Ghayn - Wikipedia
Ghayn
  (Redirected from غ)
Not to be confused with Ғ (Ghayn), a Cyrillic letter.
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The Arabic letter غ‎ (Arabic: غَيْنْ‎‎ ghayn or ġayn) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being thāʼ, khāʼ, dhāl, ḍād, ẓāʼ), it represents the sound /ɣ/ or /ʁ/. In name and shape, it is a variant of ʻayn (ع‎). Its numerical value is 1000 (see Abjad numerals). In the Persian language it represents [ɣ]~[ɢ] and is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.
Ghayn
غ
Usage
Writing systemArabic script
TypeAbjad
Language of originArabic language
Alphabetical position4
Numerical value: 1
History
Development
𓎛





غ
Other
Associated numbers1
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
A voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ or a voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/ (usually reconstructed for Proto-Semitic) merged with ʻayin in most languages except for Arabic, Ugaritic, and older varieties of the Canaanite languages. Canaanite languages and Hebrew later also merged it with ʻayin, and the merger was complete in Tiberian Hebrew. The South Arabian alphabet retained a symbol for ġ, 𐩶. Biblical Hebrew, as of the 3rd century BCE, apparently still distinguished the phonemes ġ /ʁ/ and ḫ /χ/, based on transcriptions in the Septuagint. For example, Gomorrah is represented in Hebrew as עֲמֹרָה‎, which sounds like ‘Ămōrāh in Modern Hebrew, but the Greek transcription of Γομορραν, Gomoras, suggests that the Hebrew lemma was then still pronounced as Ġămōrāh.
The letter ghayn (غ‎) is sometimes used to represent the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in loanwords and names in Arabic; it is then often pronounced /ɡ/, not /ɣ/. Other letters, such as ج, ق, ک/ك (also گ, ݣ, ݢ, ڨ, ڠ, instead of the original Arabic letters), can be used to transcribe /ɡ/ in loanwords and names, depending on whether the local variety of Arabic in the country has the phoneme /ɡ/, which letter represents it if it does and on whether it is customary in the country to use that letter to transcribe /ɡ/. For instance, in Egypt, where ج‎ is pronounced as [ɡ] in all situations, even in speaking Modern Standard Arabic (except in certain contexts, such as reciting the Qur'an), ج‎ is used to transcribe foreign [ɡ] in virtually all contexts. In many cases, غ‎ is pronounced in loanwords as expected (/ɣ/, not /ɡ/) even though the original language had /ɡ/.
When representing the sound in transliteration of Arabic into Hebrew, it is written as ע׳.‎
In English, the letter غ‎ in Arabic names is usually transliterated as ‹gh›, ‹ġ›, or simply ‹g›: بغدادBaghdād 'Baghdad', or غزةGhazzah 'Gaza', the latter of which does not render the sound [ɣ]~[ʁ] accurately. The closest equivalent sound to be known to most English-speakers is the ParisianFrench "r" [ʁ].
Ghayn is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:
Position in word:IsolatedFinalMedialInitial
Glyph form:
(Help)
غـغـغـغـ
Proto-SemiticAkkadianArabicCanaaniteHebrewAramaicSouth ArabianGeʻez
ġ-غgh
ġ, ʻעʻעʻ
ġʻ
Character encodings
Character information
Previewغ
Unicode nameARABIC LETTER GHAINARABIC LETTER GHAIN
ISOLATED FORM
ARABIC LETTER GHAIN
FINAL FORM
ARABIC LETTER GHAIN
INITIAL FORM
ARABIC LETTER GHAIN
MEDIAL FORM
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode1594U+063A65229U+FECD65230U+FECE65231U+FECF65232U+FED0
UTF-8216 186D8 BA239 187 141EF BB 8D239 187 142EF BB 8E239 187 143EF BB 8F239 187 144EF BB 90
Numeric character referenceغغﻍﻍﻎﻎﻏﻏﻐﻐ
See also
Last edited on 6 January 2021, at 22:20
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