Émile Jamil Lahoud
: اميل جميل لحود
; born 12 January 1936) is a Lebanese politician who served as the 16th president of Lebanon
from 1998 to 2007.
Emile Lahoud was born in Baabdat
on 12 January 1936.
However, his birthplace is given as Beirut
by the Armed Forces
He is the youngest son of General and former minister Jamil Lahoud
. His mother, Andrenee Bajakian, is of Armenian
descent from the Armenian-populated village of Kesab
Lahoud's older brother, Nasri Lahoud, was a judge who served as the military prosecutor general.
Emile Lahoud is the nephew of Salim Lahoud
who served as Lebanese foreign minister from 1955 to 1957.
in 2001, Lahoud visited Armenia. In his short working visit, he found time to walk around Yerevan and visit Tsitsernakaberd
, the Armenia Genocide memorial complex and laid a wreath at the eternal flame in the memory of the victims.
Lahoud became lieutenant junior grade on 18 September 1962 and lieutenant on 1 April 1969. He was promoted to lieutenant commander on 1 January 1974 and to commander on 1 January 1976. He then began to serve as a Navy Engineer Staff Captain from 1 January 1980 and as a Navy Engineer Staff Rear Admiral from 1 January 1985. On 28 November 1989, he was promoted to Major Lieutenant General.
Although he was trained as a naval officer, Lahoud benefited from the appointment of his maternal cousin, General Jean Njeim
, as army commander and was appointed to head the transportation section of the army's fourth division in 1970.
Although Njeim died in a helicopter crash in 1971, Lahoud steadily rose through the ranks of its officer corps.
In 1980, he was appointed Director of Personnel in the Army Command.
In 1983, he was given an administrative position at the Defense Ministry
, where he was responsible for coordination between ministry officials and the Commander of the Lebanese Army
, a position which was held by General Michel Aoun
In 1989, Lahoud was appointed to the post of Commander in chief of the army as part of Elias Hraoui's Western/Arab backed government in West Beirut. As part of the Taef agreement - to extend the authority of the new Lebanese government in Lebanese Forces controlled areas - Lahoud sent General Elie Hayek to take control of Mount Lebanon north of Baabda.
During his career as chief of the LAF, Lahoud allowed Lebanese's security-military apparatus to be firmly controlled by Syria.
Lahoud ran for the presidency in 1998 after having the constitution amended to allow the army commander-in-chief to run for office. This amendment is believed to have been backed by Syria
His presidency was secured following the receipt of 118 votes from the 128-member Lebanese Parliament.
When he became Lebanon's president in 1998, he aligned himself with Hezbollah
, and picked his own man as prime minister, Selim al-Hoss
This led to heightened tensions between Rafiq Hariri
The other significant move Lahoud made shortly after his presidency was a request that Syria remove Ghazi Kanaan
, who was serving as Syria's intelligence chief in Lebanon.
Lahoud's request was not entertained.
During his term, he exerted more control over government decision-making than Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri or Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri
In August 2001, he modified the limits on the executive authority of the presidency stipulated in the 1989 Ta'if Accord
and ordered security forces to launch a massive arrest sweep against nationalist dissidents without informing Hariri and other cabinet ministers.
In 2004, his six-year presidential term would have finished. Syria, however, although initially hesitant about Lahoud's candidacy, encouraged the extension of his term for three more years, regarding him as key to their control over Lebanon. The extension would be possible only if the constitution was amended. The Syrian leadership was reported to have threatened Hariri and others into endorsing the amendment.
The intention to extend Lahoud's term prompted significant domestic turmoil.
Ultimately, Hariri and the parliamentary majority voted for the extension of Lahoud's presidential term until November 2007, with 96 deputies voting in favor of the amendment against 29 who were opposed.
However, four cabinet members resigned from office on 7 September 2004 in protest of the amendment: economy minister Marwan Hamadeh
, culture minister Ghazi Aridi
, environment minister Farès Boueiz
and refugee affairs minister Abdullah Farhat
On the other hand, both the Iranian government
viewed the extension of his term as a desirable development: Iranian President Mohammad Khatami
telephoned his congratulations to Lahoud, and a delegation of top Hezbollah officials visited Lahoud to convey Nasrallah's congratulations.
The extension of Lahoud's term is seen as a clear example of Syria's control of Lebanese politics.
In a 2006 Der Spiegel
interview, Lahoud argued that Hezbollah enjoys prestige in Lebanon, because it "freed our country".
He further stated that although Hezbollah is a small-scale organization, it stands up to Israel
and voiced his respect for Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah
In 2007, his presidential term ended. However, a new president was not immediately elected. Following a political deadlock which lasted for six months, the Lebanese parliament elected former army chief Michel Suleiman
It was claimed that Lahoud spent much of his presidency term swimming and sunbathing at the Yarzeh Country Club minutes away from the presidential palace.
Although there were high expectations from his own Christian Maronite community and the support of the military which he had commanded in the post-war period, the unpopular Lahoud developed a reputation as a weak leader by some, largely due to following Syria on most matters.
In line with these views, Druze leader Walid Jumblatt
publicly described Lahoud as a "helpless ghost" regarding his presidency.
However, such political opinions are grounded on partisan politics in Lebanon, since Lahoud is generally viewed with respect and gratitude by the factions of 8 March
He married Andrée Amadouni in 1967 and they have three children: Karine (born 1969), the former spouse of Elias Murr
(born 1975) and Ralph (born 1977).
The book Years of Resistance: The Mandate of Emile Lahood, the Former President of Lebanon
by Karim Pakradouni
, published in May 2012, reviews his political life and his impact on the contemporary history of Lebanon and the Middle East crisis.
- The Medal of 31 December 1961
- Order of Merit (3rd Grade) (1971)
- Navy Medal (Excellent Grade) (1974)
- Order of Merit (2nd Grade) (1983)
- National Order of the Cedar (Knight) (1983)
- Order of Merit (1st Grade) (1988)
- National Order of the Cedar (Officer) (1989)
- War Medal, 1991 War Medal (1992)
- National Order of the Cedar (Grand Cordon) (1993)
- Medal of the "Dawn of the South" (1993)
- The Medal of National Unity (1993)
- Military Valor Medal (1994)
- State Security Medal (1994)
- Order of Merit (Extraordinary Grade) (1998)
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- ^ "Lebanon extends president's term". BBC. 3 September 2004. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- ^ Mallat, Chibli. Lebanon's Cedar Revolution An essay on non-violence and justice (PDF). Mallat. p. 122. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2012.
- ^ "Four Lebanese ministers step down". BBC. 7 September 2004. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- ^ Samii, Abbas William (Winter 2008). "A Stable Structure on Shifting Sands: Assessing the Hizbullah-Iran-Syria Relationship" (PDF). Middle East Journal. 62 (1): 32–53. doi:10.3751/62.1.12. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- ^ a b "Hezbollah Freed Our Country". Der Spiegel International. 25 July 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- ^ "Lebanon profile". BBC. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- ^ "Nine Unforgettable Years: A Tribute to President Emile Lahoud". Now Lebanon. AFP/Ramzi Haidar. 2007.
- ^ Seeberg, Peter (February 2007). "Fragmented loyalties. Nation and Democracy in Lebanon after the Cedar Revolution" (PDF). University of Southern Denmark. Archived from the original(Working Papers) on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- ^ "Biography for Emile Lahoud". Silobreaker. 15 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- ^ Karim Pakradouni, Years of Resistance: The Mandate of Emile Lahood, the Former President of Lebanon, Garnet Publishing, Reading, 2012Archived 5 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved 6 May 2012
- ^ Nomination by Sovereign Ordonnance n° 14950 of 13 July 2001 (French)
Last edited on 25 April 2021, at 23:17
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