Commons:Hirtle chart
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This is a Commons tags translation table of the chart created by Peter B. Hirtle of Cornell University, now uploaded as this PDF document. It is a best effort to guide people in determining when media will enter the public domain in the United States.
Beware:
Works except sound recordings and architecture
Never published, Never registered works
Type of workCopyright TermWhat was in the public domain in the US as of 1 January 2021Commons copyright tag
Unpublished worksKnown author with a known date of death: 70 years after the death of author.works from author who died before 1951{{PD-old-70}}
Unpublished anonymous and pseudonymous works, and works made for hire (corporate authorship)
Unpublished works when the death date of the author is not known
120 years from creationCreated before 1901{{PD-US-unpublished}}
Works Registered or First Published in the U.S.
Date of PublicationConditionsCopyright TermCommons copyright tag
Before 1926NoneNone. In the public domain due to copyright expiration{{PD-US-expired}}
1926 through 1977Published without a copyright noticeNone. In the public domain due to failure to comply with required formalities{{PD-US-no notice}}
1978 through 28 February 1989Published without notice, and without subsequent registration within 5 yearsNone. In the public domain due to failure to comply with required formalities{{PD-US-1978-89}}
1978 through 28 February 1989Published without notice, but with subsequent registration within 5 years
  • Known author with a known date of death: 70 years after the death of author.
  • Other works[1]: 95 years from publication OR 120 years from creation, whichever expires first
1926 through 1963Published with notice but copyright was not renewedNone. In the public domain due to copyright expiration{{PD-US-not renewed}}
1926 through 1963Published with notice and the copyright was renewed95 years after publication daten/a (earliest 2022)
1964 through 1977Published with notice95 years after publication daten/a (earliest 2060)
1978 through 28 February 1989Created after 1977 and published with notice
  • Known author with a known date of death: 70 years after the death of author
  • Other works[1]: 95 years from publication OR 120 years from creation, whichever expires first
1978 through 28 February 1989Created before 1978 and first published with notice in the specified periodThe greater of the term specified in the previous entry or 31 December 2047
n/a (earliest 2048) but after 2048 either:
1 March 1989 through 2002Created after 1977
  • Known author with a known date of death: 70 years after the death of author.
  • Other works[1]: 95 years from publication OR 120 years from creation, whichever expires first
1 March 1989 through 2002Created before 1978 and first published in this periodThe greater of the term specified in the previous entry or 31 December 2047
earliest 2048, after 2048 either:
2003 or laterNone
  • Known author with a known date of death: 70 years after the death of author.
  • Other works[1]: 95 years from publication OR 120 years from creation, whichever expires first
AnytimeWorks prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person's official duties.None. In the public domain in the United States (17 U.S.C. § 105)One of the copyright templates in Category:PD-USGov license tags
Works First Published Outside the U.S. by citizens of foreign nations[2] or U.S. Citizens Living Abroad. On Commons these cases also need to be free according to copyright terms in the country of publication. These terms are not part of this table.
Date of PublicationConditionsCopyright TermCommons copyright tag
Before 1926NoneIn the public domain (But see first special case below){{PD-US-expired}}
Works Published Abroad Before 1978
1926 through 1977Published without compliance with US formalities, and in the public domain in its source country as of URAA date[3]In the public domain{{PD-1996}}
1926 through 1977Published in compliance with all US formalities (notice, and renewal for pre-1964 works)95 years after publication date(earliest 2022)
1926 through 1977Solely published abroad, without compliance with US formalities or republication in the US, and not in the public domain in its home country as of URAA date[3]95 years after publication date(earliest 2022)
1926 through 1977Published in the US less than 30 days after publication abroadUse the US publication chart to determine duration
1926 through 1977Published in the US more than 30 days after publication abroad, without compliance with US formalities, and not in the public domain in its home country as of URAA date[3]95 years after publication date(earliest 2022)
Works Published Abroad After 1 January 1978
1 January 1978 through 28 February 1989Published without copyright notice, and in the public domain in its source country as of URAA date[3]In the public domain{{PD-1996}}
1 January 1978 through 28 February 1989Published with copyright noticeUse the US publication chart to determine duration
1 March 1989 or laterPublished without copyright notice, and in the public domain in its source country as of URAA date[3]Use the US publication chart to determine duration
1 January 1978 or laterPublished either with or without copyright notice, and not in the public domain in its home country as of URAA date[3]Use the US publication chart to determine duration
Special Cases
1 July 1909 through 1978In Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands ONLY. Published in a language other than English, and without subsequent republication with a copyright noticeTreat as an unpublished work until such date as first US-compliant publication occurred
AnytimeCreated by a resident of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Marshall Islands, or Timor-Leste and published in one of these countries. Works from Palau, Somalia or South Sudan may also be includedNot protected by US copyright law until they become party to bilateral or international copyright agreements{{Copyright notes}}
AnytimeWorks whose copyright was once owned or administered by the Alien Property Custodian, and whose copyright, if restored, would as of the URAA date[3], be owned by a governmentNot protected by US copyright law{{PD-US-alien property}}
AnytimeIf published in one of the following countries, the URAA date given above is replaced by the date of the country's membership in the Berne Convention or the World Trade Organization, whichever is earlier:
Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Haiti, Jersey, Jordan, Kiribati, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Micronesia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nauru, Nepal, Niue, Oman, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands, Sudan, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen
......
Sound recordings
The following information applies only to the sound recording itself, and not to any copyrights in underlying compositions or texts.
Date of Fixation/PublicationConditionsWhat was in the public domain in the U.S. as of 1 January 2021Commons copyright tag
Unpublished Sound Recordings, Domestic and Foreign
Prior to 15 Feb. 1972IndeterminateSubject to state common law protection. Enters the public domain on 15 Feb. 2067(latest 15 Feb. 2067)
15 Feb. 1972 or laterLife of the author + 70 years. For anonymous and corporate works,[1] 120 years from the date of fixationNothing. The soonest anything enters the public domain is 15 Feb. 2067(earliest 15 Feb. 2067)
Sound Recordings Published in the United States
Prior to 1923NoneEnters the public domain on 1 January 2022(earliest 2022)
1923 to 1946None100 years from publication(earliest 2024)
1947 to 1956None110 years from publication(earliest 2058)
1957 to 14 Feb. 1972NoneEnters the public domain on 15 Feb. 2067(earliest 15 Feb. 2067)
15 Feb. 1972 through 1977Published without notice (i.e., year of publication, and name of copyright owner)In the public domain{{PD-US-no notice}}
15 Feb. 1972 through 1977Published with notice95 years from publication. 2068 at the earliest(earliest 2068)
1978 through 28 February 1989Published without notice, and without subsequent registrationIn the public domain{{PD-US-1978-89}}
1978 through 28 February 1989Published with notice70 years after death of author, or if work of corporate authorship, the shorter of 95 years from publication, or 120 years from creation. 2049 at the earliest
1 March 1989 or laterNone
  • Known author with a known date of death: 70 years after the death of author.
  • Other works[1]: 95 years from publication OR 120 years from creation, whichever expires first
2049 at the earliest
(earliest 2049), after 2049
  • (earliest 2085)
  • (earliest 2110)
AnytimeSound recordings fixed by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person's official duties.None. In the public domain in the United States (17 U.S.C. § 105)One of the copyright templates in Category:PD-USGov license tags
Sound Recordings Published Outside the United States
Prior to 1923NoneEnters the public domain on 1 January 2022(earliest 2022)
1923 to 1946None100 years from publication(earliest 2024)
1947 to 1956None110 years from publication(earliest 2058)
1957 to 14 Feb. 1972NoneEnters the public domain on 15 Feb. 2067(earliest 15 Feb. 2067)
15 Feb. 1972 through 28 February 1989In the public domain in its home country as of URAA date[3] or there was US publication within 30 days of the foreign publication (but see special cases)Subject to state common law protection. Enters the public domain on 15 Feb. 2067(latest 15 Feb. 2067)
15 Feb. 1972 through 1977Not in the public domain in its home country as of URAA date[3]. At least one author of the work was not a US citizen or was living abroad, and there was no US publication within 30 days of the foreign publication (but see special cases)95 years from date of publication. 2068 at the earliestn/a (earliest 2068)
1978 through 28 February 1989Not in the public domain in its home country as of URAA date[3]. At least one author of the work was not a US citizen or was living abroad, and there was no US publication within 30 days of the foreign publication (but see special cases)
  • Known author with a known date of death: 70 years after the death of author.
  • Other works[1]: 95 years from publication OR 120 years from creation, whichever expires first
  • (earliest 2074)
  • (earliest 2099)
1 March 1989 or laterNone
  • Known author with a known date of death: 70 years after the death of author.
  • Other works[1]: 95 years from publication OR 120 years from creation, whichever expires first
  • (earliest 2085)
  • (earliest 2110)
Special Cases
Fixed at any timeCreated by a resident of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Marshall Islands, or Timor-Leste and published in one of these countries. Works from Palau, Somalia or South Sudan may also be includedNot protected by US copyright law because they are not party to international copyright agreementsn/a, n/a, {{PD-Iran}}, {{PD-Iraq}}
Fixed prior to 1996Works whose copyright was once owned or administered by the Alien Property Custodian, and whose copyright, if restored, would as of URAA date[3] be owned by a governmentNot protected by US copyright law{{PD-US-alien property}}
Fixed at any timeIf fixed or solely published in one of the following countries, the URAA date given above is replaced by the date of the country's membership in the Berne Convention or the World Trade Organization, whichever is earlier:
Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Haiti, Jersey, Jordan, Kiribati, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Micronesia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nauru, Nepal, Niue, Oman, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands, Sudan, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen
......
Architectural works
Architectural plans and drawings may also be protected as textual/graphics works
Date of DesignDate of ConstructionCopyright StatusCommons copyright tag
Prior to 1 Dec. 1990Not constructed by 31 Dec. 2002Protected only as plans or drawings{{PD-US-architecture}}
Prior to 1 Dec. 1990Constructed by 1 Dec. 1990Protected only as plans or drawings{{PD-US-architecture}}
Prior to 1 Dec. 1990Constructed between 30 Nov. 1990 and 31 Dec. 2002Building is protected for 70 years after death of author, or if work of corporate authorship, the shorter of 95 years from publication, or 120 years from creation{{FoP-US}}
From 1 Dec. 1990ImmaterialBuilding is protected for 70 years after death of author, or if work of corporate authorship, the shorter of 95 years from publication, or 120 years from creation{{FoP-US}}
  1. a b c d e f g h Anonymous works, pseudonymous works, works made for hire, and works where the date of author's death is unknown
  2. US English term: Foreign nationals
  3. a b c d e f g h i j k 1 January 1996 for most countries; see w:Wikipedia:Non-U.S. copyrights for the most current list
  • © 2004–2021 Peter B. Hirtle. Last updated 31 January 2019. Use of this chart is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
  • Wiki adaptation by User:TheDJ. If you spot an error, please discuss on the Talk page.
  • This page does not constitute legal advice.
See also
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 19:35
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