This is an extremely unusual sound, and led the early Arabic grammarians to describe Arabic as the لغة الضاد
"the language of the ḍād
", since the sound was thought to be unique to Arabic.
The emphatic lateral nature of this sound is possibly inherited from Proto-Semitic
, and is compared to a phoneme in South Semitic
languages such as Mehri language
(where it is usually an ejective lateral fricative
). The corresponding letter in the South Arabian alphabet
, and in Ge'ez alphabet Ṣ́appa ፀ
), although in Ge'ez
it merged early on with ṣ.
The letter itself is distinguished a derivation, by addition of a diacritic dot
, from ص ṣād
The main pronunciations of written ⟨ض⟩ in Arabic dialects.
In most Bedouin influenced Arabic vernaculars ض
have been merged quite early
like in the varieties (such as Bedouin
), where the dental fricatives are preserved, both the letters are pronounced /ðˤ/.
However, there are dialects in South Arabia and in Mauritania
where both the letters are kept different but not in all contexts.
In other vernaculars such as Egyptian the distinction between ض
is most of the time made; but Classical Arabic ẓāʾ
often becomes /zˤ/, e.g. ʿaẓīm
(< Classical عظيم
"De-emphaticized" pronunciation of the both letters in the form of the plain /z/ entered into other non-Arabic languages such as Persian, Urdu, Turkish.
However, there do exist Arabic borrowings into Ibero-Romance languages
as well as Hausa and Malay, where ḍād
is transliterated as ḍ
) in romanization
. The combination ⟨dh⟩ is also sometimes used colloquially. In varieties where the Ḍād has merged with the Ẓāʾ
, the symbol for the latter might be used for both (eg. ⟨ظل
⟩ 'to stay' and ⟨ضل
⟩ 'to be lost' may both be transcribed as ḏ̣al
in Gulf Arabic
When transliterating Arabic in the Hebrew alphabet, it is either written as ד
(the letter for /d
/) or as צ׳
), which is also used to represent the /tʃ/ sound.
- ^ a b c d e Versteegh, Kees (2003) . The Arabic language (Repr. ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780748614363.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Versteegh, Kees (1999). "Loanwords from Arabic and the merger of ḍ/ḏ̣". In Arazi, Albert; Sadan, Joseph; Wasserstein, David J. (eds.). Compilation and Creation in Adab and Luġa: Studies in Memory of Naphtali Kinberg (1948–1997). pp. 273–286.
- ^ Alqahtani, Khairiah (June 2015). "A sociolinguistic study of the Tihami Qahtani dialect in Asir, Southern Arabia" (PDF). A sociolinguistic study of the Tihami Qahtani dialect in Asir, Southern Arabia: 45, 46.
- ^ a b c d e Versteegh, Kees (2000). "Treatise on the pronunciation of the ḍād". In Kinberg, Leah; Versteegh, Kees (eds.). Studies in the Linguistic Structure of Classical Arabic. Brill. pp. 197–199. ISBN 9004117652.
- ^ Ferguson, Charles (1959). "The Arabic koine". Language. 35 (4): 630. doi:10.2307/410601.
- ^ a b Ferguson, Charles Albert (1997) . "The Arabic koine". In Belnap, R. Kirk; Haeri, Niloofar (eds.). Structuralist studies in Arabic linguistics: Charles A. Ferguson's papers, 1954–1994. Brill. pp. 67–68. ISBN 9004105115.
- ^ Roman, André (1983). Étude de la phonologie et de la morphologie de la koiné arabe. 1. Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence. pp. 162–206.
- ^ Retsö, Jan (2012). "Classical Arabic". In Weninger, Stefan (ed.). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 785–786. ISBN 978-3-11-025158-6.
Last edited on 24 February 2021, at 15:08
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.