The 2011 Lebanese protests
, also known as the Intifada of Dignity
or Uprising of Dignity
were seen as influenced by the Arab Spring
The main protests focused on calls for political reform especially against confessionalism
. The protests initiated in early 2011, and dimmed by the end of the year. In another aspect of the Arab Spring, Lebanese pro and anti-Assad
factions descended into sectarian violence
, which culminated in May–June 2012.
is a parliamentary republic
within the overall framework of confessionalism
, a form of consociationalism
in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. The constitution
grants the people the right to change their government, however, from the mid-1970s until the parliamentary elections in 1992, a civil war
precluded the exercise of political rights. According to the constitution, direct elections must be held for the parliament every 4 years. The last parliamentary election
was in 2018,.
, in turn, elects a president
every 6 years to a single term, he is, however, not eligible for re-election. The last presidential election
was in 2016. The president and parliament choose the prime minister
. Political parties
are grouped with either the March 8 alliance
or the March 14 alliance
. (the Progressive Socialist Party
of Walid Jumblatt
is ostensibly independent but strongly leans towards March 14 even after their withdrawal from the March 14 alliance due to political views towards Syria and Iran).
is roughly split amongst Sunnis
(most of whom are Maronite
). Due to the demographic concerns, amid fears the country could be a powder keg
, a census
has not been carried out since 1932. Since then the government has only published rough estimates of the population.
2011 new government
On 12 January 2011, the government collapsed after Energy Minister Gebran Bassil
announced that all ten opposition ministers had resigned following months of warnings by Hezbollah that it would not remain inactive should there be indictments against the group by the Special Tribunal for Lebanon
in the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri
Preliminary indictments were issued 17 January as expected,
) President Michel Suleiman
's appointed Minister of State, Adnan Sayyed Hussein
resigned later bringing the total number of ministers who quit to 11 thus causing the fall of the government. The New York Times
suggested that the resignations came after the collapse of talks between Syria and Saudi Arabia to ease tensions in Lebanon. The resignations stemmed from PM Hariri's refusal to call an emergency cabinet session over discussion for withdrawing cooperation with the STL.
Suleiman, who is constitutionally responsible for the formation of a new government, accepted the resignations saying: "In line with clause one of article 69 in the Lebanese constitution
on the circumstances under which the government is considered to have resigned...as the government has lost more than one third of its members...the cabinet [is requested to] act as a caretaker government until the formation of a new government."
The March 8 alliance then nominate Najib Mikati
to form a government in line with the accepted norms that a prime minister must be a Sunni (even though most Sunnis are supporters of March 14).
On 13 June, a new government was formed
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. (March 2011)
On 27 February, hundreds of Lebanese
marched along the old demarcation line in the capital Beirut
against the country's sectarian political system
. A peaceful sit-in in Saida
also took place.
In follow-up rallies to the 27 February demonstration, around 8,000 people marched from Dora to Beirut in the second round of a campaign to "topple the sectarian regime" and its leading symbols and to call for a secular state. Similar protests took place in Baalbek
A rally was organised by the March 14 alliance
in which several hundreds of thousands supporters attended in commemoration of the start Cedar Revolution
6 years earlier. The main slogan of the rally was calling for the disarmament of Hezbollah
and to renew support for the ideals of the revolution.
Thousands of Lebanese took to the streets to protest against the sectarian nature of the governing system.
This was the third protest against the sectarian political system
In interfactional clashes
in Tripoli, Seven people were killed and 59 were wounded, on Friday, 17 June. Armed clashes erupted in following a rally in support of Syrian protesters
. Fighting broke out between gunmen positioned in the rival neighborhoods of Jabal Mohsen (mainly Alawites
who support the Syrian government) and Bab al-Tabbaneh (mainly Sunnis, supporting the Syrian uprising). Among the dead were a Lebanese army soldier and an official from the Alawite Arab Democratic Party
On 26 June, hundreds of people marched towards the parliament in Beirut demanding the end of Lebanon's confessional system.
What the local press considered might be the largest general strike in its history had been called for this date.
The General Labor Confederation is demanding higher wages, among other things. The cabinet acceded to these demands,
and the marches were "suspended. However, the teacher's union refused to accept this, went on strike anyway, and paralyzed the nation's education system
5,000 protesters filled the streets of Downtown Beirut as part of a teacher's strike, which is said to be a precursor of a general strike planned for the following week.
Aftermath and spillover from Syria (2011-12)
On 5 and 6 October 2011, the Syrian army briefly invaded (killing one person) before retreating again across the border, causing instability in the Mikati government.
"I am not being silent about this, we are dealing with the issue normally", Mikati said, noting the permeability of the border.
Further incursions by the Syrian military onto Lebanese territory occurred in December 2011, resulting in more deaths. More Syrian incursions into Lebanon (also to Turkey) followed in March 2012. In addition to the Tripoli clashes
in March between Alawites and Sunnis, several border penetrations increased fears of Syrian uprising affecting Lebanon. The clashes
greatly escalated in May and June, leaving dozens dead and hundreds wounded.
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- ^ "Lebanese protest against sectarian political system". Reuters. 27 February 2011.
- ^ .
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- ^"http://www.almanar.com.lb/newssite/NewsDetails.aspx?id=169956&language=en[permanent dead link]
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- ^ http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_id=1&categ_id=2&article_125693#axzz1G0xiKbQd
- ^  Archived 5 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Lutz, Meris (20 March 2011). "Lebanon: Thousands rally against sectarian leaders". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ Lebanon... Perils of the Syrian Quake Aftershocks Archived 27 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF) .
- ^ "Rally for secularism commences in Beirut". nowlebanon.com. 26 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- ^ Largest general strike looms | News , Politics. The Daily Star (11 October 2011).
- ^  Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Lebanon News - Strike Creates Chaos in Schools, Union Slams GLC Deal". Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- ^ "Teachers threaten to step up strike action". The Daily Star (15 December 2011).
- ^ March--8 MPs slam local reaction to incursion by ‘sisterly state’. The Daily Star (7 October 2011).
Last edited on 14 January 2021, at 09:45
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