- 1). The upper one was found 2-90 metres below the present roadway. 1 It was found almost intact, a pavement of large flag-stones, not uniform in size but averaging more than a metre square and about 30 cm. thick. They were laid diagonally and irregularly bonded (Fig. 2), and are of the hard, whitish lime- stone locally known as mizzi helu. The pavement rests almost directly on the 1 For comparison with Warren’s map. Excavations at Jerusalem, P.E.F., London, 1884, this is 728-38 metres =2,389-8 feet above mean sea-level. His rock contour following the street is given as 2,399 feet - 97 CILL ABOVE MEAN SEA-LEVEL 7*44? M. arch of the sewer. If this was ~ I — — i I placed centrally as was usual, the street must have been more than 5* 50 m. wide, since the shafting does not quite reach its western edge. The paving stones were raised in order to get at the sewer and the excavation continued in the western half of the shaft between the sewer wall and the western side of the frame in order to provide a sump for pumping. 2-iom. lower down the remains of another pave- ment were discovered. 1 There were three flag-stones in position, projecting either from the western or northern side of the cutting (Fig. 3). Both in size and material they resembled the upper ones; unlike them they were laid square to the sewer, not diagonally, and they were not. so closely bedded. When they were removed there were no others to be seen on either side of the shaft. The south- west corner was quite empty until digging was resumed. Then a drain appeared immediately under the level of the stones just re- moved. It projected only 40 cm. from the western face, falling towards the sewer wall. It was built of light rubble rendered in hard lime concrete unmixed with any ground pottery, and contained a deposit of sticky grey clay. From fragments of this concrete found near the sewer wall making an 1 726-28 m. =2,382-9 feet above m. s. 1. f f 98 Fig 1 s outward bend it appears to have been splayed, presumably where it joined a former sewer at the lower level. The gap between the sewer wall and its broken end was filled with four long stones, abutting and stepping down from the wall, possibly as a footing. In the hope £ of reaching rock the excavation was prolonged to a depth of 9 metres below the present roadway and the soil probed to a total depth of io| metres without finding it. 1 So far as could be determined the sewer wall continued though little better than packing; above it had consisted of rather light, roughly dressed ashlar faces holding a rubble core, set in mud mortar. Here then it is scarcely less than 7 metres tall. Not that it can have been as high as this throughout its course to judge by Warren’s contours. But here, con- trary to Warren’s assumption, the general contour of the valley must EL be broken by a tributary gully. In order to carry the sewer safely across it the walls were founded as low as possible, probably at rock-bottom at a depth not yet determined. Separated by nearly two metres of debris and differently laid, these two pavements evidently belong to different periods; on the other hand Fig 2 w X Fig 3 both were solidly built of heavy flagstones which vary very little in size as between the two. The upper one which was found intact resting almost directly upon the arch of the sewer was probably contemporary with the arch, though it is not clear whether this belonged to a new construction or was 1 720-945 m. =2,365-4 feet above m. s. 1 ., i.e. nearly 34 feet below Warren’s contour. 99 simply the heightening of an older drain or conduit to which the small cross drain under the lower pavement was formerly tributary. The lower pavement was too broken to show whether it had once been bonded or not with the lower part of the existing drain, or even whether it had followed the same direction. The upper street, like the modern road, undoubtedly did. Pottery has been collected ( a ) between the modern road level and the upper pavement, (i b ) between the two pavements, and (c) beneath the lower. As evidence for dating the two streets it will be taken together with similar material from other shafts yet to be dug. C. N. J. ioo A TOMB CHAMBER IN THE SYRIAN ORPHANAGE, JERUSALEM E ARLY IN 1931 the Syrian Orphanage at Jerusalem reported to the Department of Antiquities the discovery of a tomb chamber on their grounds. The chamber was cleared on behalf of the Department in the beginning of March; it was found to contain three rock-sunk graves (Graves 1-3 on plan) and a central pit (marked P on plan). In front of it there was a rock-cutting containing three further rock-sunk graves (Graves 4-6 on plan). The chamber was coated with two layers of plaster. The first coating, which was rather rough, consisted of grey cement and white lime grits, the second, which was smooth, of lime only. Most of the plaster had come off and was found lying on the floor of the chamber. The entrance to the chamber was on the south-east (see plan). It was built of well-dressed masonry, and one of the stones to the west of the entrance had been bored to receive a latch. Several potsherds, with broad blunt ribs (usually attributed to the late Roman period), were found in the central pit and on the slabs placed over the graves. In Graves 1 and 2 several skulls and skeletal bones were found. In addition, a gold ear-ring with a suspended pearl bead (Plate XXXVIII, 2), similar to most of the ear-rings found at Karm al- Shaikh, 1 was found in Grave r. This was shown to Professor Rostovtzeff, who regarded it as belonging to the second century a.d., basing his date upon similar ear-rings discovered in Egypt with papyri and coins of that period. Grave 2 contained a glass bracelet of 5- 1 cm. diam. and a gold ear-ring with several pearls and a gem (Plate XXXVIII, 2). This form of ear- ring appears to Professor Rostovtzeff to be rather rare. No similar ear-ring is described in F. H. Marshall, Catalogue oj jewellery or E. Vernier, Bijoux et Orjevreries. In the rebate of the grave a Roman lamp was found. In Grave 3 nothing but a few bones was found. The bottom of this grave was broken in the middle. An iron nail was discovered in Grave 6 (see plan) but nothing in the other two graves in the rock-cutting. D. C. B. 1 The Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities., Vol. I, No. 1, Pis. V (11), VI (7), VII (2, 9), VIII (3), XIV (3, 7). o BYZANTINE CHURCH AT MUKHMAS M UKHMAS is a small village situated on a ridge some four miles east of the J erusalem- Ramallah road, three-quarters of an hour’s walk from Er Ram. That the village occupies the site of a Byzantine settlement is apparent from the masonry of which the present houses are to a large extent constructed. At the north end of the village a mosaic floor and some scattered architectural fragments mark the position of a church of the Byzantine period. Although various houses, walls, and a cistern have been constructed immediately on the site, the surviving area of mosaic in the yard of the northernmost house in the village is sufficiently extensive to show that we are concerned with an ordinary basilica divided by ranges of columns into three aisles, and orientated approxi- mately east and west. The number of columns and dimensions of the building can no longer be judged, but irregular breaks in the mosaic indicate the position of three of those in the northern range: they are spaced at intervals of 2- 40 m. from centre to centre. The surviving floor, protected till now by a generous deposit of rubbish, belongs mostly to the central nave, but extends also into the northern aisle until it is interrupted by the foundations of the house. The mosaic consists of a plain diaper pattern of alternate black and red crosses, extending without variation over both nave and aisles, except that in the former it encloses two rectangular panels, lying 2 m. apart on the axis of the church. The easternmost of these contains an inscription in Greek, the other a circular design of interlacing bands inscribed in a simple guilloche (PI. XXXIX, r, 2). The inscription is executed in red tesserae, averaging 1 cm. square, the letters being about 5 cm. high. It has been partly patched with coarse white tesserae. Restored it reads: KYPie MNHC0H0I TON AOYAON COY OYAAENTI NON AMA CYNBIGO K6 T€KN OIC TCO CnOYAACANTI T€ NEC0C K€ *H<j>CO0HN€ TH N OCjWTATHN 6KAHCI AN Line i. |ivr)CT0r|6i for nv^o-Orixt. Line 2. The name OuaAev-nvos appears in an inscription at Salkhad (Prince- ton Expedition to Syria 3, Sect. A, No. 168) and also at Dera'a (Wadding- ton 2070 m). Line 3. ke, cf. line 5 kfn^coQijve. Line 4. tco CTtrouSdaavTt. The case is due apparently to assimilation to the preceding datives, ov|i(Mq> . . tskvojs; it is without grammatical con- struction. Line 6. exArialav for st<KAr|criav not uncommonly. ‘Lord, remember thy servant Valentinus, with his wife and children: who zealously promoted the building and decoration with mosaic of the most holy Church.’ The second panel, which probably marks the centre of the building, lies on a level with the more easterly of the inter-columnar spaces represented by the lacunae on the north side of the mosaic. For the design five different colours are used, blue-black, grey, red, pink, and yellow: these appear in different combinations with white in the three interlacing bands of which the central pattern is composed. On the assumption that these panels lay on the central axis of the church, the width of the nave was 7- 14 m. between the axes of the arcades. No other details of the plan survive. Two moulded column bases, differing somewhat from each other in size and design, lie in the courtyard, and these with two capitals, built respectively into a neighbouring house and cistern, and of a single pattern (PI. XXXVIII, 1), are the only extant remains of the supports of the church. Some fragments of the chancel fittings — a screen post and a few broken table-legs of white marble — also decorate adjacent buildings. The date and dedication of the church are unknown: it is possible that a second inscription, recording both, lay further to the east in the usual position before the chancel step; it has not, however, survived. The style of the mosaic and inscription suggests a date in the sixth century. Mukhmas (Michmash) is mentioned by Burchard of Mount Zion, writing in 1283, as a fairly large town on the boundary of the tribe of Ephraim toward the south. R. W. H. 104 PLATE XXXIX STREET LEVELS IN THE TYROPOEON VALLEY T HE previous account of the operations in the Tarlq el Wad described the excavation of the first of two pump shafts sunk on the line of the main sewer with the object of diverting the flow of sewage from that section of the dr ain whose reconstruction the Municipality has undertaken. The lower of these, Shaft III, restores the stream to its old course at a point some few metres south of David Street, the total distance between the two being 875 metres. An intermediate shaft, No. II, has now been sunk 20 metres to the south of Shaft I, and 5 metres west of the line of the sewer and modern street. This excavation, which was to be the base of the actual repairing operations, was carried down 7 metres below the surface level. It cut through a series of different periods of construction beneath the modern houses, including at I metre a cement and gravel floor covering the whole area of the shaft (see Sections), at 2-45 m. the foundation of a wall bordering the north and east sides of the shaft, and below this a series of three successive drainage or water channels, flowing in each case from west to east, and occupying roughly the same line along the north side of the excavation. From the bottom of the shaft a lateral tunnel was driven eastwards to give access to the sewer, which from this point southward to Shaft III was to be dismantled and replaced by a reinforced concrete tunnel. Here too, as in Shaft I, two street levels were encountered, and so far as the demolition of the sewer has hitherto proceeded they accompany it. The difference in level between the two pavements is here considerably less than in Shaft I, where they were divided by a layer of debris 1*70 m. in depth. From there the upper pavement and arch of the sewer have descended 0-65 m., while the lower, remaining constant in level or even rising slightly, leaves an interval of barely a metre between the two. In the course of the excavation along the line of the sewer itself, which has hitherto been confined to the section south of Shaft II, some new facts as to its construction and relation to the pavements have appeared. It is now clear, for instance, that the present structure incorporates two distinct periods of work. All that part of the drain which is below the level of the lower pavement is built of solid rubble set in good lime mortar and faced internally with rough blocks varying from 20 to 30 cm. in height. The upper part, on the other hand, comprising mainly the backing of the vault, is of a much looser rubble, set not in mortar but in mud with a very small proportion of lime. i°5 This difference in the quality of the upper and lower sections continues un- mistakable throughout the length that has so far been demolished, and at the same time corresponds with the level of the lower pavement — a coincidence which strongly suggests that the lower and better-built part of the drain is contemporary with that pavement and was not, as at first seemed possible, 73L 984 LevcL sunk below it subsequent to its disuse. This is confirmed by the fact that the lower pavement shows no sign in the neighbourhood of Shaft II of having been ripped up about the line of the drain, but on the contrary abuts im- mediately upon it throughout and in parts is even built into the fabric. Had the street been torn up subsequently to allow for the excavation of the sewer, a considerable hiatus would of course have been left between the two broken edges and the sides of the intrusive structure. It is equally certain that the sewer in its present form is contemporary with the upper of the two ancient streets, with which it is connected at intervals by manholes carefully constructed in the apex of the vault. There is, however, a change in the structure of the sewer between Shafts II 106 and III. The latter was excavated directly over the line of the drain and here too the upper pavement was found to continue, its stones lying, as in I and II, diagonally to the axis of the street, the level 70 cm. lower than in Shaft II. The sewer, which is here only 70 cm. wide, is covered no longer by a vaulted roof but by flat slabs which are separated from the upper pavement by 30 cm. of earth. The continuation of the lower street up to this point has not yet been verified, as the diverted stream was discharged straight into the top of the drain without further ex- cavation. Returning to the three channels (marked A,B,and C in the sections) which were encountered in Shaft II, it will be seen that both B and C, instead of flowing into the main sewer and there ending, are in fact interrupted by its un- broken wall and continue their course on the other side. Both these channels, which were fairly well built, the sides consisting of two courses of stones, the floors of brick rendered with cement, appear from the clayey deposit that fills them to have been water conduits rather than drains. The upper one was roofed with heavy slabs. The gradient of these channels could not be ascertained: they are represented as level on the section, but doubtless flow with the slope of the ground toward the east. It is apparent that C is the earliest structure we have and that it had already fallen out of use when the lower street was laid. At least two other similar conduits, intercepted by the sewer, have been noticed in the course of the demolition toward the south; these in each case flow eastwards and are filled with pure clay. It would seem likely that they are all tributaries of an earlier main channel perhaps following 107 the centre of the valley. B similarly antedates the upper pavement but belongs to a period when the lower one had a 60-70 cm. covering of debris upon it, and the big channel was entirely choked up. The upper pavement, with the recommissioning of the old channel in its present form as a sewer, represents a fourth stage. The relation to this street of A, the best constructed of the side channels, with heavy stones and plaster rendering, is somewhat uncertain: its abrupt termination before reaching the edge of the pavement would suggest an earlier date, the level a later. If however, as is most probable, the street was bordered on either side by a raised colonnade or walk, the higher level and fine covering blocks of the drain may be connected with this. The destination of its contents cannot be determined on the evidence. The Madaba map represents a main thoroughfare on the line of this street, with a colonnade on the eastern side. The objects found in the shaft and subsequent excavations include the base of a column at 3-70 m. from the surface and at 4-50 m. a stone jar with moulded rim (see drawing), which was found surrounded by bricks at a point 1 metre to the south of A in the shaft. A fragment of column was found lying on the upper pavement: this, with the base already mentioned, is the only indication of the colonnade represented in the Madaba map. At the bottom of the shaft and projecting 2 metres from its western side the end of a well-built vault was encountered: it is built of the stone known as mizzeh helu, treated with a comb-pick. The axis of the vault lies west to east; it rests upon side walls of a much rougher construction which clearly antedate it, strengthened at a point 1-50 m. west of the edge of the shaft by internal buttresses. All that part of the vault which projected into the shaft had to be destroyed, but a section of it, blocked after 2-40 m. by a rubble and cement wall, can still be seen outside the limits of the shaft. It is hoped that this vault will be further excavated at a later date. In assigning dates to the two streets, the notable quantity of accumulated debris between them and the filling up of the central channel require us to 108 p postulate a considerable period of partial disuse, terminated at each end by a period in which this was a populous and important thoroughfare. To assign the lower level to the Herodian city and the upper to the early Byzantine period is a hypothesis not contradicted by the evidence of the potsherds. To satisfy the conditions we should expect to find below the upper pavement no sherds later than the Byzantine period and below the lower none later than the first century. Accidental circumstances such as the breaking up of the lower pavement in Shaft I may account for some exceptions. The drawings on p. 1 09 represent the most typical rims and handles found below the second pavement — Nos. 8, 9, 1 1 from Shaft I, the rest from Shaft II. The com- monest are a hard red ware, faintly ribbed (1,2,5) and a pink ware with cream external slip (3, 4, 6, 8). The types between the two levels do not differ greatly but include a number of definitely Byzantine ribbed fragments and two sherds with a comb decoration. The pottery above the upper level in both shafts presents an indiscriminate mixture of medieval and modern frag- ments. Of the coins that were discovered in the shafts only two are identifi- able; both come from Shaft II: they cannot be used with certainty to date the pavements, as they were found in the shaft itself, and not directly above or below either street. The first, from 4 metres, is a bronze coin of the First Jewish Revolt, second year (i.e. a.d. 67-8), with the amphora on the obverse and vine leaf on the reverse side. The second, also a bronze coin, was 7 metres deep. It dates from the reign of Antiochus VII, 1 3 8-1 29 b.c. Obverse is a lily, reverse an anchor with single cross-bar (cf. B.M. Catalogue oj Greek Coins — Seleucid Kings of Syria, Plate XX, No. 14, and page 75, No. 69). The mint is Jerusalem. A small bronze bowl (No. 12) and a fragment of the rim of a stone jar similar to that already referred to, both found below the second level in Shaft II, complete the list of objects found. R. W. H. r 10 EXCAVATIONS AT PILGRIMS’ CASTLE (‘ATLIT) The Faubourg and its Defences. P ILGRIMS’ CASTLE 1 at 'Atlit belongs to the closing phase of the Cru- sading occupation of Palestine and Syria. Early in the thirteenth century the Latins regained a precarious safe-conduct to the Holy Places, but apart from a few inland fortresses their effective hold was limited to a chain of sea- ports. ‘Atlit was their only permanent foothold ‘between Cayphas (Haifa) and Caesarea in the diocese of Caesarea’; 2 built, as the chronicler suggests, in order to check the enemy’s forays from Mount Tabor, some thirty miles east. Together with Caesarea it formed the first-fruits of the Austro-Hungarian crusade which afterwards spent its strength at Damietta; and it got its name because the ‘pilgrims’ of this crusade helped the military orders to begin building it. At castrum filii Dei , otherwise Castellum Peregrinorum or Chaste l Pelerin , the fleet gathered in 1218. After Damietta the Temple took it over, since they already held a police post close by at a defile on the coast road called Districtum or le Destroit . 3 In the Bishop of Acre’s opinion not least of the advantages of the new garrison was that the Order was released from the sin and corruption of Acre for the recovery of Jerusalem; while at the same time it could do the Saracens the greatest possible injury from the new castle, driving them from their positions in fear of the wrath of God. 4 In Templar hands it became one of the finest of the Latin castles. In 1229 it easily defied the ‘grant malice, grant traison’ of the Emperor Frederick II, 5 and in the war of attrition in which the Mamluk sultans finally expelled the Latins it was never besieged and scarcely threatened, although at the last it could not resist independently when Acre fell in 1291. Primarily a point d* appui, it was also a stage on the road to the Holy City; between Acre and Jerusalem ‘the sons of Agar’ had no rival stronghold. Perhaps like Acre it was also a port of entry for pilgrims, whom the Templars escorted inland. It lay in well-watered 1 As late as the middle of the last century it was always known to travellers by this name, usually in the form Castle Pellegrino; cf. Alderson, Notes on Acre (London, 1844), p. 37, and earlier references given by Enlart, Monuments des Croisls (Paris, 1928), texte II, 93 ff. _ _ 5 2 The building of the castle is described in some detail by Jacques de Vitri, ‘Historia Orientalis, III, sub anno 1217, in Gesta Dei per Francos , ed. Bongars (Hanover, 16 1 1), I, 1131. It is also referred to in L’Estoire de Eracles, Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Occidentaux , II, 3 2 5 (A), 332 (B, C, D); cf. Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs , 1 , 293. 3 Now Khirbat Dustrey. 4 Jacques de Vitri, l.c. 5 Erodes, 373 (C), 374 (Bj. Ill country, says the chronicler, well stocked with fish, salt-pans, charcoal, pasture, and grass; vineyards, orchards, and gardens delighted its inhabitants. 1 It is not surprising that around the harbours beside the castle a town grew up which was important enough to have its Count of Burgesses. 2 * The outer fortifications enclosing this lower town or faubourg have formed the principal object of excavations carried out by this Department over a period of six months at intervals between May 1930 and May 1931. The chronicler justly observed that it had a fine natural position, which art could improve upon .3 The castle proper stands on a rock peninsula heavily fortified at the neck, whence beaches run east and south (Plate XL). The southern is a bay, partly land-locked, enclosing a shallow but sheltered anchor- age. Under this beach runs the back of the rocky ridge at the seaward end of which the castle was built. To the east lay a marsh thickly overgrown with tamarisks, originally an inlet of the sea, which has recently been drained to make salt-pans. Dictated by these natural features, the main extension of the town was southwards, reaching as far as the tip of the exposed part of the ridge, a kilometre SSE. of the castle, the nearest position for a watch-tower (Plate XL, l). Here a fort was built which became the south-eastern corner of a long rectangle, roughly 600 by 200 metres, bounded on the north and west by the beaches, on the east and south by a land-wall and fosse. Of the links so enclosed about 22 acres (9 hectars) were habitable, since they lay above the storm-level, and this area, roughly three times as large as the castle, was closely built over. Large mounds of blown sand overgrown with shrubs disclose the position of several of the more important buildings. One at least still stands roof-high (Plate XL, a). Before work began this too was mostly hidden by sand; the corner fort had the appearance of a green hill; and the masonry of the outer wall was visible only in places. The town had four approaches, three of them in the longer eastern side. Along the north beach ran the main road from the north, turning off the coast road near an earlier Templar casal or fort, at the ‘Narrow Ways’, the Districtum or Destroit already referred to, a kilometre east of the castle. This had been established here ‘on account of the robbers who ambushed the crusaders in the narrow defile as they were going up to Jerusalem or coming back’. 4 Here King Baldwin I had been set upon and badly wounded as far back as 1 10 3. 5 Richard the Lion Heart passed two nights at the casal on his 1 Jacques de Vitri, l.c. 2 Assises de Jerusalem, quoted by Enlart, l.c. 3 Jacques de Vitri, l.c. 4 Ibid. 5 William of Tyre, X, 26, where it is also called ‘Petra incisa juxta antiquam Tyrum (et Tlra) inter Capharnaum et Dora (Tantura) oppida maritima’. I 12 march from Acre to Jaffa in 1 1 9 1 , his army camping on the beaches and re- victualling from the ships. 1 The wadi and the ruins of the fort still keep their Frankish name in an Arabic form, Dustrey. 2 The wadi and the marshes, both inlets of the sea, forced the road inland at this point, and the older name, Petra incisa, suggests that it was in some ancient quarry that the robbers hid, possibly in the cutting which is still the principal approach to the castle. With the building of the castle the fort at Wadi Dustrey became its northern outpost. Towards the centre of the eastern side of the town a causeway crossed the marsh in a direct line with the gate-tower at the south-eastern angle of the castle. A third way from the south-east, now the station footpath, is marked by deep wheel-ruts in the western slope of the southerly ridge (Plate XLI, 1). These three were evidently the routes by which stone was brought in from the old quarries along the high ridge inland to the east of the railway (. Maqtfat 1 Atilt ), the site which is now being intensively worked by the Haifa Harbour Works Department. Southwards the main road passed along the sea-shore just under the south-eastern fort (Plate XL, m), rejoining the coast road a mile or so south of the ‘Narrow Ways’, and proceeding thence to Caesarea, Jaffa, and Jerusalem. Thus both arms of the detour from the coast road were watched by outposts, each about a kilometre from the castle and within sight of it. Though similar in plan to Khirbat Dustrey, the south-eastern fort (Fig. 1) was a later construction. The chronicles do not mention it as being already in existence when the castle was begun: indeed before the detour was made it could serve no useful purpose. On the other hand there are indications that it preceded the land-wall and therefore the development of the town. Presum- ably it was built as a southern outpost at the same time as the castle and later incorporated in the wall enclosing the town. It centred round a guard-tower built upon the last hump of the ridge. To give it relief and command it was isolated from the ridge by a rock-hewn fosse on the east and south (Plates XLI, 2, XLVI, 1). On the east this is deeper than on the south, but neither arm was carried right up to the corner, which is one or two steps higher, and neither arm was deep enough to admit the sea. Away from the ridge on the west and north, the hill was terraced to take an upper and lower range of barracks and stables (Figs. 2, 3). The upper terrace did not involve much levelling, but the lower was hewn out of the hill-side with a good deal of ingenuity and economy, entailing the minimum of building and providing the maximum of building stone. Both the long walls of the lower room on the north were scarped 1 ‘ad oppidum Capharnaum . . . usque ad Casam dictam Angustarum Viarum,’ Itinerarium Regis Ricardi , IV, 12 , 13, ed, Stubbs, Rolls Series (London 1864), 253—4. 2 The visible ruins have been described in the Survey of Western Palestine , Memoirs , I, 309-10, ”3 0 10 20 MEAN SEA LEVEL Fig. 3 Fig. 4 of the local shortage of long timber. Elsewhere as at (5), (7), (8) (Fig. 1) caves or ancient tombs were enlarged by scarping and extended with vaulted porches of cut-stone. Inside the rooms cupboards were hewn wherever possible in the rock walls (Plate XLII, 2). An unfinished set on the north side of (1) shows very clearly the method of quarrying followed before the intro- duction of gunpowder. The intended position of each cupboard is marked by three vertical grooves partly hewn to a depth of several centimetres before being abandoned. These divided the doors pace into two blocks. Normally, as in the castle quarries, they seem to have been sunk as far as the pick would go before the wooden wedges were driven home and swollen with water to split the blocks off. The fact that one of the largest of these cupboards, the one at the east end of (i), was blocked by the town wall suggests that the rock-cutting came first. On the other hand there can be little doubt that all the cutting was of one plan with the tower. In the lower western rooms (6, 9, 10) piers were carefully reserved for broken arches (Fig. 4); while both here and in the fosse older tomb-shafts of the Persian period were ruthlessly cut through to conform with the plan. Deep down in some of the shafts which have been examined Crusader coins and other objects have been found; notably in the two which underlay the wall of the tower at ( 14) and (20), obliging the disgusted architect to span them with arches (Figs. 1, 5, and Plate XLIII, 1, 2). Most, though not all, of the walls were also part of this rock-cut plan. Only the tower (15) and guard- room (20), the two rooms at the north-western corner of the upper terrace (19) and (24), the vault over (8), and the western retaining wall were of ashlar with the distinctive diagonal chisel-dressing of the Crusaders. In these rooms only have Crusader coins or other objects been picked up. The re- maining party walls on the terrace, which would have interrupted the com- mand of the tower, appear to be the hasty work of squatters, cabins for them- selves and pounds for their goats. They are indifferent buildings, of re-used stones set in mud and wedged with chips. The walls of the lower rooms (1-7, 9-12), however, and of the courtyards to the west, which consist of quarry waste including great slabs of rock set on end, do seem to belong to the original plan. After eliminating the secondary walls on the upper terrace the general plan becomes fairly clear (Fig. 1). Starting between (5) and (6) a rock ramp ascended to the upper level, turning left and then right on the other side of the building at the north-west corner. At the opposite corner of an open yard stood the tower, the door facing towards the yard (Fig. 5). At right angles with this door was another, opening into a guard-room which led out to the sentry-walk running round the two outer faces of the tower. Against the south face the sentry-walk was found to be encumbered with a strong packing of stones and mud which blocked the windows (PI. XLI, 2, after clearing); but originally it was protected by a parapet, the line of which is still marked by mortar and indicated in the photograph by a stack of vaulting-stones recently removed from the tower. The stones of the original parapet lie at the bottom of the 116 fosse. Like the stones of the town wall they are quarry-faced with tooled margins; 1 but unlike them they have clean backs and mortises for dowels ( 1 5-20 cms. each way), near the ends of the bedding face. They are sufficient for one course 90 cms. high; above, there may have been a screen of smaller ashlar. Assuming that the height of the parapet was the height of a man there would still have been a free command from the arrow-slits of the tower. There were two each of these in the western and southern faces and presum- ably in the ruined eastern face as well (Fig. 6). The northern had no arrow- slits but the door may have been protected by a machicoulis to which a corbel found in the tower belonged (Fig. 7). One of the slits on the south side still stands to its original height (Pis. XLI, 2, XLIV, 1). Inside a bench ran under the window-slits to serve as a firing-step. Against the western half of the blind north wall there was a diwan for sleeping (PI. XLIII, 2); in the opposite corner there may have been another, beside it a sink of which the earthenware drain has been found (PI. XLIV, 2). East of the door and so masking the low arch which spanned an awkward tomb-shaft in (20), a staircase ascended to the roof or an upper story. In the middle of the floor the outline of a square central pillar can be traced by means of the remaining stones and plaster edge. This divided the tower into four bays, each covered by an intersecting vault. The vaulting stones were flat and square, averaging 40x30x15 cm., of coarsely laminated limestone from the fosse, a light and suitable material on account of the sand filling between the laminations. Many of them had been used for the floor and party walls of a peasant house built upon the ruins of the tower, dividing the latter into three or more rooms. At the north-west corner of the yard were stables (19, 24); the outer room (19) had two stone troughs or mangers rendered with plaster, each long enough to take three or four horses (Fig. 8, PI. XLV, 1). Near the floor these had iron rings fixed in leaden tubes and placed irregularly 25, 50 cm., or a metre apart, possibly intended for hobbling. A large water jar was found here, stamped with rosettes on the shoulder (Fig. 9); in shape it probably resembled two found elsewhere on the site (PI. XLIV, 3 , 4). The trough in the neigh- bouring yard (18) was shallower (Fig. 10) and was placed as high as a metre from the floor; together with the stone water butts (Fig. 1 1) it may have served for either watering horses or washing harness. The camp kitchen lay against the tower in (14), where there are rock trenches some 30 cm. deep containing remains of charcoal which can hardly be explained otherwise. The water supply was handy, a rain-water cistern (22) between the tower and the stables with a capacity of 60 or 70 cubic metres. It was rectangular in plan, rock 1 p. 122. 1 18 hewn and vaulted from reserved rock arches (Fig. 12). The bottom was graded to a central sump. The faces were rendered in hard pink plaster con- taining ground pottery and fixed to the rock with sherds. Its catchment was the stable roof, which would normally have been more than sufficient to fill it. From a corbel found in (24) (PI. XLV, 2) this roof appears to have been r ' Fig. 12 timbered. From the roof the rain ran down an earthenware pipe into a covered stone butt, which was provided with a sump plug, and was led off to the cistern by a plastered rock channel covered with flat stones (Fig. 13)* Not all the animals can have been stabled or even watered on the upper terrace; of the lower range (9) and (10) were also stables, since the yards in front of them were carefully drained, while in front of (7) there is a well of good spring water practically free from salt. The rock-cut cupboards in (9) were not mangers but perhaps held forage rations. In ( 1) and (2) they were fitted with doors (Fig. 14, PI. XLII, 2) suggesting that these two rooms at least were barracks. Coins, probably lost during the building, were found in most of ”9 these rooms; they are chiefly of Hugh I of Cyprus, who died in 1217, the year the castle was commenced. A more personal document came from (8), a cellar hewn under the north wall of the tower (15) through an ancient tomb-shaft. It is the seal belonging to a member of one of the military orders, a Frenchman, most likely of the Temple. The matrix is of brass (PI. XLV, 3) and bears the legend S’. FRERE: SIMON D\ GVINECORT for ‘Seal of Friar Simon de Guinecort’, around a shield ‘lozengy per chief indented of four indentures’ (PI. XLV, 4, 5). When the town grew big enough to need defending the corner fort was taken as the starting-point of the wall and fosse (Pis. XL, b, b, b, and XLVI, 1 , 2 ). Thence they ran north and west to the beaches, where the wall terminated in towers (f, n) built far enough into the sea to make it difficult for an enemy to wade round (PI. L, 1). Neither arm was quite straight: there were slight bends at the gates (c, e, m), which had to be placed wherever a suitable rock foundation could be found, and another near the north end at (d), where the half-drum tower of a guard-room flanked the angle (Fig. 15). At the corner the wall ascended the escarps by steps, curving slightly towards the parapet in front of the tower. Throughout it was accompanied by a fosse which kept an even width of 10 metres, equal to the rock-cut portion under the fort. West and north of this the counterscarp was a dry-stone retaining wall, which can be traced for a 100 metres or more either way (PI. XLVII, 1 ). For the greater part of its length it was dry, but at the ends, where the rock floor slopes below sea-level, the sea may formerly have washed in. 1 The wall itself, like the castle, has suffered considerably from quarrying. Locally it is common knowledge that the early nineteenth-century pashas of Acre, Jazzar and his successors, took stone from here to build their mosques and khans at Acre; 2 Ibrahim Pasha similarly repaired the ramparts. 3 In sheltered parts, where there was no great accumulation of blown sand against it, or near the western shore, the wall has been pulled down to the third or second course; where it was exposed to drifting sand and covered to a greater height it is better preserved and still stands five or six courses high above the rock or footings (PI. XLVII, 2 ). The mortar shows that there was a seventh; just north of (a) ten stones belonging to this course have heeled over in a row owing to some powerful shock, either earthquake or explosion. As the coursing is 1 Against the east side the water level has been raised over two metres by the salt pans of the Palestine Salt Company; but before these works there was ‘water in places’, Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs , I. 294. 2 Rustum, Acre and its Defences under Ibrahim Pasha (Beirut, 1926), p. 7. 3 Mentioned in report on the fortifications by Lt.-Col. Alderson, R.E., entitled ‘Notes on Acre’ (London, 1844), p. 37. 120 ^ eC a\*se TboU F,Tb«n,*'r stv ( ^ U1 -t\vatv ^; cdy dr^ 'Vpdouvti g m0 re o sC ai ^ eIV ne HoC^ s aVC ^e ‘tv/o oXen C ie Vfc^ Uraesto^ e b castle, t Jacq** d those used i» thetft * x«* l.c. older labour-saving tradition of the country the stones were quarry-faced, drafted at the edges only, but truly bedded. A thick spread of lime mortar mixed with sand and shells was used between the courses, and occasionally chips as wedges. Its width varies between 2-30 and 2.-60 m., but is usually 2-55 m.; the facing stones penetrate from o-6o to i-o m., and the interval was filled in with a concrete of lime and waste (cf. PL L, 2). The gates were similarly constructed; in plan they differ somewhat. The three main gates (c, e,m) were placed at some depth between returns of the wall, inward at (c) (Fig. 1 6) and (e) (Fig. 17), outward at (m) (Fig. 18); at (e) in order that the door could be enfiladed from arrow-slits just in front of it, while (c) and (m) may have been similarly protected by machicoulis , though they are both too ruined to show any direct evidence of it, or even of a vault. But presumably these gates were vaulted, since they each had a portcullis in front of swing doors, both indicated by timbers in a photograph of (m) (PI. XLIX, 2), with possibly another machicoulis in between. 1 The doors of (m) were closed by a draw-bar resting not against the door, it appears, but against a second bar ( barre a Jleau ) pivoting on the centre of one leaf of the door; 2 3 (c) may have had a similar locking arrangement. The small foot-gate (h) (Fig. 19) was locked by two draw-bars running in the thickness of the wall (PI. XLIX, r). At (e) where the flanks were not wide enough to take the socket of a draw- bar, a pivoting bar may have been used. From skewbacks lying amongst the debris both (e) and (h) appear to have been arched. Of the four gates only one, the foot-gate at (h), was approached from the floor of the fosse (PI. XLIX, 1); (c) and (m), and presumably (e) as well, were connected with the counterscarp by bridges. Since (m) projected half-way across the fosse a single rest was sufficient to carry the transoms over the remaining metres; this short timber bridge could have been removed or destroyed in case of attack, though there are no sockets to show that it was a rising drawbridge. At (c), from the fragment of building which projects from the wall, the road seems to have been extended some way across the fosse to take a similar timber bridge which could be withdrawn or raised. North of (e) were two guard-rooms built of light rubble, in which were found fragments of two large water-jars sufficient to permit reconstruction (PI. XLIV, 3,4); one (4) has a band of combing on the shoulder covered with green glaze, the other (3) the stamps shown in Fig. 20, which the potter attempted to combine in a zigzag diaper. 1 Compare the twelfth-century gate of Carcassonne described by ViolIet-le-Duc, Diet. Raisonni de V Architecture Franfaise, s.v. Porte, VII. 317. 3 An instance from Carcassonne is given by Viollet-le-Duc, op. cit., s.v. Barriire , II. 122. 122 At either end of the wall were sea-towers (f, n). They have suffered less at the hand of man than from erosion by the sea. Of the one on the western beach, which is exposed to south-westerly gales, no more than one course remains on Fig. 18, Gate (m) the footings, despite the fact that the lower courses were of stones weighing two tons or more tied with iron dowels. Of the north sea-tower (f), however, a good deal still stands (PL L, i, 2), although the west side was so much undermined that underpinning has been necessary. The plan (Fig. 21) is on 123 the floor level, some two metres above the water. The tower had a vaulted roof reached by the staircase against the door. There were two windows in the east side, 1 and apparently one in the west. The outer walls were of ashlar in courses of 75 cm., diminishing higher up; the lowest three had a batter of 1 in 6, which was continued along the wall (PL L, 2) connecting the tower with the guard-room at (d) (Fig. 1 5). This room appears to have been con- temporary with the drum-tower and the town wall; the walls run square with 0 y n •" 1 i . i ' 1 1 1 a rt Fig. 21 the arms of the town wall on either side of the tower; the seaward wall has a batter and they are all of ashlar dressed crosswise with a chisel as in the corner tower (l). Crusader coins were found on the floor. The oven was brick-built and domed, resembling the smaller one (Fig. 27) in ( a ), room 10 (Fig. 22). The room is part of a larger building extending southwards under a Moslem cemetery that cannot be disturbed. Within the walls a house situated at (a) (PI. XL) has been excavated and partly rebuilt (PI. LI, 1). As it stands at a low level sheltered from the wind, three of the vaults were visible above the sand before clearing began. 2 1 Survey of Western Palestine , Memoirs , I. 295. 2 Referred to as (b) in Survey of Western Palestine, Memoir s, I. 294. 124 In the plan (Fig. 22) two periods of building have been distinguished, the later chiefly internal alterations to the earlier. The original plan was probably a rectangle with a long room along the south, entered at the east and divided into three compartments ( 1 — 3)» (1) it was connected by a square court or room covering (6, 7, 8) with a large hall (5), the west side of which may at first have been open. This hall (5) was originally roofed with an inter- secting vault of cut-stone in level courses, being the intersection of two pointed cradle vaults of the same height, for the groins appear to have been semi- circular and the panel arches an exact projection of them (Fig. 24). It has a parallel on a larger scale in the vault of the gate-tower at the south-east corner of the castle. Subsequently it was replaced by a somewhat steeper cradle vault running east-west, the pressure of which was too much for the outer walls; the room was full of heavy white limestone slabs (40 x 30 x 10 cm.) from the fallen vault. The long southern room may also have originally been roofed with intersecting vaults, since it was divided into four square bays; their height is given by the extrados of the arch between the second and third, calculated from the remaining voussoirs. It required no great alterations to convert this building into hot-air baths of the hypocaust type which has been familiar in this country since Hellenistic or Roman times. The new entrance was at (6); the hall (5) became the common undressing room, the long south room (r, 2, 3) the hypocaust. It is likely that (6) was built as a vestibule during these alterations, reserving (7) as a corridor connecting the hall with the hypocaust, and (8) as a spare room; the pointed cradle vault over (7) was partly masked where it abutted against the arch of (5). The hall (5) was provided with a cold-water basin in the middle of the floor and a wide plastered bench or diwan round three sides level with the bench, two courses high, which had formerly filled the recesses between the piers of the inter- secting vault. The furnace was placed in (3 ), so that ( 2) became the inner or hot room, (1) the outer or cool room. The pavement was raised on upright stones joined by stone transoms; a moulded keystone from a pointed arch (Fig. 25) was used as one of these supports. For greater comfort the floor of the hot- room (2) was finished with scraps of marble, laid in lime. Earthenware vents (PI. LI, 2) placed at the far corners of (2) and (r) forced a draught from the furnace (3). The stoke-hole was in (3, a) (Fig. 23), covered by a rough intersect- ing vault, making a mezzanine floor (3'), while the fireplace (3) was probably covered with a copper tank let in between two brick arches. Hot water from this tank ran round the walls of the sweating-rooms in one of two lines of earthenware piping (PI. LI, 3), half a metre above the floor; the other line supplied cold water. One branch followed the south side to the farthest R 125 Fig. 22. Plan of the baths, (a) on PI. XL. corner of (i); the other the north to the second wall-arch, where it seems to have passed through the wall into (5) and (7). Both branches rather incon- veniently followed wall recesses which had been blocked up to the level of the hypocaust floor. Quantities of flat brick (about 22 x 15 x 3-5 cm.) were found in both (1) and (2), often adhering in masses which showed that they 0 | < | | t | ip M Fig. 24 belonged to a vault occasionally pierced with earthenware drain-pipes (of 4-8 cm. diameter) for lighting. A handy water-supply ruled the choice of this building as baths: a covered conduit, coming from some higher source which has not yet been ascertained, runs outside the west side, having an open basin and a branch under (10) which may have filled a reservoir in (8), a room where no paving was found. Between this conduit and the house was a room with a light timber roof resting on arches which were carelessly inserted into the wall of the original building. It contained two domed ovens, one of cut-stone (Fig. 26), the other of flat brick (Fig. 27). Adjoining this 1 27 annexe in (9) (Fig. 22) was a rotatory mill of basalt. This can hardly have been a pottery: there was no trace of a false floor in the ovens, nor were any ‘wasters’ found. Probably it was the local bakehouse, sharing the heat and fuel supply of the baths. The repair of the intersecting vault in (6) (Fig. 24) disclosed an interesting survival of medieval masons’ practice. A mason from a neighbouring village, et-Tira, was employed to complete a corner of the room which had broken away with the collapse of the heavy cradle vault over (5). He at once recog- nized the vault as tirs, which is nothing other than the Arabic use of the French tiers , applied to the setting out of the vault rather than the arches. To trace Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 the missing groin he stretched a string along the two sides ab, bc of the room containing the break, on a level with the springing, and fixed the ends at opposite corners a, c (Fig. 28). By swinging the centre b upwards to p, the point where the groins intersect, he found the semicircle of the groin, p being the tiers-point or apex of raking equilateral triangles pab, &c. By trial he judged that the wall-arches were in this case of the form known as a ‘fifth’ (khums), because struck from two centres one-fifth of the span apart. This is the basic principle of the local ‘cross’ vault {‘aqd saltb ) wherever reinforced concrete has not penetrated; it is as simple to set out over rectangular compart- ments as over square ones, because the groins are always semicircles, their final height being determined by the springing. Unless connecting adjoining bays, wall arches can be of any height or curve, even semicircular; almost always they are a good deal lower than the crown. The reason for this is a practical one; because long straight timber was usually scarce it was easier to put up a centring chiefly of short pieces, as shown in a recent example (PI. LII, 1), than large cradles such as the intersecting vault in (5) required. In the case illustrated the radiating timbers were covered with a web of brush- wood, and then earth and grass, mud cakes being used on the shoulders where dry earth would not adhere (PL LII, 2); the whole was then coated with a mud crust and powdered with dry lime, and on this cushion a vault of roughly 1 28 PLATE XL THE CASTLE AND FAUBOURG FROM THE AIR (Royal Air Force Official: Crown Copyright Reserved) PLATE XLIV PLATE XLV PLATE XLVII Fra. 2. THE TOWN WALL, SOUTH OF (H) PLATE XLVIII PLATE LII Fig. i The centring from below, look- ing towards one of the haunches of the vault (pp. 138-9) Fit;. 2 Moulding the in trad os in mud over earth and grass laid on a web of brushwood Fig. 3 The back of the finished vault, with one of the haunches in PLATE LIU MARGARET OUTRAM | 1778-1863 | MOTHER OF THE BAYARD OF INDIA I & © p © © © 'C # 4 A* *c* OV _ v* yvl o* % ^ ’ * V ^ c* «©.<%> wp V °X ^7. ©/' ■%©$> BY HER GREAT-GRAND-DAUGHTER MARY FRANCES OUTRAM Vu-' © w © LONDON: JOHN MURRAY © IF///; 13 Illustrations . 1 $s. net © M ARGARET OUTRAM 5 S story is that of a forceful and original character, who, though thwarted in childhood by the theories of her learned and pedantic father, finally triumphed over all obstacles. It tells of her contact with charming old Jacobite ladies, and with a bewitching pioneer of Woman’s Rights ; of marriage with Benjamin Out- ram, of Tramway fame ; of her early widowhood and brave struggle (mostly told in her own vivid words) to bring up her children ; of friendship with Lord Melville, the Duke of Gordon, Lafayette, Lord Dalhousie, Lady Eastlake, and Miss Catherine Sinclair. Included are letters from her son, General Sir James Outram, the Bayard of India, throwing new light upon his character, romantic courtship, and brilliant career ; also Lady Outram 3 s letters from the Fort at Agra during the Indian Mutiny, 1857. It is the record of a cloudy dawn, a stormy noon, and a peaceful eventide. CONTENTS Part I A CLOUDY DAWN I The Little Girl in the Sand-hole II Three Old Maids of Quality III Edinburgh Bluestockings IV Doctor Anderson and The Bee V Domestic Economy VI Manners and Modes VII Margaret has a Commission VIII A Masculine Household IX Isleworth CONTENTS — continued Part II A STORMY NOON X Young Mrs. Outram XI Butterley XII Brave Struggles XIII A Bold Step XIV A Storm in a Teacup XV The First to Leave the Home XVI The Indian Mail XVII Tribesmen and Tigers XVIII Shadows XIX A Long Voyage XX An Indian Summer XXI In the Salon of La Fayette XXII Summer Rambles XXIII Seeking to Bury Sorrow XXIV James’s Romance XXV The Bayard XXVI An Echo of the Arabian Nights XXVII Startling News XXVIII The Mutiny XXIX Weary Waiting Part III A PEACEFUL EVENTIDE XXX Edinburgh Days XXXI Mrs. Outram’s Friends XXXII The End Appendices Index ORDER FORM If is requested that this hook he obtained through a 'Bookseller fofcutsf * I?.’.. . P3M I . . is L 1 &&£.[. i . *- ottoun, vv.i bookseller '00*86/ fa? a 4| ofi Please send me cop of “MARGARET OUTRAM” by Mart Frances Outram, price 15 j. net ( postage 6 d.), for which I enclose Name .. Address Date . JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, LONDON, W.i ■U JJhYJ tapered field stones was laid (PI. LII, 3). The broken vault in (6) was repaired in the same way, following a tradition at least as old as the Crusades. This maintains unchanged the Romanesque vault on semicircular groins (d plein cintre ), simple, uniform but ponderous, which in Europe gave way to the ribbed Gothic vault (croisee d' ogive ). 1 Is it possible that the lighter ribbed vault, adaptable to compartments of any given height or plan, was evolved by translating into stone the main features of a timber centring such as is shown in PI. LII, 1 ; and notably the series of timbers that, together with the super- imposed brushwood and mud, supported the line of intersection in such a centring, and roughly traced the line of the curve more precisely rendered by a stone rib ? Consequently while the first vault of (5) may be attributed, together with the shell of the building, to the Crusader town of the thirteenth century, the new work including (6) may be Crusading or may be later. The objects found in the fill- ing of the rooms were a mixture of both periods, Crusader and Mamluk. The coins were chiefly of the first occupa- tion, a gros tournois of Philip III for instance on the floor of ( 1) and Ayyubid coins elsewhere. But among a great many fragments of slip-ware with sgraffito designs under an iron-brown or yellow glaze were some with distinctive marks or blazons of both occupations (PI. LIII); of these, (1-4) seem to be Crusader; (6-8), Mamluk; with possibly (10), which has the interlacing rings common on Sassanian ware (cf. also Fig. 20). One lamp (5) with an emerald glaze is of a type found at the Teutonic castle of Montfort in Galilee ( Qal'at el Quratn ), also of the thirteenth century; the other (9), a surface find, can hardly be earlier than the Mamluk conquest, judging from the letter forms (Fig. 29). Evidently the house was still in use under the Mamluk occupation of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when the castle became the centre of a district ('amal ). 2 If so, was it the Mamluk garrison that converted it into baths ? The fact that a Gothic keystone (Fig. 25) was re-used in making the hypocaust points directly to Mamluk effort. Indeed baths agreed better with Egyptian than with Frankish habits. Some of the country-born Latins of the third and fourth generations may have come to prize the pleasures of Syrian baths; but to Usama b. Munqidh, the contemporary of Saladin, the behaviour of the Franks when confronted with such an unaccustomed novelty seemed naive and odd, a subject for amusing anecdote. 3 C. N. J. 1 Viollet-le-Duc, op. cit, IV. 19. 2 Subh al-A'sha, IV. 152. 3 Kit ah al-Vtibar , ed. Hitti, p. 136 f.; trans. (Princeton, 1930), p. 165. Eternal luck Happiness to its proprietor Fig. 29 129 COINS IN THE PALESTINE MUSEUM. II ( Local varieties , continued from Vol. /, No. 2, pp. 7°~30 Ascalon. M. 1 Head of heracles ( ?) r. 1 6 mm. | * Rv. Prow of galley 1 . ; 3' 8 8 grm. above: AC * (232.2) *db. PI. LIV, No. 1. M. 1 Head r., as on preceding; 19 mm. db. 4-92 grm. | Rv. Prow 1 .; (232.3) above: A C below: 0 M db. PI. LIV, No. 2. (Year 49 of Ascalon = 56-55 b.c.) 2 M. 3 Head of poseidon (?) r. 23 mm. | Rv. Eagle standing 1 .; palm-branch in field r. ; across field ( 1 . and r.): 13*57 g rm * A Z 0 M PI. LIV, No. 3. (233.1) (Year 49 = 56-55 b.c.) 2 JE. 4 Head of Augustus r. ; in field, 1 . and r. : 23 mm. C E 12*02 grm. db. (2 3 7. 1) | Rv. Female figure, wearing ( ? turreted crown — off flan,) long gown and mantle, standing 1. on galley, holding in 1. hand aphlaston and in r. sceptre ; in field 1 ., a dove and : A C in field r. : [ZIP db. PI. LIV, No. 4. (Year H7=a.d. 13-14.) * In addition to conventional abbreviations the following are used: Rv. =reverse. db. =dotted border. L. =bust laureate. LPC. =bust laureate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass. Numbers in brackets in the left-hand column are the serial numbers of the coins in the Palestine Museum. 1 Cf. British Museum Catalogue , Palestine , p. 1 09, No. 31, &c. 2 From their fabric these coins could be much later; the possibility of a second era is mentioned, ibid. p. xlix, n. 3 Ibid.,p. 1 c6, No. 16, similar. 4 Ibid., p. 114, No. 72, similar. 13° M. 26 mm. 17-09 grm. (261.1) marcus aurelius r. * L., with drapery round neck; from r. : ANTOJNINO C C £BACTOC db. /Rv. Poseidon, with chlamys on shoulders and blown back by the wind, standing 1., bending forward, resting r. elbow on r. knee (raised) with foot placed on a rock, holding in r. hand dolphin and in 1. trident ; from 1. : ACKAAtON BTTC db. PI- LIV, No. 5. (Year 282=a.d. 178/9.) JE . macrinus r. * LPC.; from 1 .: 30 mm. •K*M*OTT # C€*M A - - 24-27 grm. db. , (267.1) j 1 Rv. Heracles, unclothed, walking 1 ., carrying in r. hand Nike r. extending a wreath, and in 1. club held upwards ; from 1. : ACKAAO) [•] KT , db. PI- LIV, No. 6. (c. a.d. 218.) JE 13 mm severus Alexander r. LPC. ; from r.: AA[£] 2 AN APOC i-8fTgrm. \Rv. Sol, radiate, unclothed, standing to front, looking 1 ., with r. hand (274.1) raised 2 and flail held in 1 . ; from 1 . : ACKAA U)-HKT^ ^ (Year 328 =a.d. 224/5.) JE. 20 mm TLleutheropolis. 3 Bust of julia domna r., draped; from 1 . • db. --AOM NA-- .46 grm. \ Rv. Nike, moving 1 ., with wreath extended in r. hand; from 1 . : (286.1) A.cenc - - €A€V0€P db. PI. LIV, No. 8. * See abbreviations (n. on preceding page). : *. , h„d ^ . clumsy outline of the fingers. 3 de Saulcy, Num. de la Terre Sainte y PI. XII, No. 5* 131 m. 24 mm. 12-45 grm, (348.i) M. 28 mm. 17-26 grm. (36i-x) JE. 25 mm. 16-49 g rm - ( 363 ( 0-0 JE. 23 mm. 1 1*5 grm. ( 368 ( 0-0 1 p. 2 B.M.C., p. 132 Gaza. 1 Bust of geta r. wearing paludamentum and cuirass : from 1 . : - - CC€nTIMIOCr[£]TAC - - db. fito. Temple, showing two columns, containing figures of Artemis, with bow and quiver, and Marnas; in centre: rf in field, 1. and r. : 2 c in ex.: TAZA db. PI. LIV, No. 9. (Year 260 of Gaza =a.d. 199-200.) Raphia. commodus r., LPC.; from I.: AYTAY PHKOMOAOC db. f z Rv. Roma ( ?) helmeted, seated 1 ., holding in 1 . hand spear and extending r. towards small nude male figure ( ? Marnas) standing to front, looking 1 .; on r., small figure of Artemis standing 1 . with bow and quiver; onl.: PA<t>IA onr.: [0] AC db. PI. LIV, No. 10. (Year 239 of Raphia =a.d. 179-180.) septimius severus r., LPC.; from I.: - - A*Cen»C€ OVHPOOTT*[C€B] db. 3 Rv. City-goddess, wearing turreted crown, long robe and mantle, standing 1 ., holding in 1 . hand cornucopiae and in r. infant Dionysos seated 1., holding bunch of grapes; onr.: P A<t>! A onl.: AZC db. PI. LIV, No. xi. (Year 26i=a.d. 201/2.) severus ALEXANDER r., LPC.; from 1 .: [AVTKAIMAC£A]A£[Z]ANA[P] - - db. 166, No. 137, similar. 171, No. 2, similar. 3 Ibid., p. 1 7 1, No. 1 (on a coin of Commodus). Z 1 Rv ' Dionysos, with chlamys on shoulders, standing L, resting 1. hand on thyrsos and holding cista (?) in r.; in field I., panther seated 1., looking up; onl.: HCie'lA on r.: -ASIA db. (Year 290=a.d. 230/1.) PI. LIV, No. 12. JE. 28 mm. 1 6*74 grm. ( 453 *i) Caesarea (Samaria). 2 septimius severus r., LPC.; from centre, on r.: -- SARMA--[PTSEVERVSPP ERTAl - db. | Rv. Founder, in toga, ploughing r. with ox and cow; above, Nike flying 1, with wreath extended in r. hand; above : db. COLPRFL AVG[PC] in ex.: C AES ARE - PI. LIV, No. 13. JE. 3 severus Alexander r., L.; from 1 .; 27 mm. IMCSEV[ER] - - ii* 73 grm. db. (463.1) Eagle with wings spread, supporting wreath inscribed [SPQR]; from 1 . : CIFAV CAES in ex.: METRO db. PI. LV, No. 14. Diospolis-Lydda. M. 4 Bust of caracalla r., radiate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass; 26 mm. from 1.: 11*42 grm. AVIKMAV ANI[(ON€INO] (517. 1) db. | Rv. Temple, showing four columns with Corinthian capitals and Attic bases, supporting barrel-vault represented by two dotted lines with a continuous undulating line between; in centre, goddess wearing turreted crown and veil flying out behind, s short tunic and cuirass (?), standing 1. with spear in 1. hand, wreath (?) in r.; onl.: - - CCO onr.: AIOCTT in ex.: CIO 6 db. PI. LV, No. 1 5. (Year 9=a.d. 207/8.) 1 Ibid., p. 17 1, No. 3 (on a coin of Septimius Severus). 2 Ibid., p. 19, No. 54 ) & c * 3 Ibid., p. 27, No. x 1 8, similar. 4 Ibid., p. 43 ) N °; 3 ) simila r- s What looks like a veil flying out behind may be Nike flying 1 . extending wreath (imperfectly struck). 6 For CTO. S 133 JE. 1 caracalla r., LPC. ; from I. : 24 mm. [AVTKAI] MA*A[N] - - 12*92 grm. db. (519. 1) f Rv. Draped bust of City-goddess 1 ., wearing turreted crown; in field 1 .: € from 1 .: Acenceo aioctto db. PI. LV, No. 16. m. 25 mm. i3*°8 grm. (1053(1).!) Ptolemais-Ace. valerian 1 ., LPC.; from 1 .: I MPGE[LIC V A]LERI ANVSAV db. 2 Rv. Zeus Heliopolites, wearing kalathos, standing to front holding flail (?) in r. hand, with ears of corn in 1.; below, on either side, fore- parts of two bulls; from 1 .: COLP TO L db. Pl.LV, No. 17. 2 E. 3 valerian r., LPC. ; from 1 . : 27 mm. LERIANVSAVC 12*05 g rm * db. (1 053(2). 1) fifo. Fig-tree between two low altars from which rise serpents; caduceus in field r.; from 1 .: COL P T OL [-] db. PI. LV, No. 18. Nysa-Scythopolis. j£. caracalla r., LPC. ; from 1 . : 30 mm. AV[TK]MA ANTU *C€B 13*42 grm. db. (656.1) /Rv. Zeus, with himation over lower limbs, on 1 . shoulder and flying out behind, seated 1. on high-backed throne, holding in 1. hand sceptre and in r. Nike r. extending a wreath; from 1 . : NVC*CK[V] 0OTT *ieP*A*CVA in ex.: OC (reading outwards).* db. PI. LV, No. 19. 1 Sebaste. M. caracalla r., LPC.; from 1 .: 22 mm. [iMPCMjAVR ANTONIAVG 7*76 grm. db. (644.1) 1 de Saulcy, PL IX, No. 2. 2 Cf. Rv . types of Neapolis, Palestine, p. 49, No. 27, &c. 3 Babelon, Les Perses Achementdes^ p. 227, No. 1558. 4 Probably intended to conclude the inscription and not to be read as a date. J 34 V Rv. Sphinx, with spiked head-dress, seated L, looking to front, r. forepaw raised over wheel, wing terminating in human head 1. radiate; above: COL L SEP in ex.: SEBASTE db. PI. LV, No. 20. Dora. IE. Draped bust of julia domna r.; from 1 . : 23 mm. IOY*AO MNACGB 10-55 g rm - db. (987.1) | Rv. Draped bust of City-goddess r., wearing turreted crown and veil; in field r., prow of galley r. ; from 1. : AtOP-N AY*£IC db. PI. LV, No. 21. (Year 265, Pompeian era=A.D. 201/2.) Bostra, IE. Philip senior r., LPC.; from 1 .: 31 mm. [I MCA] - - L - - PPOSAVG (sic) 17* 69 grm. db. (1 542.1) \*Rv. Bust of Sarapis r., wearing kalathos and taenia, drapery round shoulders, star on chest ; from 1. : COLMETRO POLISBOSTRA db. PI- LV, No. 22. M. As preceding: 27 mm. IMCASMl VL PHlLIPPOSAVG (sic) 17.39 g rm< 1 Rv. As preceding: (l 542.2) [COLMETRO] POLISBOSTRA PI. LV, No. 23. M. 27 mm. 16-25 grm. Philip senior r., LPC. ; from 1 . : IMCASMIVL PHI LIPPVS[AVG] db. \3 Rv. Male bust r., wearing taenia, drapery chest; from 1: COLMETROPOLISBOSTRA db. over shoulders and star on PI. LVI, No. 24. 1 B.M.C.,-0. 81, No. 19, similar. „ 2 Or bust of Zeus- Ammon? See discussion on Dussaud’s identification of Dusares with Zeus- Ammon, B.M. C., Arabia, pp. xxvi fF., also Rev. Num., 19 1 1, pp. 69 ff. 3 The god here represented (Dusares?) seems identical with the Sarapis or Zeus-Ammon on the preceding coin except that he does not wear the kalathos; this may lend support to ussau s identification, which is questioned in the references quoted. Cf. Rv. type, B.M.C., Arabia , p. 23, No. 39. 135 Damascus. M. Draped bust of otacilia sevjera r., hair rolled, ending in plaits turned up 29 mm. on back of head and secured at the top by stephane; horns of crescent 15*53 grm. showing on either side of bust; from 1.: (2383.1) MOTACSEVERAAVG db. V Rv. Goddess, wearing turreted crown and long robe in folds over lower limbs, reclining 1. in tunnel (aqueduct) over stream issuing r. out of small cubical block from which rise three short vertical lines (? flaming altar); she holds in r. hand (extended) a bunch of corn and in 1. cornu- copiae; above, a temple showing four columns, pediment containing sun-disk, podium resting on top of tunnel; in the temple, Marsyas walking 1. with water-skin; in field 1., a star; r., a crescent; from 1.: COLDAM ASMETRO in ex.: TTHTAI db. Pl.LVI, No. 25. m. 30 mm. 16*07 grm. (2386.1) Philip senior and philip junior, busts confronted, the former r. laureate, the latter 1. radiate, each wearing paludamentum and cuirass ; from 1. : - - I LIPPVSAV in ex. (reading outwards): GG db. \Rv. Heracles, nude, standing to front, looking 1 ., holding over extended r. arm lion-skin and leaning with 1. hand on club; in field r., palm- branch; 1 2 from 1 .: COLDA -- ETRO db. PI. LVI, No. 26. JE. philip senior r., LPC. ; from 1. : 28 mm. IMPM 15*43 grm. db. (2386(1). 1) | 3 Rv. Goddess, wearing turreted crown, in long robe hanging from shoulders, leaving body uncovered but wrapped in folds over lower limbs, reclining 1. above stream in which river-god Chrysoroas swims r. ; she holds two ears of corn in r. hand and (? cornucopiae) in 1.; from 1.: COL«DAM - - in ex.: XPYCO - - db. PI. LVI, No. 27. 1 Imhoof-Blumer, Nymphen und Chariten , Journ. Internat. d' Arch. Numismatique , Tome 1 1 (1908), p. 1705 also Head, Historia Numorum (1911), p. 784. 2 Type much worn; perhaps holding in 1. hand club (downwards) and palm-branch. 3 Cf. type of Trebonianus Gallus, Galatia , p. 287, No. 28. 136 Gadara. JE. 21 mm. 9‘94 gnn. (2490.1) JE. 34 mm. 21-25 grm. (2498.1) JE. 34 mm. 18-72 grm. (2499.1) JE. 26 mm. 14-97 grm. (2501. 1) nero r., L. ; from r. : [N]EPX2NKAI CAP db. | Rv. City-goddess, wearing turreted crown, long gown and mantle, standing 1., extending wreath in r. hand, holding (? cornucopiae) in 1.; in field!., palm-branch; also: LAAP from r.: [F] AAAPA db. PI. LVI, No. 28. (Year 13 1, Pompeian era=A.D. 67-68.) septimius severus r., L. ; from r.: AYT - - db. | l Rv. Galley 1 . with oars and rudder, heads of rowers showing above deck and nude male figure seated 1. at stern; above: [no - -] HI6C0N [r]AA[AP]€(d €T - ZC db. PI- LVI, No. 29. (Between a.d. 197 and 206.) caracalla (P or Elagabalus) r., LPC.; from 1 . : AVKMA[V] - - ANTW - - db. \Rv. Similar to preceding; amphora at prow nOMfT - r aa[a]P6W - ; in ex., two dolphins; PI. LVI, No. 30. gordian hi r., LPC. ; from 1 . [IM] - - OPAIA -- db /Rv. Galley r., with oars, heads of rowers, and male figure seated r. at stern ; over prow, standard ( ? or lamp hung on a pole) ; above : - OMTT [r]AAAP€ .. WN PI. LVI, No. 31. 1 Cf. de Saulcy, p, 302 and PI. XV. 137 JE. 1 8 mm. 5*82 grm. (1607.1) M. 25 mm. I +‘45 grm (1625.1) Philadelphia. 1 Female bust 1 ., veiled and draped; from 1 .: <t>IAAA£A<l>€ - - db. | Rv. Five ears of corn on stems bound below with a leaf on either side; around : - - [M C] db. PI. LVI, No. 32. lucius verus r., LPC.; from 1 .: AYT.KAIOA AYP»OYHPOC . db. | 2 Rv. Veiled and draped bust of the goddess Asteria r., with star above her head; from 1.: <t>J A*KOI*[C]YPI 0€AACT[€]PIA db. PI. LVI, No. 33. C. L. 1 Asteria? 1 Cf. type of Marcus Aurelius, Arabia , p. 39, No. 12. CONCISE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EXCAVATIONS IN PALESTINE 1 KAFR BIR'lM Small synagogue excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1866. Wilson, C. W.: ‘Notes on Jewish Synagogues in Galilee’ (in QSt., 1869), pp. 37 ff., especially p. 40 (copied almost verbatim in Special Papers , pp. 294—9). Great synagogue excavated by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft in 1905. Kohl, Heinrich und Watzinger, Carl: ‘Antike Synagogen in Galilaea’ (in WVDOG, Vol. 29, 1916), pp. 89-100, Figs. 174-91, Pis. XII-XIII. KHAN EL AHMAR (ST. EUTHYMIUS) Excavations conducted by the British School of Archaeology , Jerusalem., in 1928 . Chitty, D. J. and Jones, A. H. M. : ‘The Church of St. Euthymius at Khan el-Ahmar, near Jerusalem’ (in QSt., 1928), pp. 175-8, 1 PI. KHAN EL LAJJUN See Megiddo. KHIRBAT HUBEILA Casual discovery in 1924. Abel, F.-M.: ‘Eglise byzantine au Khirbet Hebeileh’ (in RB , 1925)5 PP" 279-82, Figs. 7, 8. KHIRBAT KERAZA Excavations conducted by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft in 1905 . Kohl, Heinrich und Watzinger, Carl: ‘Antike Synagogen in Galilaea’ (in WVDOG, Vol. 29, 1916), pp. 41-58, Figs. 77-1 u, PI. VII. Cleared by the Department of Antiquities in 1926. Ory, J. : ‘An Inscription newly found in the Synagogue of Kerazeh’ (in QSt., 1927), p. 51 f., PI. III. KHIRBAT SAMMAKA Excavations conducted by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft in 1903. _ Kohl, Heinrich und Watzinger, Carl: ‘Antike Synagogen in Galilaea’ (in JVVDOG , Vol. 29, 1916), pp. 135-75 Fi g s - 2 73 “ 9 * LACHISH See Tall el Has!. 1 Continued from No. 2, pp. 86-94. [io] 139 MAGHARAT EL AMIRA Excavations carried out by the British School of Archaeology, Jerusalem, in 192$. (Turville-Petre, Francis): ‘Excavations of Two Palaeolithic Caves in Galilee’, with an Addendum: ‘Note on the Galilee Skull’ by Sir Arthur Keith (in BBSAJ, No. 7, 1925), PP* 99-102, Pis. Ill— V. Turville-Petre, F.: Researches in Prehistoric Galilee 1923—1926, with Sections by Dorothea M. Bate and Charlotte Baynes, and Sir Arthur Keith: A Report on the Galilee Skull, London, 1927, xiv+119 pp., XXX Pis., 37 Figs. MAGHARAT EL WAD Excavations started in 1928 by the Department of Antiquities, since continued by the British School of Archaeology, Jerusalem, and the American School of Prehistoric Research. Garrod, Dorothy: ‘Excavations in the Mugharet El-Wad, near Athlit, April-June, 1929’ (in QSt., 1929), pp. 220-22. Garrod, D[orothy] A. E. : ‘Excavations in the Caves of the Wady-el-Mughara, 1929-30’ (in BASPR , No. 7, April, 1931), pp. 5-1 1, 4 Pis. (Figs.). MAGHARAT EZ ZUTTIYA Bibliography as under Magharat el Amlra. MALHA Excavations carried out by the American School of Oriental Research in 1923. Albright, W. F.: ‘Interesting Finds in Tumuli near Jerusalem’ (in BAS OR, No. 10, 1923), pp. 1-3, 1 Fig. MEGIDDd Excavations conducted by the Deutscher Palastina-Verein and the Deutsche Orient-Gesell- schaft in 1903—5. Schumacher, G. ; ‘Die Ausgrabungen auf dem Tell el-Mutesellim’, I-V (in MuNDPF , 1904), pp. 14-20, 33-56, Figs. 3-19. Benzinger, I.: ‘Die Ausgrabungen auf dem Tell el-Mutesellim’, VI (in MuNDPF , 1904), pp. 65-74, Figs. 20-26. Schumacher, G.: ‘Die Ausgrabungen auf dem Tell el-Mutesellim’ VII-VIII (in MuNDPF, 1905), pp. 1-15, 17-26, 81 f., Figs. 1-19 ; VIII-X (ib., 1906), pp. 1-14, 17-30, Figs. 1—3 1 ; pp. 35-64, 65-70, Figs. 33-62. Kautzsch, E.: ‘Ein althebraisches Siegel vom Tell el-Mutesellim’ (in MuNDPF, 1904), pp. 1-14, Figs. 1-2. Erman, Ad'olfjand Kautzsch, E[mil]: ‘Ein Siegelstein mit hebraischer Unterschrift vom Tell el-Mutesellim’ (in MuNDPF , 1906), pp. 33-5, Fig. 32. Schumacher, G.: Tell el-Mutesellim, Vol. 1. Fundbericht . . . herausgegeben von C. Steuernagel, Leipzig, 1908. A. Text, xv+192 pp.,292 Figs., Front. B. Tafeln, iv pp., L Pis. Watzinger, Carl: Tell el-Mutesellim, Vol. 2, Die Funde, Leipzig, 1929, 80 Figs. 140 [n] Excavations conducted by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago since 1923. Fisher, Clarence S.: ‘The Excavation of Armageddon’ (in OIC, No. 4), Chicago, 1928, xv+ 7 8 pp., 53 Figs. Guy, P. L. O.: ‘New Light from Armageddon. Second Provisional Report (1927— 9) on the excavations at Megiddo in Palestine’ with a chapter on ‘An Inscribed Scarahoid by W. E. Staples (in OIC , No. 9), Chicago, 1931, x-j-68 pp., Front., 6 1 Figs. MEIRUN Excavations conducted by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1866. Wilson, C. W.: ‘Notes on Jewish Synagogues in Galilee’ (in QSt,, 1869), pp. 37-42, especially p. 40 (copied almost verbatim in Special Papers , pp, 294-9, 4 Figs.). EL MEQERQESH See Beit Jibrln. EL MIDYA Excavations conducted by Victor Guerin in 1870 . ‘The rock tombs of El Medyeh’ (in QSt., 1870), p. 390 (copied from Globe of 20, viii, 1870). MOUNT CARMEL Excavations carried out by the Department of Antiquities in ig22. Guy, P. L. O.: ‘Mt. Carmel. An Early Iron Age Cemetery near Haifa, excavated September, 1922’ (in BBSAJ, No, 5), pp. 47-55, ^ s * MOUNT GERIZIM Excavations conducted by the Survey Party in 1866. W(ilson), C. W. : ‘Ebal and Gerizim, 1866’ (in QSt., 1873), pp. 66-71, r PI. Excavations conducted by the Archaeological Institute of the German State in 1927 and 1928. Welter, Gabriel: ‘Deutsche Ausgrabungen in Palastina II’ (in Forschungen und Fort- schritte , Vol. IV, No. 32, November, 1928), p. 329 f., x Fig. en nab! rubIn Excavation carried out by the Department of Antiquities in 1925. Mayer, L. A. : ‘A Bronze-Age Deposit from a Cave near Neby Rubin (Jaffa District)’ (in BPM , No. 2), pp. 2-7, Pis. I— III a. NABLUS Roman villa partially excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1872. Drake, Tyrwhitt: ‘Reports’ (in QSt., 1872), p. 190. Casual discovery of an aqueduct in 1882 . Reinicke: [Aus Briefen] (in ZDPF, 1883), p. 79 f. Guthe, H.: ‘Neue Funde in Nabulus’ (in ZDPF, 1883), pp. 230 ff. Schreiber, Th.: ‘Die Dreifassbasis von Nablus’ (in ZDPF . , 1884), pp. 136-9, DL T [r2] I 4 1 Excavations conducted by the Ecole Archeol. Franfaise, Jerusalem, in ig20 and ig2i , Vincent, H.: ‘Un hypog^e antique a Naplouse’ (in RB, 1920), pp. 126-35', Abel, F.-M.: ‘Notre exploration a Naplouse’ (in RB, 1922), pp. 89-99, 3 Pis., iU- Casual discovery oj a tomb-cave in ig24. [Garstang, John]: ‘Nablus’ (in BBSAJ , No. 6, 1 924), p- 7 ^* Excavated by the British School oj Archaeology, Jerusalem, in 1927. FitzGerald, G. M.: ‘A find of stone seats at Nablus’ (in QSt., 1929), pp. 104-10, PI. XVII. NABRATAIN Excavations conducted by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft in igoy. Kohl, Heinrich und Watzinger, Carl: ‘Antike Synagogen in Galilaea’ (in WVDOG, Vol. 29, 1916), pp. 101-6, Figs. 192-203, PI. XIV. NAZARETH Excavations conducted by the Custodia della Terra Santa in i8go—igog . Vlaminck, Benedict : A refort of the recent excavations and explorations conducted at the sanctuary oj Nazareth. Washington, Commissariat of the Holy Land, 1900, 10 pp., ill. Viaud, (Prosper-Marie) : ‘Nazareth et ses deux eglises de l’annonciation et de l’atelier de Saint Joseph’ (in CAIL, 1909), pp. 791-3. Viaud, Prosper : Nazareth et ses deux eglises de V Annonciation et de Saint- Joseph d'aprks les jouilles recentes. Paris, 1910, xiii+200 pp., 94 Figs. Casual discovery oj a tomb-cave in ig22. Mansur, Asad: ‘An interesting discovery in Nazareth’ (in QSt., 1923), pp. 89-91, 1 Fig. qal'at el qurain Excavations conducted by the Metropolitan Museum oj Art, New Tork, in ig26. Dean, Bashford: ‘A Crusaders’ Fortress in Palestine. A Report of Explorations made by the Museum, 1926’ (in BMMA,NT, Part II, 1927), 46 pp., 59 Figs. QALUNYA Excavated in 1886. Schick, Conrad: ‘Newly discovered rock-hewn tomb at Kolonieh’ (in QSt., 1887), PP- 5 i- 5 > 8 Figs. QARYAT EL 'iNAB See Abu Ghosh. RAMAT EL KHALfL Excavations carried out by the Gorres-Gesellschaft in ig26-8. Mader, A. E.: ‘Die Ausgrabung an der Abrahamseiche bei Hebron. <Vorlaufiger kurzer Bericht fiber die Arbeit 1926-27)’ (in Orient Christianas, III ser., Vol. x, 1927 ), PP- 333 - 51 - I 4 2 [13] Mader, A. E. : ‘Die Ausgrabung an der Abrahamseiche bei Hebron (Haram rSmet el- Chalil)’ (ib., Vol. 2, 1928), pp. 360-79. : ‘La Basilica Constantiniana di Mambre presso Hebron secondo la tradizione e gli ultimi scavi della Goerres-Gesellschaft’ (in Rivista di Archeologia Cristiana, Vol. VI, 1929), pp. 249-312, Figs. 1-17. ER RAS Casual discovery in igo8. Hansler, Heinrich: ‘ArcMologisches aus Jerusalem. Gr&berfunde’ (in HL, 1909), pp. 33-5, Figs. 2 and 3 (quoting report of Mauritius Gisler). SABASTYA Excavations at the Church of St. John made by the Survey Party in 1866 . Wilson, C. W.: ‘Letters’ (in QSt., 1868), p. 35. Excavations carried out by Harvard University in 1908 and 1910—11. Lyon, David Gordon : ‘The Harvard Expedition to Samaria’ (in Harvard Theological Review , Vol. II, 1909), pp. 102-13, 18 Figs., 3 Plans; (Vol. Ill, 1910), pp. 136-8. Reisner, George A.: ‘The Harvard Expedition to Samaria’ (ib., Vol. Ill, 1910), pp. 248-63, 8 Pis. Lyon, David G.: ‘The results of the third year’s exploration in Samaria’ (in RP 10, 1911), p. 43. Reisner, George Andrew, Fisher, Clarence Stanley and Lyon, David Gordon : The Har- vard Excavations at Samaria. 2 Vols., Cambridge (Mass.), 1924. Vol. I, Text, xxxii+417 pp., 246 Figs.; Vol. II, Plans and Plates, xxii pp., 16 Plans, 90 Pis. SAFFURIYA Excavations conducted by the Custodia della Terra Santa in 1909. Viaud, Prosper: ‘Fouilles recentes pratiques dans l’dglise de Sainte-Anne a S^phoris’ (Appendice II in Viaud, Prosper: Nazareth et ses deux e'glises de 1' Annonciation et de Saint- Joseph, Paris, 1910), pp. 179-84, Figs. 91-2. _ ( _ Clermont-Ganneau, (Charles): ‘Mosaique juive a inscription, de Sdpphoris’ (in CAIL, 1909), pp. 677-83, 2 Figs, (reproduced in Viaud, Prosper: Nazareth et ses deux eglises de l' Annonciation et de Saint-Joseph , Paris, 1910, pp. 185-91, Figs. 93-4). SEILUN Soundings and excavations conducted by the Danish Palestine Expedition since 1922. Albright, W. F.: ‘The Danish Excavations at Shiloh’ (in BASOR , No. 9, 1923), p. xo f. , Kiser, Hans: ‘The Danish Excavation of Shiloh. Preliminary Report (in y 8 t., 192,7), pp. 202—13, Pis. VI— IX. > : ‘The Excavation of Shilo, 1929. Preliminary Report’ (in JPOS, X, 1930), pp. 87-174, 3 plans, 47 Figs.). 1 1 Published also in book form under the title The Excavation of Shilo, the place of Eli and Samuel , Copenhagen, Host k Son, 1930. [H] 143 Kjaer, Hans: ‘Shiloh. A Summary Report of the Second Danish Expedition, 1929’ (in QSt., 1931), pp. 71-88, 17 Figs. ST. EUTHYMIUS See Khan el Ahmar. SHALLAL Casual discovery during military operations some time before April 1917. Massey, W. T.: ‘Discovery in Palestine: Ancient Christian Church: A Beautiful Mosaic’ (in The Daily Telegraph , 23, viii, 1917, p. 7c). Lagrange, M.-J.: ‘La mosaique de Chellal en Palestine’ (in RB, 1917), pp. 569-72. shafa 'amr Casual discovery in 1887. van Kasteren, J. P.: ‘Neuentdeckte Grabkammern. ... II. In schefa-'amr’ (in ZDPV . , 1889), pp. 27-30, Fig. IY. SHUQBA Soundings carried out by P. Alexis Mallon in 1924. Mallon, Alexis: ‘Quelques stations prehistoriques de Palestine. V. La grotte de Souqba’ (in Melanges de TUniversite St. Joseph , 1925), Vol. X, fasc. 6, p. 191 f. Excavations carried out by the British School of Archaeology, Jerusalem , in 1928. Garrod, Dorothy A. E.: ‘Excavation of a Palaeolithic cave in Western Judaea’ (in QSt., 1928), pp. 182-5. SUR BAHIR Excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1895. Dickie, Archibald C[ampbell] : ‘Report on tombs discovered near Sur B&hir’ (in QSt., 1896), pp. 22-4, 1 PI. (The essential portion of this article was reprinted in Bliss, Frederick Jones and Dickie, Archibald Campbell: Excavations at Jerusalem , 1894-7, pp. 239-43, PI. XXIV.) TABOR Excavations carried out by the Franciscan Fathers about i860. Schollmeyer, A.: ‘Zur Palastinaforschung. Die letzten Ausgrabungen auf dem Tabor’ (in TkGl., V, 1913), pp. 748-50. Barnabe d’ Alsace : Le Mont Thabor, notices historiques et descriptives, Paris, x 900, ix+ 1 74 PP»> 3 Pis., 3 Plans. TALHUM Partly cleared by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft in 1905. Kohl, Heinrich und Watzinger, Carl: ‘Antike Synagogen in Galilaea’ (in WVDOG , Vol. 29, 1916), pp. 4-40, Figs. 2-76, Pis. I-VI, Front. *44 [ij] Excavated by the Custodia della Terra Santa in 1905—21. Orfali, Gaudence: Capharnaiim et ses ruines d’apres Ies fouilles accomplies a Tell-Houm par la Custodie Franciscaine de Terre-Sainte (1905-1921). Paris, 1922, viii+120 pp., 12 Pis., 130 Figs. TALL 'AMR Soundings made by the British School of Archaeology, Jerusalem, in 1922. [Garstang, John and Phythian-Adams, J. W.l: ‘Tell Amr’ (in BBSAJ, No. 2, 1922), pp. 14-15, Pis. II/., V-VIa. TALL BEIT MIRSIM Excavated by the American School of Oriental Research and the Xenia Theological Semin- ary since 1926 . Albright, W. F. : ‘The Excavations at Tell Beit Mirsim I, IP (in BAS OR, No. 23, 1926), pp. 2-14, 9 Figs. . : ‘The Second Campaign at Tell Beit Mirsim (Kiriath-Sepher)’ (in BASOR, No. 31, 1928), pp. 1— 11, 7 Figs. : ‘The American Excavations at Tell Beit Mirsim’ (in ZAW, 1929), pp. 1-17. : ‘The Third Campaign at Tell Beit Mirsim and its historical results' (in JR OS , XI, 1931), pp. 105-29. TALL EL FARl'A Excavated by the British School of Archaeology in Egypt in 1927—9. Petrie, [Sir W. M.] Flinders: ‘Beth-Phelet’ (in AE, June, 1928), pp. 33-6, Figs. 1-4. : ‘The Shepherd Kings in Palestine. Excavations at Beth-Pelet, IF (in AE, March 1929), pp. 1-16, Figs. 1-19. : Beth-Pelet I (Tell Fara ). London, 1930, vii+26 pp.. Pis. I-LXXI, 2 Figs. TALL EL FUL Soundings made by the Survey Party in 1868. Conder, C. R. and Kitchener, H. H. : The Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs, Vol. Ill, pp. 158-60, 1 Fig. Excavations carried out by the American School of Oriental Research in 1922-3. Albright, W. F.: ‘Preliminary reports on Tell el-Ful’ (in BASOR, No. 6, 1922), p. 7 f., 1 Fig. : ‘The Excavation at Tell el-Ful’ (in BASOR, No. 7, 1922), p. 7 f., 1 Fig.; (ib. No. 9, 1923), p. 4, 2 Figs. : ‘Excavations and Results at Tell el-Fftl (Gibeah of Saul)’ (in A AS OR, IV, 1922-3), pp. 1-89, XXIII Pis. : hiNty njn;a nn'snn ‘The Excavations at Gibeat Shaul’ (in Qobes, Vol. 1, fasc. 2), pp. 53-60, Figs. 14, 15. TALL EL HASI Excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1890-3. Petrie, W. M. Flinders : Tell el Hesy <. Lachish} , London, 1891. 62 pp., X Pis., Front., illus. Bliss, Frederick Jones: A Mound of many Cities; or, Tell el Hesy excavated ’ London, 1894 (2nd edition, 1898), 201 pp., 4 Pis., illus. : ‘Report on the excavations at Tell el Hesy, for the Autumn Season of the year 1891’ (in QSt., 1892), pp. 95-113, Pis. Ill— IV, 1 6 Figs. Petrie, W. M. Flinders: ‘Notes on the results at Tell el Hesy’ (ib.), p. x 14 f. TALL EL HARBAJ Soundings and Excavations carried out by the British School of Archaeology, Jerusalem , in 1922 and 1923. [Garstang, J. and Phythian- Adams, W. J.J: ‘Tell el Harbaj’ (in BBSAJ, No. 2, 1922), pp. 12-14, Pis* II e - d-, HI, IV. >'■ [ •]: ‘Notes and News, El Harbaj’ (in BBSAJ, No. 2, 1922), p. 34. [- ] : ‘El Harbaj : Notes on Pottery found at el Harbaj, Summer x 923’ (in BBSAJ, No. 4, 1924), p. 45 f.,- PI. IV. TALL HCM See Talhum. ' • ' TALL EL HXTSN See Beisan. TALL JAMMA Soundings carried out in 1922 . Phythian-Adams, W. J-. : ‘Report on Soundings at Tell Jemmeh’ (in QSt., 1923), pp. 140-6, Pis. I-IV, Figs., 1-2. Excavations carried out by the British School of Archaeology in Egypt in 1926—7. Petrie, [Sir W. M.] Flinders: Gerar, London, 1928, vii+34 pp., LXXII Pis. : [Lecture] (in QSt., 1927), pp. 129-40. : ‘Egypt over the Border. Work of the British School of Archaeology in Egypt’ (in AE, March, 1927), pp. 1-8, Front., 4 Figs. •. TALL EL JUDEIDA Excavations carried out by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1899-1900. Bliss, F. J. : ‘First Report on the Excavations at Tell ej-Judeideh’ (in QSt., 1900), pp. 87-101, Pis. I— II, 3 Figs. : ‘Second Report on the Excavations at Tell ej-Judeideh’ (in QSt., 1900), pp. 199-222, Pis. I-VII. _ ' ~ ' Macalister, R. A. Stewart: ‘Cup-marks at Tell ej-Judeideh’ (in QSt., 1900), p. 249, 1 PI. Bliss, Frederick Jones and Macalister, R. A. Stewart : Excavations in Palestine during the years 1898-1900, London, 1902, pp. 44-51, PI. LXXXIX, Figs. 22-4. See Megiddo. TALL EL MUTASALLIM TALL MUBARAK Excavated by the Department of Antiquities in ig24. [Garstang, John]: ‘Note on a sculptured marble sarcophagus from Caesarea’ (in BBSAJ, No. 5, 1924), p. 55 £, PI. IV. [ •]: ‘Notes and News: . . . Caesarea’ (in BBSAJ , No. 6, 1924), p. 77, Pis. V, VI. TALL EN NASBA Excavations carried out by the Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley , California , since 1926. Bad&, William Frederic: ‘Excavation of Tell en-Nasbeh’ (in BAS OR, No. 26, 1927), pp.. 1-7,, 5 Figs. : ‘Excavations at Tell en-Nasbeh, 1926 and 1927. A Preliminary Report’ ( Palestine Institute Publication, No. 1, Berkeley, 1928), 56 pp., 26 Figs. : ‘The Mizpah Expedition of the Pacific School of Religion’ (in BPSR, Vol. 5, No. 3), 1 pp. 159-61. -: ‘The Tell en-Nasbeh Excavations of 1929. A Preliminary Report’ (in QSt., 1 93°), pp. 8-19, Pis. I— III. ' .TALL EL QASSIS Soundings made by the British School of Archaeology, Jerusalem, in 1922. [Garstang, John and Phythian-Adams, J. W.]: .‘Tell el-Kussis’ (in BBSAJ, No. 2, 1922), p. 16 f., PI. VI b. TALL ES SAFI Excavations earned out by the Palestine Exploration Eund in i8gg . Bliss, F. J. : ‘First Report on the Excavations at Tell-es-Safi’ (in QSt., 1899), pp. 183- 99, 1 PI., 2 Figs. : ‘Second Report on the Excavations at Tell es-Safi’ (in QSt., 1899), pp. 3 1 7 — 33, 1 1 Pis., 8 Figs. Macalister, R. A. S.: ‘The rock-cuttings of Tell es-Safi’ (in QSt., 1900), pp. 29-53. Bliss, Frederick Jones and Macalister, R. A. Stewart: Excavations in Palestine during the years i8g8-igoo, London, 1902, pp. 28-43, Fig s - 8-21, Pis. VII-VIII. TALL SANDAHANNA See Beit Jibrin. TALL ES SULTAN See Jericho. TALL Tl'lNNIK Excavations carried out by Ernst Sellin with the help of the Academy of Science and the Ministry of Education, Vienna, in igo2~4. __ _ T „ Sellin (Ernst): ‘Kurzer Bericht fiber die Ausgrabung von Ta'annek (in MuNDPV, 1902—3), I: pp. 13—16. II: pp. 17—19. Ill: pp. 33 — 1 6* IV (ib., i 9 ° 3 )‘ PP € I- 4 * * An abstract of which was published by the author in QSt., I9 2 7> PP* 7 & [18] 147 Sellin, E. : ‘Bericht iiber die Ausgrabung von Ta'anach’ (in AttzAIVJV , phil.-hist. Kl. XXXIX, 1902), pp. 94 - 7 , 120-3 XL (X903), pp. 6 1 - 4 ; - : ‘Vorlslufiger Bericht iiber seine diesj&hrige Ausgrabung aur dem I ell la annek in Mstina’ (in AnzAWW., phil.-hist. Kl. XLI, 1904), pp. 126-30. ; ‘Tell Ta'annek. Bericht iiber eine mit Untersttitzung der Kaiserhchen Aka- demie der Wissenschaften und des K. K. Ministeriums fur Kultus und Unterricht unternommene Ausgrabung in Paliistina. Nebst einem Anhange von Fnedrich Hrozny: ‘Die Keilschrifttexte von Ta'annek’ (in DAJVW , phil-hist. Kl., Vol. L, 1904), 123 pp., 13 Pis., 2 Plans, 125 Figs., Facs. . : Eine Nachlese auf dem Tell Ta'annek in Palastma. Nebst einem Anhange von Friedrich Hrozny: ‘Die neugefundenen Keilschrifttexte von Ta'annek’ (in VAWW. , phil.-hist. Kl., Vol. LII, 1905), 41 pp., 5 Pis. TALL ZAKARIYA Excavations carried out by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1 898—1900. Bliss, F. J.: ‘First Report on the Excavations at Tell Zakariya’ (in QSt., 1899), pp. 10-25, 1 PL, 3 Figs. . : ‘Second Report on the Excavations at Tell Zakariya’ (ib.), pp. 89-111, Plan, Pis. I-VII, 2 Figs. ‘Third Report on the Excavations at Tell Zakariya’ (ib.), pp. 170-87, Pis. I-VII, 1 Fig. _ . ‘Fourth Report on the Excavations at Tell Zakariya’ (in QSt., 1900), pp. 7-16, Pis. I-IV, 1 Fig. Macalister, R. A. Stewart: ‘The rock-cuttings of Tell Zakariya’ (in QSt., 1899), pp. 25—36. : ‘Further Notes on the rock-cuttings of Tell Zakariya’ (in QSt., 1900), pp. 39-53, Pis. I-V. Bliss, Frederick Jones, and Macalister, R. A. Stewart: Excavations in Palestine during the years 1898-1900. With a chapter by Wunsch. London, 1 902, pp. 12-27, Figs. 3-7, Pis. I-VI. TANTURA Excavations conducted by the British School of Archaeology, Jerusalem, in 1923 and 1924. [Garstang, John and Phythian-Adams, J. W.]: Tanturah (Dora), Parts I— II (in BBSAJ, No. 4, 1924), pp. 35-45, Pis. I— III ; Parts III-IV (ib., No. 6, 1924), pp. 65—73, Pis. I— IV. F[itz]G[erald], G. M.: ‘Excavations at Tanturah, 1924’, Part V (in BBSAJ, No. 7, I 9 2 5 )> PP- 80-98. TIBERIAS AND VICINITY Excavations conducted by the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society, in 1920 and 1921. Slouschz, Nahum: nnatr:>Em»na mann nvren (‘The Excavations of the Society at Hama-Tiberias’) (in Qobes, Vol. I, fasc. 1), pp. 5 — 39, 16 Figs. : .von ncn nn'Dn^ d'ni^d (Additions to ‘The Excavations at Hama Tiberias’) (in Qobes, Vol. I, fasc. 2-4), pp. 49-52, Figs. 12, 13. 148 [19] Casual discovery in 1920. Schmitz, Ernst: ‘Ein Graberfund bei Tiberias’ (in ZDPF, 1920), p. 62 f., 1 Plan. Excavations carried out by Professor Karge. Karge, Paul: ‘Meine Ausgrabungen am See Genezareth’ (in Schlesische Folkszeitung, 1912), Nos. 52, 54, 56, 58 (2, 4, 6, 7 February). UMM EL 'AMAD Excavations carried out by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1866. Wilson, C. W. : ‘Notes on Jewish Synagogues in Galilee’ (in QSt., 1869), pp. 37-42, especially p. 40 (copied almost verbatim in Special Papers , pp. 294—9). UMM JARAR Casual discovery in 1917. Drake, F. M.: ‘A Sixth Century Greek Mosaic at Um Jerar’ (in QSt., 1918), pp. 122-4, 1 Pis- UMM ER RUS Casual discovery in 1899. Macalister, R. A. Stewart: ‘A Byzantine church at Umm er Rus’ (in QSt., 1899), pp. 200-3, 1 P1 -> 3 Figs. wad! ghazza See Tall Jamma. WELL OF JACOB OR WELL OF THE SAMARITAN Excavated in 1892 and in 1895. S^journd, Paul-M. : ‘Chronique de Jerusalem . . . Puits de Jacob ou de la Samaritaine’ (in RB, 1893), pp. 242-4, 1 Plan. : ‘Chronique de Jerusalem . . . Nouvelles d^couvertes au puits de la Samari- taine’ (in RB, 1895), PP- 619-21, 2 Figs. zir'In Casual discovery in 1902 . Schumacher, G. : ‘Remains of a mediaeval Christian church at Zer'in’ (in AJA, VI, 1902), p. 338 f., PI. XIII. [20] 149
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