Flora of New York/Caryophyllales 1
< Flora of New York

Santalales:
Santalaceae
Flora of New York — Caryophyllales 1: : Droseraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae
Caryophyllales 2:
Caryophyllaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species indexInvasive species index


Caryophyllales introduction
The order Caryophyllales[1]
Walker, J. F., Yang, Y., Feng, T., Timoneda, A., Mikenas, J., Hutchison, V., Edwards, C., et al. 2018. From cacti to carnivores: Improved phylotranscriptomic sampling and hierarchical homology inference provide further insight into the evolution of Caryophyllales. American Journal of Botany 105( 3): 446– 462.
Family Droseraceae
The Droseraceae (sundew family) ...[1]
Droseraceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
Drosera
Drosera intermedia
spatulate-leaved sundew
Caryophyllales — Droseraceae — Drosera
DroseraSundewN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Drosera intermedia Hayne
1753. Drosera longifolia L. p.p.
1801. Drosera intermedia Hayne
1809. Drosera americana Willd.
1824. Drosera intermedia
var. americana (Willd.) DC.
1915. Rorella intermedia Nieuwl.
Spoon-leaved sundew,
Spoonleaf sundew,
Oblong-leaf sundew,
Spatulate-leaved sundewDroséra intermédiaire,
Rossolis intermédiaire,
Rossolis à feuille longue
Native,
Likely secure
OBL
Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
IPN

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Wikispecies
Drosera rotundifolia L.
var. rotundifolia
Round-leaved sundew,
Roundleaf sundew
Native,
Likely secure
OBL
Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany

Images
Wikispecies
Drosera rotundifolia L.
var. comosa
Round-leaved sundewNative,
Unranked
OBL
Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Go Botany

Images
Wikispecies
Drosera filiformis Raf.Thread-leaved sundewNative,
Vulnerable
OBL
Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Go Botany

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Wikispecies
Aldrovanda
Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Although the waterwheel plant is listed as endangered globally it is considered potentially invasive in the Northeast, where this carnivorous aquatic plant has been introduced into private ponds by hobbyists and probably transported into the wild on the feet of birds.[1]
Marion Renault (2019). "A Waterwheel in Crisis: This Carnivorous Plant Invaded New York. That May Be Its Only Hope." The New York Times. Aug. 13, 2019, Section D, Page 1.
Caryophyllales — Droseraceae — Aldrovanda
Aldrovandawaterwheel plantN.Y. StatusImagesDistribution NPT
Aldrovanda vesiculosaL.
    Aldrovanda vesiculosa L.
Waterwheel plant
Waterwheel
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA

NYFA: 1 county
iMap: 1 county
NYFA-Xn

Images
Wikispecies
Family Tamaricaceae
Some sources still list the Tamaricaceae (tamarisk family) as part of the Violales.[1]
Tamaricaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
Tamarix
Several tamarisk or saltcedar (Tamarix) species are considered invasive in North America, and they can be difficult to distinguish from one another.[1] The New York Flora Atlas lists Tamarix parviflora as naturalized in New York, but does not specify which counties.
Smallflower tamarisk (Tamarix parviflora). Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States.
Caryophyllales — Tamaricaceae — Tamarix
TamarixTamariskN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Tamarix parvifloraDC.
1828. Tamarix parviflora DC.
1827. Tamarix laxa var. subspicata
1852. Tamarix cretica Bunge
1907. Tamarix rubella Batt.
1928. Tamarix lucronensis
Sennen & Hermano Elias
Small-flowered tamarisk
Smallflower tamarisk
Saltcedar
Introduced from
 southeast Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa,
Naturalized
NYFA-U
USDA-X0
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ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
BONAP
IPN

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Family Plumbaginaceae
The Plumbaginaceae (leadwort or Plumbago family)
Subfamily Limonioideae
Tribe Limonieae
Limonium
Limonium carolinianum (Walter) Britton
sea-lavender
The genus Limonium is generally known as sea lavender or statice. But it's not related to lavender (Lavandula), which is in the Lamiaceae (mint family).
Limonium carolinianum is reported as secure in salt marshes along the New York Atlantic Coast.
According to the Flora of North America, although Limonium leptostachyum was reported from New York by R. S. Mitchell and G. C. Tucker (1997), it's doubtful that it could naturalize New York.[1]
Alan R. Smith (2005). "Limonium" in Flora of North America, Volume 5.
Caryophyllales — Plumbaginaceae — Limonioideae — Limonieae — Limonium
LimoniumSea lavenderN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Limonium carolinianum
(Walter) Britton
Sea-lavender
American thrift
Lavender thrift
Seaside thrift
Canker root
Ink root
Marsh root
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5, G5
OBL
Perennial,
Herb-forb

Bronx, Kings, Nassau, New York, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk, Westchester
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
Limonium leptostachyum
(Boiss.) Kuntze
    Statice leptostachya Boiss.
    Limonium leptostachyum
(Boiss.) Kuntze
StaticeIntroduced from
 central Asia,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized,
SNA
Perennial,
Herb-forb

Westchester (1898)
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

Images
Wikispecies
Armeria
Armeria maritima
Armeria maritima is native to coastal regions throughout the northern hemisphere but has not been known to naturalize in New York. Its North American distribution is primarily along the west coast, but there is a fairly significant population near Lehigh Gap, Palmerton, Pennsylvania, where it was used for remediation in test plots downwind from zinc smelters that severely damaged the forest on top of Blue Mountain.
Caryophyllales — Plumbaginaceae — Limonioideae — Limonieae — Armeria
Armeria (excluded taxa)ThriftN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Armeria maritima(Mill.) Willd.
ssp. sibirica (Turcz.) Nyman
1844. Armeria labradorica Wallr.
1848. Armeria sibirica Turcz. ex Boiss.
1881. Armeria maritimassp.sibirica
1948. Armeria maritimassp.labradorica
1993. Armeria labradoricassp.sibirica
Siberian sea thriftN. America native,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN

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Wikispecies
Subfamily Staticoideae
Tribe Staticeae
Psylliostachys
Subfamily and tribe for Psylliostachys is from University of Connecticut
Caryophyllales — Plumbaginaceae — Staticoideae — Staticeae — Psylliostachys
PsylliostachysStaticeN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Psylliostachys suworowii
(Regel) Roshkova
    
    
    
Russian-statice
Rat tail statice
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized
NYFA-Xm
Go Botany-0

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Wikispecies
Family Polygonaceae
The Polygonaceae (buckwheat family)
Subfamily Polygonoideae
The order in which Polygonoideae tribes are shown here has been modified somewhat from Reveal's system, based on phylogenic data shown in Schuster et al. (2013) "Age Estimates for the Buckwheat Family Polygonaceae Based on Sequence Data Calibrated by Fossils and with a Focus on the Amphi-Pacific Muehlenbeckia.
Tribe Persicarieae
Persicaria
Kim & Donoghue (2008). Molecular phylogeny of Persicaria (Persicarieae, Polygonaceae). Systematic Botany 33(1): pp. 77–86
Persicaria sect. Persicaria
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Persicaria
Persicariasect. PersicariaSmartweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Persicaria lapathifolia
(L.) Delarbre
1753. Polygonum lapathifolium L.
1794. Polygonum scabrum Moench
1800. Persicaria lapathifolia
(L.) Delarbre
1966. Persicaria scabra
(Moench) Moldenke
Dock-leaved smartweed
Pale smartweed
Willow-leaved smartweed
Curlytop knotweed
Curlytop smartweed
Pink knotweed
Willow-weed
Renouée à
feuilles de patience
Native, CoC: 1,
Unranked,
Circumboreal
FACW
Annual,
Herb-forb
NYFA-U
USDA-NX
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ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos

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Persicaria pensylvanica
(L.) M.Gómez
1753. Polygonum pensylvanicum L.
1896. Persicaria pensylvanica
(L.) M.Gómez
Pennsylvania smartweedRenouée de PennsylvanieNative, CoC: 2,
Secure
OBL-FACW
Annual,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria punctata (Elliott) Small
1817. Polygonum punctatum Elliott
1817. Pol. acre Kunth
1894. Pol. punctatum var. robustius
1903. Per. punctata Small
1903. Per. punctata var. robustior
1909. Per. robustior E.P.Bicknell
1921. Pol. robustius Fernald
1949. Pol. punctatum var. majus
Dotted smartweedRenouée ponctuéeNative, CoC: 4,
Secure
OBL
Annual, perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

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Wikispecies
Persicaria coccinea
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Greene
1803. Pol. amphibium var. emersum
1808. Pol. inundatum Raf.
1809. Pol. coccineum Muhl. ex Willd.
1879. Pol. muehlenbergii S.Watson
1904. Pol. amphibium var. coccineum
1904. Per. coccinea
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Greene
1906. Per. muhlenbergii
(S.Watson) Small
1984. Per. amphibia var. emersa
Scarlet smartweed,
Longroot smartweed
Native, CoC: 5,
Unranked
OBL
Perennial,
Forb-herb
NYFA-N
USDA-
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

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Persicaria amphibia (L.) Delarbre
ssp. laevimarginata (Hult.) Soják
1803. Pol. amphibium var. natans (i)
1822. Pol. natans (Michx.) Eaton
1874. Pol. amphibium var. stipulaceum
1944. Pol. amphibium
ssp. laevimarginatum
1952. Per. amphibiavar.stipulacea
1974. Per. amphibiassp.laevimarginata
American water smartweed
Renouée amphibie
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
OBL
Perennial,
Forb-herb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria hydropiperoides
(Michx.) Small
1803. Po. hydropiperoides Michx.
1892. Po. opelousanum
Riddell ex Small
1903. Pe. hydropiperoides Small
1903. Pe. opelousana Small
Swamp smartweed,
False water-pepper,
Mild water-pepperRenouée
  faux-poivre-d'eau
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
OBL
Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

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Wikispecies
Persicaria careyi (Olney) Greene
1847. Po. careyi Olney
1904. Pe. careyi (Olney) Greene
Carey's smartweedRenouée de CareyNative, CoC: 5,
Endangered
FACW
Annual,
Herb-forb
NYFA-1-2
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

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Wikispecies
Persicaria setacea
(Baldwin) Small
1817. Po. setaceum Baldwin
1903. Pe. setacea (Baldwin) Small
Bog smartweed,
Swamp smartweed,
Bristly smartweed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered
OBL
Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-1-2
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria hydropiper
(L.) Delarbre
1753. Polygonum hydropiper L.
1800. Pe. hydropiper Delarbre
1927. Po. hydropiper var. projectum
1943. Pe. hydropiper var. projecta
Marshpepper smartweed,
Water-pepper smartweed,
RedleafRenouée poivre-d'eau
Introduced from
 Europe
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

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Wikispecies
Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach
1753. Polygonum orientale L.
1841. Persicaria orientalis Spach
1899. Polygonum spaethii Dammer
Kiss-me-over-
   the-garden-gate,
Prince's-feather,
Princess-featherRenouée orientale
Introduced from
 Asia,
 Australia
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

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Wikispecies
Persicaria maculosa Gray
1753. Po. persicaria L.
1821. Pe. maculosa Gray
1903. Pe. persicaria Small
taut.
Spotted lady's-thumb,
Redshank, Heart's-ease,
Smartweed,
JesusplantRenouée persicaire,
Pied rouge
Introduced,
from Eurasia
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

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Wikispecies
Persicaria extremiorientalis
(Vorosch.) Tzvelev
1984. Po. extremiorientale Vorosch.
1987. Pe. extremiorientalis
(Vorosch.) Tzvelev
Far eastern smartweedIntroduced,
Potentially invasive,
[1]
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria longiseta
(Bruijn) Kitag.
1854. Polygonum longisetum Bruijn
1930. Po. cespitosum var. longisetum
1937. Pe. longiseta Kitag.
1941. Pe. longiseta Moldenke (i)
1987. Pe. caespitosa var. longiseta
Bristly lady's-thumb,
Creeping smartweed
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 60%[2]
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Wikispecies
Persicaria minor(Huds.) Opiz
    Polygonum minus Huds.
    Persicaria minor (Huds.) Opiz
Small water pepper
Pygmy smartweed
Introduced from
 Eurasia
OBL
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX

Images
Wikispecies
Persicariasect. Persicaria (excluded taxa)SmartweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Persicaria chinensis
    
    
    
Chinese knotweed
Chinese smartweed
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-00
CABI

Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria posumbu
(Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) H.Gross
1825. Polygonum posumbu
Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
1825. Po. cespitosum Blume
1913. Persicaria posumbu
(Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) H.Gross
1934. Pe. cespitosa (Blume) Nakai
Tufted knotweedIntroduced,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD

Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria amphibia
ssp. amphibia
    Persicaria amphibia
    
    
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
Go Botany
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria amphibia ssp.
 laevimarginata × coccinea
Persicaria amphibia
     ssp. laevimarginata ×
Persicaria coccinea
    
    
    
Hybrid of
 water smartweed &
 scarlet smartweed
Native,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD

Images
Wikispecies
  1. Daniel E. Atha, et. al. (2010) "Persicaria extremiorientalis (Polygonaceae) is established in the flora of the eastern United States of America." The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 137(4):333-338.
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPersicaria longiseta: Moderate (60). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
Persicaria sect. Tovara
Persicaria virginiana (L.) Gaert.
jumpseed
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Tovara
Persicariasect. TovaraSmartweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Persicaria virginiana (L.) Gaert.
1753. Polygonum virginianum L.
1790. Persicaria virginiana Gaertn.
1836. Tovara virginiana Raf.
1964. Antenoron virginianum
Roberty & Vautier
Jumpseed,
Virginia knotweedRenouée de Virginie
Native,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

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Wikispecies
Persicaria sect. Echinocaulon
Persicaria perfoliata, mile-a-minute weed
Persicaria sect. Echinocaulon contains armed climbers known as tearthumbs. Two of these are New York natives, and one P. perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed) is a fairly recent introduction from Asia that is considered to be very highly-invasive in New York.
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Echinocaulon
Persicariasect. EchinocaulonTearthumbsN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Persicaria sagittata (L.) H.Gross
1753. Polygonum sagittatum L.
1903. Tracaulon sagittatum Small
1919. Persicaria sagittata H.Gross
1974. Truellum sagittatum Soják
Arrowleaf tearthumb,
Arrow-leaved tearthumb,
American tearthumb,
Arrow-vine,
Scratch-grassRenouée sagittée
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

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Wikispecies
Persicaria arifolia (L.) Haraldson
1753. Polygonum arifolium L.
1836. Tracaulon arifolium Raf.
1978. Persicaria arifolia Haraldson
Halberdleaf tearthumb,
Halberd-leaved tearthumbRenouée à feuilles d'arum
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross
1759. Polygonum perfoliatum L.
1913. Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross
Mile-a-minute weed,
Asiatic tearthumb,
Climbing tearthumb,
Devil's-tail climbing tearthumb,
Giant climbing tearthumb
Introduced from
 Asia,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 91%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3] NE-1[4]
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPersicaria perfoliata: Very high (91). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
  2. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species
  3. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region.Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
  4. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Persicaria sect. Cephalophilon
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Cephalophilon
Persicariasect. CephalophilonSmartweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Persicaria nepalensis
1825. Polygonum alatum Buch.-Ham.
ex D. Don
1826. Polygonum nepalense Meisn.
1886. Polygonum alatum var. nepalense
1913. Persicaria nepalensis H.Gross
Nepal smartweed,
Nepal knotweedRenouée du Népal
Introduced from
 Asia,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 47%[1]
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPersicaria longiseta: Unknown (47). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
Persicaria sect. Rubrivena
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Rubrivena
Persicariasect. Rubrivena (excluded taxa)SmartweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Persicaria wallichii Greuter & Burdet
1832. Polygonum polystachyum
Wall. ex Meisn.
1941. Reynoutria polystachya Moldenke
1969. Aconogonon polystachyum M.Král
1985. Rubrivena polystachya M.Král
1989. P. wallichii Greuter & Burdet
Himalayan knotweed
Giant smart-weed
Kashmir plume
Garden smartweed
Cultivated knotweed
Introduced from
 Asia,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Tribe Fagopyreae
Fagopyrum
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Fagopyreae — Fagopyrum
FagopyrumBuckwheatN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
1753. Polygonum fagopyrum L.
1794. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
    F. sagittatum Gilib.
    F. vulgare Hill
    F. fagopyrum (L.) H.Karst.
Buckwheat,
Common buckwheatSarrasin commun
Introduced,
Not naturalized
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

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Wikispecies
Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.
1753. Polygonum tataricum L.
1790. Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.
Tartarian buckwheat,
Tartary buckwheat,
Green buckwheat,
Japanese buckwheat,
India-wheat
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Tribe Rumiceae
Rumex
Rumex subg. Axillares
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Rumex subg. Axillares
Rumexsubg. AxillaresDockN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rumex triangulivalvis Rech.f.
1926. R. salicifolius ssp. triangulivalvis
1936. R. triangulivalvis Rech.f.
1964. R. salicifolius var. triangulivalvis
1964. R. triangulivalvis var. oreolapathum
White dock,
White willow dock,
Triangular-valved dock
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure,
2n = 20
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex verticillatus L.
1753. Rumex verticillatus L.
1856. R. floridanus Meisn.
1895. R. fascicularis Small
Swamp dock,
Water dock
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
2n = 60
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex britannica L.
1753. Rumex britannica L.
1856. R. hydrolapathum var. americanum
1867. R. orbiculatus A.Gray
1937. R. britannica var. borealis
Water dock,
Greater water dock,
British dock
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
2n = 20
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
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ITIS
FNA

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Rumex altissimus Alph.Wood
1847. Rumex altissimus Alph.Wood
1856. R. britannicus Meisn.non L.
1856. R. britannica Meisn.non L.
Pale dock
Tall dock
Smooth dock
Patience élevée
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure,
2n = 20
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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FNA

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Rumex pallidusBigelow
1840. Rumex pallidus Bigelow
    
    
Sea-beach dock
Seaside dock
Pale willow dock
White dock
Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked,
2n = 20
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Rumexsubg. Axillares (excluded taxa)DockN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rumex salicifoliusWeinm.
1821. Rumex salicifolius Weinm.
    
    
Willow dock
Willow-leaf dock
N. America native
 s.w. N. America,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NM
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex mexicanusMeisn.
1856. Rumex mexicanus Meisn.
1964. R. salicifolius var. mexicanus
    
Mexican dock
Mexican-willow
White dock
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex pallidus × triangulivalvis
Rumex pallidus ×
Rumex triangulivalvis
    
    
    
Hybrid of
 sea-beach dock &
 white dock
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex pallidus × mexicanus
Rumex pallidus ×
Rumex mexicanus
    
    
    
Hybrid of
 sea-beach dock &
 Mexican dock
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex subg. Rumex
Plants of subg. Rumex are generally synoecious, but polygamodioecious or dioecious individuals occasionally occur in some species.

Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Rumex subg. Rumex
Rumexsubg. RumexDockN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rumex fueginusPhil.
1895. Rumex fueginus Phil.
1900. R. maritimus var. fueginus
1915. R. maritimus var. athrix
1968. R. maritimus ssp. fueginus
2010. R. persicarioides var. fueginus[1]
Sea-side dock,
Golden dock,
American golden dock,
Tierra del Fuego dock
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
2n = 40
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
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Rumex persicarioides L.
1753. Rumex persicarioides L.
1978. R. maritimus var. persicarioides
Coastal dock
Peach-leaved dock
American golden dock
Golden dock
Seaside dock
Seashore dock
Rumex fausse-persicaire
Patience fausse-persicaire
Patience faux-persicaire
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports,
2n = 40
NYFA-H
USDA-NN
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Wikispecies
Rumex longifoliusDooryard dock,
Long-leaved dock,
Northern dock
Introduced,
Naturalized,
2n = 60
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
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FNA

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Wikispecies
Rumex patientia L.Patience dockIntroduced,
Naturalized,
2n = 60
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
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FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex crispus L.
ssp. crispus
    
    
    
Curly dock,
Sour dock,
Yellow dock
Introduced,
2n = 60
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
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Wikispecies
Rumex obtusifolius L.
ssp. obtusifolius
Bitter dock,
Broad-leaved dock
Introduced,
Naturalized,
2n = 40
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
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Rumex × confusus Simonkai
[ crispus × patientia ]
Large curly dock,
Confused dock
Introduced
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
ITIS
FNA

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Wikispecies
Rumex × pratensis
Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
Rumex crispus ×
Rumex obtusifolius
1753. Rumex × acutus L. (pro sp.
1826. R. × pratensis
Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
1855. R. × crispobtusifolius Meisn.
Field dock
Meadow dock
Introduced
NYFA-X
USDA-XN
ITIS
Tropicos

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Wikispecies
Rumexsubg. Rumex (excluded taxa)DockN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rumex sanguineusL.
    
    
    
Redvein dockIntroduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XW
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex subg. Acetosa
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Acetosa
Rumexsubg. AcetosaSorrelN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rumex hastatulus Baldwin
1817. Rumex hastatulus Baldwin
1856. Rumex engelmannii Meisn.
1948. Acetosa hastatula Á.Löve
Heartwing sorrel,
Heart-winged sorrel,
Wild sorrel,
Heartwing dock,
Wild dock
Native,
Endangered
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
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Rumex acetosa L.
1753. Rumex acetosa L.
1768. Acetosa pratensis Mill.
1903. R. acetosa ssp. pratensis
Garden sorrel,
Green sorrel,
Common sorrel,
Common dock,
SourdockOseille de prés,
Grande oseille
Introduced
NYFA-X
USDA-XM
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Rumex subg. Acetosella
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Acetosella
Rumexsubg. AcetosellaSorrelN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rumex acetosella L.
ssp. pyrenaicus
(Pourr. ex Lapeyr.) Akeroyd
1991. R. acetosella ssp. pyrenaicus
1818. R. pyrenaicus Pourr. ex Lapeyr.
Sheep sorrel,
Red sorrel,
Field sorrelOseille,
Petite oseille,
Sûrette
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 66%[1],
Naturalized,
CP-4[2]
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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ITIS
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IPN

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Rumexsubg. Acetosella (excluded taxa)SorrelN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rumex acetosellaL.
ssp. acetosella
1753. R. acetosella L.
1869. Acetosella vulgaris Fourr.
    
Sheep sorrelIntroduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Rumex acetosellaL.
ssp. multifidus (L.) Arcang.
1762. R. multifidus L.
1834. R. acetosella ssp. multifidus
    
    
Sheep sorrel,
Red sorrel,
Field sorrelOseille,
Petite oseille,
Sûrette
Introduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentRumex acetosella: Moderate (66).
  2. Appendix 4. Plant species that are considered moderately invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
Rheum
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Rheum
Rheum L.RhubarbN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rheum rhabarbarum L.
1753. Rheum rhabarbarum L.
1762. R. undulatum L.
1879. R. franzenbachii Münter
Garden rhubarb,
Pie-plant,
Rhubarb,
Wine-plant
Rhubarbe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized
Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 44
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Rheum L. (excluded taxa)RhubarbN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Rheum rhaponticumL.
1753. Rheum rhaponticum L.
    
    
European rhubarb
False rhubarb
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
2n = 22
NYFA-XCLD
ITIS
Tropicos

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Wikispecies
Tribe Polygoneae
Polygonum
The Flora of North America recognizes the two sections Duravia and Polygonum used here.[1]
30. Polygonum Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 19+ vols. New York and Oxford.
Polygonum sect. Duravia
Schuster, Reveal & Kron (2011)[1] transferred Polygonella articulata back to Polygonum articulatum.
Tanja M. Schuster, James L. Reveal & Kathleen A. Kron (2011) "Phylogeny of Polygoneae (Polygonaceae: Polygonoideae)." Taxon, 60(6), Dec. 2011, pp. 1653-1666.
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Polygoneae — Polygonum sect. Duravia
Polygonumsect. Duraviasubsect. PolygonellaJointweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Polygonum articulatum L.
1753. Polygonum articulatum L.
1841. Polygonella articulata (L.) Meisn.
1932. Delopyrum articulatum (L.) Small
Coastal jointweed,
Northern jointweed,
Coast jointweedPolygonelle articulée
Native,
Likely secure
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
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VASCAN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
NatureServe
BONAP
IPN

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Wikispecies
Polygonumsect. Duraviasubsect. DuraviaKnotweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Polygonum tenue Michx. (1803)
P. tenue var. protrusum
Pleatleaf knotweed,
Pleat-leaved knotweed,
Slender knotweed
Native,
Rare
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Polygonum douglasii GreeneDouglas knotweedNative,
Threatened
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
Polygonum sect. Polygonum
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Polygoneae — Polygonum
Polygonumsect. PolygonumKnotweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Polygonum achoreum S.F.Blake
1917. Polygonum achoreum S.F.Blake
1982. P. erectum
    
Leathery knotweed,
Blake's knotweed,
Striate knotweedRenouée coriace
Native, CoC: 0,
Likely secure
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
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ITIS
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Polygonum ramosissimum Michx.
ssp. prolificum
(Small) Costea & Tardif
1894. P. ramosissimum var. prolificum
1902. P. prolificum (Small) B.L. Rob.
1948. P. prolificum var. autumnale
1948. P. prolificum var. profusum
2003. P. ramosissimum ssp. prolificum
Proliferous knotweed
Bushy knotweed
Saltmarsh knotweed
Renouée prolifique
Native, CoC: 1,
Introduced
NYFA-NX
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Polygonum ramosissimum Michx.
ssp. ramosissimum
1803. Polygonum ramosissimum Michx.
1894. P. exsertum Small
1894. P. interior Small
1904. P. leptocarpum B.L.Rob.
1909. P. atlanticum (B.L.Rob.) E.P.Bicknell
1913. P. triangulum E.P.Bicknell ex Small
1932. P. latum Small ex Rydb.
1941. P. stevensii Brenckle
Bushy knotweed,
Slender knotgrass,
Renouée à fleurs jaunes
Native, CoC: 1,
Introduced
NYFA-NX
USDA-NN
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Polygonum glaucum Nutt.
    
    P. aviculare var. glaucum
Seabeach knotweed,
Seaside knotweed
Native, CoC: 8,
Rare
NYFA-3
USDA-N0
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ITIS
FNA

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Polygonum erectum L.
1753. Polygonum erectum L.
Erect knotweed
Upright knotweed
Devil's shoestring
Leathery knotweed
Striate knotweed
Wireweed
Renouée dressée
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports,
Impersistent
NYFA-Zm
USDA-NN
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ARS-GRIN
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Polygonum buxiforme Small
1906. Polygonum buxiforme Small
1831. P. aviculare var. littorale (i)
2003. P. aviculare ssp. buxiforme
Box knotweed,
Small's knotweed,
American knotweed
Renouée faux-buis
Native, CoC: 0,
Endangered
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
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FNA
Tropicos

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Polygonum aviculare L.
ssp. aviculare
    
1753. Polygonum aviculare L.
1912. P. heterophyllum Lindm.
Common knotweed,
Dooryard knotweed,
Doorweed,
Prostrate knotweed
Introduced,
N. America native
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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BONAP

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Polygonum aviculare L.
ssp. depressum (Meisn.) Arcang.
1856. P. aviculare var. depressum
1857. P. arenastrum Boreau
1882. P. aviculare ssp. depressum
1912. P. aequale Lindm.
1942. P. montereyense Brenckle
Common knotweed,
Oval-leaved knotweed,
Equal-leaved knotgrassRenouée à petits fruits
Introduced
NYFA-X
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ITIS
FNA
BONAP

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Polygonum aviculare L.
ssp. neglectum (Besser) Arcang.
1785. Polygonum bellardii All.
1822. Polygonum neglectum Besser
1882. P. aviculare ssp. neglectum
Narrowleaf knotweed,
Narrow-leaved knotweed
Introduced from
 Eurasia
NYFA-X
USDA-XN
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ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP

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Polygonum polycnemoides
Jaubert & Spach
    
1844. P. polycnemoides
Jaub. & Spach
Himalayan knotweed
Manyleg knotweed
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0
ITIS
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Polygonumsect. Polygonum (excluded taxa)KnotweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Polygonum bellardii All.
1792. Polygonum procumbens Gilib.
1822. P. neglectum Besser
1841. P. nervosum Wallr.
1857. P. agrestinum Jord. ex Boreau
1882. P. bellardii All.
1959. P. rectum (Chrtek) Scholz
Bellard's knotweed,
Narrow-leaved knotweed
Introduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XN
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Tropicos

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Wikispecies
Polygonum aviculare L.
ssp. rurivagum
    
Narrow-leaved knotweedIntroduced,
N.Y. excluded
NYFA-XCLD
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Wikispecies
Polygonum oxyspermum
C.A.Mey. & Bunge ex Ledeb.
ssp. raii (Bab.) D.A.Webb & Chater
    Polygonum raii Babington
    P. oxyspermum ssp. rali
    
Ray's knotweed
Renouée de Ray
N. America native
 eastern Canada
 Maine,
N.Y. excluded
Annual-perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN
VASCAN
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Polygonum maritimumL.
1753. Polygonum maritimum L.
1849. P. chilense K.Koch
1913. P. maritimum var. chilense
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
Missaplied to
 P. glaucum
NYFA-XCLD

Images
Wikispecies
Fallopia
Fallopia sect. Fallopia
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Polygoneae — Fallopia sect. Fallopia
Fallopia Adanson sect. FallopiaFalse-buckwheatN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Fallopia cilinodis (Michx.) Holub
1803. Polygonum cilinode Michx.
1903. Tiniaria cilinodis Small
1904. Bilderdykia cilinodis Greene
1967. Reynoutria cilinodis Shinners
1971. Fallopia cilinodis Holub
Fringed black bindweed,
Fringed bindweed,
Blackfringe knotweedRenouée à noeuds ciliés
Native,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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ITIS
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Fallopia scandens (L.) Holub
var. scandens
1753. Polygonum scandens L.
1867. P. dumetorum var. scandens A.Gray
1913. Bilderdykia scandens Greene
1913. Fagopyrum scandens H.Gross
1967. Reynoutria scandens Shinners
1971. Fallopia scandens Holub
Climbing false-buckwheatRenouée grimpanteNative,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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ITIS
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Fallopia scandens (L.) Holub
var. cristatum (Engelm. & A.Gray) H.R.Hinds
1845. Polygonum cristatum Engelm. & A.Gray
1904. Bilderdykia cristata Greene
1952. P. scandens var. cristatum Gleason
1971. Fallopia cristata Holub
2005. F. scandens var. cristatum H.R.Hinds
Climbing false-buckwheat,
Crested bindweed
Native,
Likely secure
NYFA-4
USDA-N0
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Fallopia dumetorum (L.) Holub
1762. Polygonum dumetorum L.
1952. P. scandens var. dumetorum Gleason
1971. Fallopia dumetorum Holub
Climbing false buckwheat,
Thicket bindweed,
Copse-bindweed,
Desert knotgrassRenouée des haies
Introduced,
from Eurasia
NYFA-X
USDA-XN
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Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve
1753. Polygonum convolvulus L.
1970. Fallopia convolvulus Á. Löve
Black bindweed,
Wild buckwheat,
Eurasian black bindweedRenouée liseron,
Renouée faux-liseron,
Chevrier
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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ITIS
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Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub
1885. Polygonum baldschuanicum Regel
1907. Polygonum aubertii L.Henry
1941. Reynoutria baldschuanica Moldenke
1971. Fallopia baldschuanica Holub
1971. Fallopia aubertii Holub
Bukhara fleeceflower,
China fleece vine,
Silver lace-vine,
Mile-a-minute-vine,
Russianvine
Introduced,
Invasive,
NYIS: 51%[1]

Kings (1992), Monroe, Orange(1990,96)
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
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Reynoutria
Reynoutria japonica
Knotweed (Reynoutria — syns. Polygonum and Fallopia) includes the very common Japanese knotweed (R. japonica var. japonica) and the less common giant knotweed (R. sachalinensis). The hybrid of the two (R. × bohemica or Bohemian knotweed), often occurs mixed in with Japanese knotweed. All three are considered to be very highly invasive in New York State.
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Polygoneae — Reynoutria
ReynoutriaKnotweedN.Y. StatusImagesDistributionNY NPT
Reynoutria japonica Houtt.
var. japonica
1777. Reynoutria japonica Houtt.
1846. Polygonum cuspidatum
Siebold & Zucc.
1901. Polygonum reynoutria Makino illeg.
1919. Pleuropterus cuspidatus
(Siebold & Zucc.) H. Gross
1926. Reynoutria henryi Nakai
1946. Tiniaria japonica (Houtt.) Hedberg
1988. Fallopia japonica Ronse Decr.
2008. Polygonum japonicum
(Houtt.) S.L.Welsh illeg.
Japanese knotweed
Mexican bamboo
Japanese bamboo
Fleeceflower
Japanese winged-knotweed
Renouée du Japon
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 98%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3] NE-1[4]
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Reynoutria sachalinensis
(F.Schmidt) Nakai
1859. Polygonum sachalinense F.Schmidt
1919. Reynoutria sachalinensis
(F. Schmidt) Nakai
1950. Tiniaria sachalinensis Janchen
1988. Fallopia sachalinensis Ronse Decr.
Giant knotweed
Sakhalin knotweed
Sachaline knotweed
Elephant-ear
Giant winged-knotweed
Renouée de Sakhaline
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 98%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-3[5]
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Reynoutria × bohemica
Chrtek & Chrtková
Reynoutria japonica ×
Reynoutria sachalinensis
1983. Reynoutria × bohemica
Chrtek & Chrtková
1989. Fallopia × bohemica J.P.Bailey
2003. Polygonum × bohemicum
Zika & Jacobson
Bohemian knotweed,
Hybrid Japanese
 & giant knotweedRenouée de Bohème
Introduced,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 98%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3]

Tompkins (2004)
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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  1. a b c New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentFallopia spp.: Very highly invasive (98%).
  2. a b c New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species
  3. a b Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
  4. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  5. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
Last edited on 2 October 2021, at 22:29
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