2019–2021 Algerian protests For other uses, see Hirak
The 2019–2021 Algerian protests
, also called Revolution of Smiles
or Hirak Movement
began on 16 February 2019,
six days after Abdelaziz Bouteflika
announced his candidacy for a fifth presidential term in a signed statement. These protests, without precedent since the Algerian Civil War
, were peaceful and led the military to insist on Bouteflika's immediate resignation, which took place on 2 April 2019.
By early May, a significant number of power-brokers close to the deposed administration, including the former president's younger brother Saïd, had been arrested.
The rising tensions within the Algerian regime can be traced back to the beginning of Bouteflika's rule which has been characterized by the state's monopoly on natural resources revenues used to finance the government's clientelist
system and ensure its stability.
The major demonstrations have taken place in the largest urban centers of Algeria from February to December 2019. Due to their significant scale, the protests attracted international media coverage and provoked reactions from several heads of states and scholarly figures.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika had been president of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
since 1999. Two amnesties (via referendum) for former combatants in the Algerian Civil War
had taken place during his presidency (1999 and 2005). A complex "dirty war" between Islamic guerrillas and the government had claimed a contested number of approximately 200,000 lives between 1991–2002.
Nearly half of the Algerian population was born after the end of the conflict, amidst the din of repeated corruption scandals.
With Bouteflika's accession to power in 1999, he began a diplomatic mission to rehabilitate Algeria's image abroad. He set about consolidating power, especially after his re-election in 2003.
During his tenure as president, the power center in Algerian politics shifted from the east to west, most particularly to Tlemcen
, where some became highly placed figures in the media, administration, and police. Roughly $10 billion of public funding flowed to the city for construction projects, including a university, hotels, museums and airports. €155m was spent on a state residence, which remains incomplete. Many of the public works contracts were given to Chinese companies, by whom local contractors were allegedly not always paid.
The constitutional revision of 2016
limited the number of presidential terms that could be served to two, but nevertheless allowed Bouteflika to seek a fifth term, because the law was not retroactive.
Since 2005, and especially after his stroke
in 2013, Bouteflika's ability to govern the country was called into question: rumors of his death were frequent as he was often hospitalized, no longer spoke and made very few written statements.
In this context, some Algerians considered his announced candidacy for the presidential election, originally scheduled for 18 April 2019, 4 July 2019 or 2020, to be humiliating.
Members of Bouteflika's administration have been accused of engaging in corrupt practices in several instances. In 2010, Sonatrach
, the state-owned oil and gas company, suspended all of its senior management after two of the company's vice-presidents were imprisoned for corruption. Algeria's Energy Minister
Chakib Khelil announced that the president of the company and several executives have been placed under judicial supervision.
In 2013, Khelil was also accused of receiving a bribe from a subsidiary of the Italian energy company Eni
According to El Watan
, overbilling for public works and misleading descriptions of imported goods are two common corrupt practices, facilitated by cronyism at the highest levels.
On 26 June 2018, Bouteflika dismissed Abdelghani Hamel as head of the national police (DGSN), despite the latter being part of his inner circle. This news came after one of Hamel's drivers had become a suspect in Cocainegate, which led a general of the gendarmerie, four judges and two public prosecutors to be tried for bribery.
Djamaa el Djazaïr
, a large mosque
under construction in Algiers, is nicknamed the Great Mosque of Bouteflika. Its minaret is 55m higher than the Hassan II Mosque
in Morocco. Though its construction was touted as an Algerian job-creater, immigrant workers did most of the work for China State Construction Engineering
while living in prefab shantytowns around the construction site. The project still came in 2.5 times over-budget. The cost of the mosque's construction has been estimated to be between $1.4 and $2 billion.
A doctor quoted in Le Monde
complained that "with $4 billion [sic], 200 hospitals could have been built." Converting the mosque into a hospital has been suggested. For the Algerian press, it became a symbol of the mismanagement of public funds and of the "capricious megalomania" of the former President.
Broadly, cumulative grievances and aspirations were at the heart of the protest movement. Decade-long economic stagnation, unemployment, labour market segmentation, and chronic corruption fueled discontent. Plummeting oil and gas prices weakened the regime's capacity to continue buying off some sections of the lower classes and youth, and to contain discontent.
In December 2018, calls for demonstrations in the neighborhood of Bab El Oued
against the fifth term went unheeded, except by the police, which mobilized a significant dissuasive force.
The protests were at first, following the 10 February formal announcement of Bouteflika's candidacy,
limited geographically to northern Algeria.
The first major demonstration took place on 16 February 2019 in Kherrata
, at the eastern end of the wilaya of Bejaia
in the Kabylie
region, after the distribution in Kherrata and its surrounding villages of posters calling for "a peaceful march against the fifth term and against the existing system" on that date.
, on 19 February, a giant poster of the President of the Republic was torn down from city hall and trampled. Two days later, another suffered a similar fate in Annaba.
This form of protest was related to the recent practice of offering gifts to a framed portrait of Bouteflika in the latter's absence.
22 February 2019 in Algiers
Protests were organized via social media in major and mid-sized cities on 22 February. Those in Algiers
—where street protests had been illegal since a demonstration on 14 June 2001, "when hundreds of thousands of demonstrators from Kabylie
converged on the capital"
—were the biggest in nearly 18 years.
Smaller protests, with slogans like "There is no president, there's a poster," had been taking place in Algiers since 11 February.
On 22 February, the portrait of the President was torn down from the landmark central post office
There are no official government numbers published, but one expert put the number of demonstrators at 800,000 on 22 February 2019.
Another large-scale demonstration took place on 24 February at the call of the Mouwatana movement ("citizenship"),
On 28 February, a dozen journalists were arrested during protests against press censorship.
Three million people were estimated to have demonstrated on 1 March 2019, though no official figures were given.
The private channel Dzaïr News
reported that one million people demonstrated across Algeria on 1 March, which was also the first time state television broadcast images of the protests.
183 people were injured and Hassan Benkhedda, son of former interim government president, Benyoucef Benkhedda
, died of a heart attack.
Speaking as Interior Minister, Noureddine Bedoui
confirmed that it was related to police action against "thugs unrelated to the protestors."
On 2 March 2019, Abdelaziz Bouteflika replaced his campaign director, the former prime minister Abdelmalek Sellal
, who had actively campaigned for the President since 2004, by the virtually unknown Abdelghani Zaalane [fr; ar]
, a career provincial administrator
. Considered to be a response to the ongoing protests,
this dismissal followed the disclosure of a recording between Sellal and Ali Haddad
in which the former is heard making threats.
The deadline for submitting candidatures for the presidential election was 3 March 2019.
The idea of postponing the election was put forward.
On 3 March, the candidacy of Bouteflika was filed by his campaign director, though the law stipulates that the candidate must be physically present for this process.
Another signed message announced that if re-elected, a national conference would be convened to adopt reforms as well as a new Constitution – to be approved by referendum – and that he would not take part in the next presidential election which he promised would be held early.
After the confirmation of Bouteflika's candidacy on Sunday, 3 March, and the withdrawal of several opposition candidates, including Ali Benflis
and Louisa Hanoune
an anonymous call to strike was made the next day, as well as a call to protest on 8 March.
Even before the candidacy was formalized, tens of thousands of protesters were out on the streets.
From Sunday night to Monday morning, hundreds of protesters marched peacefully,
calling his candidacy a "provocation", an "insult" and a "masquerade".
The next day, many students boycotted their classes.
The opposition, meeting at the headquarters of the Justice and Development Front
, called for candidates to withdraw from the election.
On the same day, following the example of the resignation the day before of Khaled Tazaghart, an elected representative (député) from the El Moustakbal party, & former minister Sid Ahmed Ferroukhi
(FLN), resigned from the party.
Zahir Kherraz, FLN mayor of Oued Amizour
, also said he did not support a fifth term.
Amar Benadouda (1931), doyen of the mayors of the country, resigned from the town hall of Guenzet
On Tuesday, protests and student strikes continued, thousands were in the streets of Algiers, Constantine
, Bejaia, Tizi Ouzou
, or Tlemcen
On Thursday, a thousand lawyers demonstrated in Algiers.
The "Pacifist and Civilized Walkers' 18 Commandments", written by Lazhari Labter [fr]
, were widely circulated on social media prior to the 8 March demonstration.
In reaction to the Friday demonstrations, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research moved the spring university holidays forward to the next day (10 March) and extended them by two weeks in an effort to calm matters down.
On 10 March, the Army Chief of Staff Ahmed Gaid Salah
, close to Bouteflika, gave a speech to officer cadets saying the "army and the people had a common vision of the future". This speech was front-page news in El Khabar
A 5-day general strike was begun the same day.
The day after the announcement that Bouteflika would not seek a new term, that Interior Minister Noureddine Bedoui
had replaced Ahmed Ouyahia
as prime minister, and that the presidential election was to be postposed sine die
, university students protested for the third consecutive Tuesday across the country chanting "No Tricks, Bouteflika."
On Wednesday, teachers protested. On Thursday, lawyers and judges were on the streets in several cities.
On 14 March, Djamila Bouhired
encouraged the younger generation demonstrating, saying: "Your elders liberated Algeria from colonial domination, and you are giving back to Algerians their liberties and their pride despoiled since independence"
The protests on 15 March were estimated to have been larger than those the previous Friday. The Guardian
reported that hundreds of thousands were in the streets, La Croix
put the number at over a million.
Protesters carried a banner criticizing France's comments that the cancellation of elections should lead to a "transition of reasonable length" saying, "It's the people who decide, not France!". Other signs included "Macron, deal with your yellow vests
" and "Elysée
, stop! It's 2019, not 1830."
On 16 March, twenty women created the group Femmes algériennes pour un changement vers l’égalité
(FACE), calling for full equality between men and women, proposing the creation of a regular feminist square
in front of Algiers 1 University
and calling for equal representation of men and women in citizens' initiatives resulting from the Hirak protests.
On 17 March, the newly appointed Prime Minister announced the intention of forming a government of politically unaffiliated experts, which would "reflect the demographics of the Algerian society".
Students were again in the streets on Tuesday, 18 March demanding that Bouteflika step down by the end of his term (28 April). The army chief of staff said that the army needed to deal with the crisis.
On Friday 29 March, the Algerian authorities denied Reuters' reports that there were a million protesters in the capital, but did not put forward numbers of their own.
Bouteflika named a new government on 31 March 2019 two days before his resignation.
Investigations were opened into a dozen oligarchs who were prevented from leaving the country. Ali Haddad'
s resignation from the FCE
—an employers federation, which had seen a wave of recent resignations over his remarks about the protests
—and his subsequent arrest at the Tunisian border were widely reported.
Bouteflika made a statement promising to step down by the end of his term, but equivocating as to the actual date. The following day, the Army Chief of Staff (who had been appointed by Bouteflika to replace General Mohammed Lamari
after his 2004 election)
insisted both privately and publicly that he resign immediately, which he did.
As provided for under Article 102 of the Algerian Constitution
, Abdelkader Bensalah became acting interim President.
His term can last for a maximum of 90 days while a presidential election
is held. By law, he cannot participate in this election.
wrote that the military had "recognized that radical measures were needed to save the system." Though it had regained some power at the expense of the "clan" centered around Saïd Bouteflika
—including the Armed Forces chief of staff—McDougall added that "[s]ome observers and activists believe that the army as an institution now wants to stay out of politics and might even support the "clean-up" of corruption that protesters demand."
The streets were again exuberant and crowded with hundreds of thousands on Friday 5 April, with marchers carrying signs demanding further resignations, specifically mentioning the 3B: Noureddine Bedoui (prime minister), Abdelkader Bensalah (who was officially appointed acting interim president on 9 April),
and Tayeb Belaiz
(head of the constitutional council); as well as the Army Chief of Staff.
Tear gas and a water cannon were used repeatedly to prevent more than a thousand students chanting "Silmiya, Silmiya
" (peaceful, peaceful) from going through the Tunnel des Facultés in Algiers on the 8th successive Tuesday of student demonstrations.
The Friday protests, of the same size as previous weeks, were more conflictual, with police blocking access to the city and parts of the city.
On 16 April, the president of the constitutional council, Tayed Belaiz—one of the three Bs whose ouster protesters sought—informed the council that he had submitted his resignation.
The size of the protests on 19 April was similar to previous weeks.
Ennahar TV reported that five billionaires were arrested on 22 April 2019: four brothers from the Kouninef family, close to Saïd Bouteflika, and Issad Rebrab
, the CEO of Cevital
The head of Cevital's communications department denied the reports.
A judge also called in the former prime minister and the current finance minister for questioning.
Week 10: 26 April-2 May
On Friday 26, thousands of protesters gathered in Algiers for the tenth week despite attempts by the authorities to close all entrances to the capital. Banners such as "The system must go" and "We are fed up with you," were raised in city centre. Earlier, Algeria's richest businessman and three other billionaires were arrested in an on-going investigation on the grounds of corruption.
For the eleventh consecutive week, tens of thousands of people, according to al-Jazeera, demonstrated on Friday 3 May and raised banners that read: "You must go" and "Thieves you have destroyed the country". Protesters also continued to insist on the peaceful character of their demonstrations, chanting "Peaceful, peaceful," while marching in central Algiers. It was also reported that the power broker military chief Ahmed Gaid Salah
called for "dialogue", but the president of Rally for Youth Action, a civil society organisation, expressed his refusal to negotiate with "symbols of the old system."
7 June 2019: Demonstrators from the Aures
9 June 2019 in the town of Béjaïa
On 19 June 2019, Lieutenant general
Salah reiterated that no flags other than the "national emblem" would be tolerated during demonstrations. In so doing, he was targeting the Amazigh flag
, a frequently-seen flyer during the Hirak (movement).
On 17 July, Abderrahmane Arrar, President of the Civil Forum for Change (FCPC), proposed a committee of former politicians, lawyers and human rights activists with reputations for neutrality, without political ambitions, who would mediate decision-making for organising a presidential election and a political transition. The aim was to first obtain wide consensus on the list of mediators.
On 15 September, the government announced a presidential election to take place on 12 December.
Demonstrations continued, calling for Ahmed Gaïd Salah and other members of the former Bouteflika governmental clique to resign. The authorities blocked road entries to the capital Algiers and arrested prominent protestors in preparation for the following Friday. Protestors called for a general strike each Tuesday starting 24 September.
Protests continued for the 31st Friday on 20 September, with two thousand protesting in Béjaïa
and two thousand in Bouïra
calling for Salah to resign, for the peaceful revolution to continue, and stating that it would be better to go to prison than to vote in the 12 December 2019 presidential election.
Detentions of prominent opposition members around 20 September included that of barrister Abdelhak Mellah from Boumerdès
, who supports boycotting the 12 December presidential election; Karim Tabbou; Samir Belarbi; Fodil Boumala, accused of "attacking the integrity of national territory" and "attacking national unity"; Lakhdar Bouregaa
; and 77-year old Garidi Hamidi, an "icon" of the protest movement.
On 1 November, the metro was shut down in Algiers and trains into the city were canceled as a result of a social media campaign calling for demonstrations. Police roadblocks also caused traffic jams.
For the 37th weekly Friday protest, which coincided with the celebration of the 65th anniversary of the start of the Algerian War
for independence from France,
tens of thousands of demonstrators called for all members of the system of power in place to be dismissed and for a radical change in the political system.
They rejected the 12 December election
, with slogans describing it as "an election with the gangs" and as an "election organised by a corrupt power [which] is a trap for idiots" (French
: les élections d’un pouvoir corrompu est un piège à cons
On 15 November, the 39th successive Friday of protests included objections to the 12 December presidential election and calls for arrested protestors to be freed.
On 17 November, the day that the presidential election candidates opened their campaigns, protestors objecting to the election, perceiving it as a continuation of the same group of people retaining political power, posted sacks of garbage on panels allocated for presidential candidates' campaign posters. Protestor Smain described the symbolism by stating that the election "is completely rejected ... as garbage".
On 6 December, crowds in Algiers, Constantine, Oran, and in Kabylie were massive, calling for a boycott of the elections scheduled for the following week and for a general strike starting on 8 December.
The presidential election was held on 12 December 2019
, despite wide popular opposition,
with a turnout of 8% according to the Rally for Culture and Democracy
or 39.88% officially,
with Abdelmadjid Tebboune
officially elected in the first round with 58.13% of the valid votes.
During the three days around the election, 11–13 December 1200 protestors were detained by the authorities according to the CNLD
Later in December, the CNLD estimated that according to its records, 180 prisoners of conscience
remained in prison, either under remand or serving sentences.
Gaid Salah suffered a heart attack on the morning of 23 December 2019 and was rushed to a military hospital in Algiers, where he died a few hours later. He was 79 years old. His last public appearance was four days earlier when he received the National Order of Merit from President Abdelmadjid Tebboune.
Demonstrators in Berlin, Germany, 19 January 2020
In the first week of January 2020, the new president elected in the mostly boycotted election, Abdelmadjid Tebboune
, appointed Abdelaziz Djerad
as prime minister
and the rest of his cabinet mostly consisting of ministers of the previous government
under Bensalah as acting president and Ahmed Gaid Salah
as de facto
leader of Algeria.
On 2 January, 76 prisoners of conscience detained because of their protest actions were released, some of them conditionally.
On 15 January, 13 detainees held in El-Harrach prison [fr]
since 1 March 2019 started a hunger strike
, with the aim of getting a fair trial. Their cases had rested frozen for 10 months and their court appearances were scheduled for 16 March 2020.
In the 17 January Hirak protest marches, twenty of the first protestors to arrive in the morning were arrested in Algiers.
As of 18 January 2020, Youth Action Rally [fr]
(RAJ) estimated that a total of at least 100 Hirak prisoners of conscience were being held in Algerian prisons, while the CNLD
estimated that 120 or more Hirak prisoners remained under detention.
In early February, close to the anniversary of the first protests on 16 and 22 February 2019, President Tebboune signed a decree pardoning several thousand prisoners, who were released from jail, but the Hirak protest prisoners of conscience were not included in the pardon.
On 20 March 2020, Algerian protesters heeded a presidential order over the coronavirus, and the pleas of some of their own leaders, by not staging their weekly demonstration against the ruling elite on Friday for the first time in over a year. Leading supporters of the protest movement, including imprisoned activist Karim Tabbou, human rights lawyer Mustafa Bouchachi and former minister Abdelaziz Rahabi, had urged the protesters to suspend their marches.
Abdallah Benadouda, an Algerian exile in the US with experience in Algerian public radio and private television (Dzaïr TV
), started Radio Corona International 21 April 2020 to keep the Hirak flame alive during the lockdown. Benadouda encourages comparison to pirate radio in Europe
in the 1970s and has discussed government crackdown on journalists (Khaled Draini) and opposition figures (Karim Tabbou).
On 5 October, Algerian protesters marked the 32nd anniversary of a pro-democracy movement, with hundreds of protesters gathering in the streets of the capital, Algiers.
On 9 October, following the rape and killing of a teenage girl, protests erupted in several cities across Algeria, decrying gender-based violence.
The body of Chaïma, 19, was said to have been discovered in an abandoned petrol station in Thenia, 50 miles east of Algiers, earlier in the month. Chaïma's family revealed that she went missing after going out for a walk to pay her phone bill, and was subsequently stabbed, raped and allegedly burnt alive.
A constitutional referendum
had previously been announced in July that was to be held in November as a result of the protests earlier in the year, but critics said it fails to address popular concerns of overreach by the government.
5,000 people gathered in the town of Kherrata on 16 February to mark the two year anniversary of the Hirak protest movement. Demonstrations had been suspended because of the COVID-19 pandemic in Algeria
On 18 February, President Abdelmadjid Tebboune
released 70 people who had been imprisoned for their participation in demonstrations, but that did not stop thousands from demonstrating on 22 February.
These are the largest protests in Algeria since 2001. The demonstrators are primarily young people who did not experience the "Black Decade".
One observer lauded the millennials' reappropriation of corporate branding to their own uses, as well as their respect for their living space through peaceful demonstrations, saying:
Algerian millennials thrive on positive messages. They flooded the web with images of young demonstrators kissing, handing flowers to police officers and women on international women's day, distributing water bottles, volunteering for first aid or encouraging people to clean the streets after the demonstrations.
Women's active role in the protests was credited with minimizing violence,
and marked a sharp contrast with the 1988 protests predominantly led by salafists.
An old mother of five unemployed children told the BBC: "There's nothing for the young generation," she said. "No jobs and no houses. They can't get married. We want this whole system to go."
Demonstrations also took place abroad, particularly in France,
where 10,000 demonstrated in Paris on 8 March.
Demonstrators in Montréal (10 March).
Demonstrators, Place de la République, Paris (17 March).
Originally the protesters wanted Abdelaziz Bouteflika to withdraw his candidacy for a fifth term and wanted Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia
to step down. More generally, they called for massive housecleaning from the government of the ruling clans, known collectively as le pouvoir
In conjunction with the president's withdrawal, the protesters called more and more for democracy, liberties and the rule of law, goals which many protests argue are unrealized and which continue to attract Algerians into the street.
Slogans, songs and symbols
Some slogans referred to the incumbent president as "the Moroccan" because of his birthplace
and his reputed membership in a shadowy second Oudja Clan
Others, such as "bring back the commandos of the army and the BIS, there will be no fifth term" alluded to the baltaguias
By April, common slogans, placards, chants and hashtags included: "Leave means Leave" and "Throw them all out". Protesters in the capital chanted: "Bouteflika get out, and take Gaid Salah with you."
Songs such as "Libérer l'Algérie", written by artists supporting the movement, "Allô le système!" by Raja Meziane
and "La liberté" by Soolking
, became hits with the protesters upon their release.
Yetnahaw Gaa !
, often written Yetnahaw ga3 !
, or, in Algerian Arabic, (يتنحاو ڨاع), means "they should all go" and became a rallying cry after Bouteflika renounced his run for a fifth term.
Cachir, an emblematic Algerian sausage, was brandished and tossed around during demonstrations as a reminder of the 2014 elections when the press reported that Bouteflika's re-election committee was increasing attendance at their meetings by handing out free sandwiches filled with the sausage. In the protestor's eyes, cachir had become a "symbol of corruption and of the 'buying of votes and souls.'"
The Algerians have also employed humour and comedy to express dissent and discontent.
Algerian activist Hamza Hamouchene captured the following on his iPhone:
"Algeria, country of heroes that is ruled by zeros", "System change ... 99 percent loading", "We need Detol to kill 99.99 percent of the gang" [referring to members of the regime] And this one from a medical student: "We are vaccinated and we have developed anti-system IgGs (antibodies) ... and we keep getting boosters every Friday" "The problem is the persistence of idolatry and not the replacement of the idol"
Some slogans were directly targeting French complicity and interferences: "France is scared that if Algeria takes its independence it would ask for compensation for the metal it used to build the Eiffel tower" "Allo Allo Macron, the grandchildren of November '54 are back"
In reaction to calls by Gaid Salah to apply article 102 of the constitution, so the leader of the upper house would take over with elections to be held 90 days after the presidency is declared vacant by the constitutional council, people replied: "We want the application of article 2019 ... You are all going" "We asked for the departure of the whole gang, not the promotion of some of its members" "Batteries are dead so no need to squeeze them" "Dear system, you are a piece of s*** and I can prove it mathematically" "Here Algeria: the voice of the people. The number 102 is no longer in service. Please call people's service at 07" (in reference to article 07 stipulating that the people are the source of all sovereignty).
In Bordj Bou Arréridj
, a city 200 km east of the capital Algiers, every Friday protesters have been hanging a new tifo
since the fifth Friday. Displayed on an unfinished building renamed "The People's Palace", the banners bear cartoons and slogans, and as more Algerians from other cities have been pouring in every Friday the town has been named "The Capital of the Hirak" (The capital of the popular movement). The idea of the tifos is borrowed from the ultras
groups which, according to sociologist Mark Doidge, were political protests in the 1960s and 1970s Italy.
Although the rallies were generally peaceful, some vehicles were burned and shops were vandalized in the evening of demonstrations.
On 1 March, clashes took place between the police and groups of young people throwing stones at them.
41 arrests were recorded on 23 February
and 45 on 1 March including five men caught trying to haul away a safe. The police reported that "the majority of the people arrested were under the influence of psychotropic or hallucinogenic substances".
Until 1 March 2019, public television, radio, and press totally ignored the demonstrations, while private television channels linked to power dealt with them in a limited way.
campaign was launched against the media.
The editor-in-chief of Channel III [ar; fr]
, Meriem Abdou, resigned on 23 February as a protest against the treatment of the movement on the government-run radio station. Several journalists were arrested.
A hundred journalists and the NGO Reporters Without Borders
publicly denounced the censorship
practiced by the Algerian executive.
When state TV channels did begin mentioning the protests, they were critical of the protesters and did not refer to their motives.
In contrast, the private print media and news sites reported widely on events from the beginning.
Despite the opening of the audiovisual media to competition in 2011, off-shore channels can be shut down at any time because of their precarious legal status.
One foreign media outlet, Al Jazeera
, has been banned from Algeria since 2004.
On 4 March, Nadia Madassi, Canal Algérie
's nightly news anchor for the past 15 years, resigned because she had been required to read a letter attributed to the president on the air.
On 5 March, Echorouk
and El Bilad
were sanctioned by the Ministries of Communication for having covered the demonstrations, and were cut off from advertising by the ANEP (national publishing and advertising agency).
Alliances of citizens' groups and dialogue
On 6 July, the Forum civil pour le changement
, created on 9 March 2019 by 70 citizens' groups and led by Abderrahmane Arara,
and the Forces du changement
held a conference at which they proposed the creation of a panel to dialogue with the government and in favour of the holding of a presidential election.
The 13-person dialogue panel, the Instance nationale de dialogue et de médiation
, was created and led by Karim Younes [fr]
. The dialogue panel and the holding of the election were widely criticised by the protestors and by the Forces of the Democratic Alternative
, who stated that the arrests of protestors for political reasons and the lack of basic conditions of democracy were conditions unsuitable for an election.
On 25 January 2020, 400 people from various political parties and citizens' associations participated in Algiers in a meeting organised by Forces of the Democratic Alternative
. The conclusion of the meeting was to hold another meeting to organise the detailed methods and rules for implementing a democratic transition
during which existing "illegitimate" institutions would be dismantled and for organising a constituent assembly
On 11 March, it was announced that President Bouteflika would not seek re-election; that Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia
had resigned and been replaced by Interior Minister Noureddine Bedoui; and that the April 2019 presidential election was postponed indefinitely.
Inquiries were announced into "corruption and illicit overseas capital transfers" on 1 April 2019. Ali Haddad was arrested trying to cross the border into Tunisia after liquidating stock worth €38m.
On the same day, Bouteflika promised to step down by the end of his term on 28 April.
The presidential election was finally held on 12 December 2019
, despite wide popular opposition.
The Rally for Culture and Democracy
estimated the turnout in the election at 8% of the eligible electorate, interpreting the low turnout as a result of wide rejection of the election.
The official turnout was 39.88%, with Abdelmadjid Tebboune
officially elected in the first round with 58.13% of the valid votes, leaving it unnecessary to hold a second round of the election.
On 7 May 2020, the preliminary draft of the constitutional amendment was published. It provides for the replacement of the post of First Minister by Head of Government, responsible to the Assembly, which can overthrow it by a motion of censure
, the possibility for the President of the Republic to appoint a vice-president, the replacement of the Constitutional Council by a Constitutional Court, the retention of the limit on the number of presidential mandates to two, consecutive or not, or the limitation of the mandate of deputy to one re-election.
In addition, the Hirak is inscribed in the preamble of the Constitution and the army is authorized to participate in theaters of operation abroad. Finally, the National Independent Election Authority (ANIE) is constitutionalised, the presidential third of the Council of Nation is abolished and the possibility of legislating by ordinance during parliamentary recess is abrogated.
On 8 September 2020, the final draft of the constitutional amendment was published. It revokes both of the vice-president post and the abolition of the presidential third of the Council of Nation.
The weekend after Bouteflika stepped down, protestors in Sudan
called upon the army to take their side against sitting president Omar al-Bashir
. Despite the state of emergency and the emergency courts the President created to treat the protests, demonstrators staged a sit-in in the public space outside the Khartoum headquarters of the Armed Forces.
Demonstrator wrapped in the Algerian flag.
On 28 February 2019, the economist Omar Benderra asserted that a deep separation exists between civil society and the Algerian government, which outlawed street protests twenty years ago, and which he wrote is controlled by "warlords". Public opinion, Benderra continues, is suspicious of official government communication and has also begun to show signs of frustration with spiritual leaders urging the people to stay off the streets.
In Le Figaro
on 1 March 2019, the Algerian writer Boualem Sansal
said: "Such demonstrations in all the cities of the country and even in the capital, not far from El Mouradia
(the district of the presidential palace), the Tagarins (the district of the Ministry of Defense), of Alger Centre
(the district of the palace of the government), is an unbearable humiliation for the president, his brothers, his army, his police, his deputies, his senators, his oligarchs, his officials, his extra militias, in short, the "revolutionary family" (that's the name they give themselves), whom no one has ever disrespected without paying for it with his life."
Writing on openDemocracy
, Hamza Hamouchene, a founder of the London-based Algeria Solidarity Campaign, summed up his view of the context of the revolt:
This decisive awakening on the part of the people and their growing political awareness are harbingers of good things to come and of the stormy days ahead for the profiteering caste and their foreign backers who have been scandalously enriching themselves. In the midst of increasing pauperization, unemployment, paralyzing austerity, the pillaging of resources, uneven development and corruption, the rationality of the current revolt and rebellion becomes absolutely clear.
"The protests did emerge in part in response to elements of Algerian social life," wrote Amir Mohamed Aziz, "but they need to be situated in a broader context of African, Mediterranean and transnational political-economic dynamics."
Algerian journalist Ghada Hamrouche doubted whether it was even possible to hold elections as promised by the interim president. Hamrouche considered elections within the current constitutional set up a diversion. Army chief Ahmed Gaid Salah and "the ruling class," she wrote, "are counting on the lure of elections to divide and weaken protesters' calls for a transition outside the framework of a constitution that keeps the regime in the driver's seat."
Ahmad Al-Sholi thinks that the Algerian regime is very entrenched and enjoys a good leverage generated by the revenues of the oil industry, a 'surplus' with which it could "co-opt large swaths of the population and oppositional forces. Despite the plummeting oil prices in the world market, the regime argues Al-Sholi, could attract foreign investment and still refill its coffers. On the other hand, although the Algerians showed an impressive energy and perseverance in mobilisation, it would be a mistake to expect hundreds of thousands of people to show up to protest indefinitely."
Some popular organization has to emerge now and present a roadmap that the masses could rally around, giving them a chance to catch their breath. The ruling regime is desperate to draw a red line against the protests and is intent on engaging in mass arrests. Fortunately, Algerians have significant industrial leverage to wield against their ruling class. What happens next depends on how this power is channeled to transform Algeria.
International reactions were cautious: most countries and international organizations remained silent until 5 March.
- European Union: The European Commission called for respect for the rule of law, including freedom of expression and assembly.
- France: Speaking in Djibouti on 12 March, French President Emmanuel Macron welcomed Bouteflika's decision not to seek reelection and applauded the Algerian government's plan for a constitutional conference validated by a popular referendum after a "transition of reasonable length."
- Italy: Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte advised listening to "requests for change from civil society" and believed that "Algeria will be able to guarantee a democratic and inclusive process with respect for its people and for its own benefit".
- Morocco: Given the tense relations between Algeria and Morocco, the Moroccan government has not issued any official statement regarding the protests.
- Russia: Newly-appointed deputy prime minister Ramtane Lamamra began a diplomatic tour in Moscow, where he met with Sergei Lavrov, who said in a joint press conference on 19 March that "Moscow does not meddle in the internal affairs of Algeria", adding that it was "up to the Algerian people to determine their destiny on the basis of their constitution and international laws."
- Tunisia: Although Tunisia's president Beji Caid Essebsi has stated that the Algerian people are "free to express themselves on their own governance as they wish", no further comment regarding Tunisia's government's stance on the events was made. Demonstrations were organized on 9 March during which Tunisian civilians showed their solidarity to their Algerian counterparts.
- United States: The US State Department issued a statement saying that the country "supports the Algerian people and their right to demonstrate peacefully."
- ^ Habbal, Tesbih; Hasnawi, Muzna (2019-10-10). "In the Midst of Chaos, an Invincible Arab Spring – This month's protests in Syria, Iraq, and Egypt prove that what began in 2010 was just the beginning of a long revolution". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2019-10-21. Retrieved 2019-10-21.
- ^ a b c d Zerrouky, Madjid (2019-06-08). "A Kherrata, aux sources du soulèvement algérien" [In Kherrata, at the root of the Algerian uprising]. Le Monde. Archived from the original on 2019-12-13. Retrieved 2019-12-13. In reaction [to the 10 February announcement of Bouteflika's candidacy], posters had been posted in town and in surrounding villages. "We call on everyone to participate in a peaceful march against the fifth term and against the existing system. ... " The rendez-vous was given as 16 February. (French: En réaction [à l'annonce du 10 février de la candidature de Bouteflika], des affiches avaient été placardées en ville et dans les villages environnants. « Nous appelons toute la population à assister à une marche pacifique contre le cinquième mandat et contre le système en place. ... » Rendez-vous était donné pour le 16 février.)
- ^ "Algerians forego weekly protest amid coronavirus". Reuters. 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2020-03-20.
- ^ a b Lamriben, Hocine (2019-09-10). "Réunies hier au siège du RCD : Les Forces de l'Alternative démocratique rejettent "l'agenda de la présidentielle"". El Watan. Archived from the original on 2019-11-03. Retrieved 2019-11-03.
- ^ "Algerians begin general strike against Bouteflika's rule". The Guardian. 2019-03-10. Retrieved 2019-03-10.
- ^ "General strike in Algeria against Bensalah's ascension to presidency". Middle East Monitor. 2019-04-11. Retrieved 2019-04-11.
- ^ "Population out in force for general strike in Algeria". IndustriALL Global Union. 2019-11-07. Retrieved 2019-11-07.
- ^ a b c "Le RCD s'offusque du comportement du pouvoir : "Le taux de participation réel à la présidentielle n'a pas dépassé les 8%"" [RCD vexed by the authorities' behaviour: "The real participation rate in the presidential election was no more than 8%"]. El Watan (in French). 2019-12-15. Archived from the original on 2019-12-16. Retrieved 2019-12-16.
- ^ a b c d "Le Conseil Constitutionnel annonce les résultats définitifs de la présidentielle" [The Constitutional Council announces the final results of the presidential election] (in French). Algeria Press Service. 2019-12-16. Archived from the original on 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ "Algerian protests blunted without a shot fired in anger". Al Jazeera. 2020-01-30. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- ^ Guidara, Amin (2020-01-30). "Algérie : une révision cosmétique de la Constitution" [Algeria: a cosmetic revision of the Constitution]. La Croix. Retrieved 2020-01-09.
- ^ a b c d Amel, Boubekeur (2020-02-27). "Demonstration effects: How the Hirak protest movement is reshaping Algerian politics". European Council on Foreign Relations.
- ^ a b c d e "Le FCC en congrès pour porter appui à l'élection présidentielle : Son coordonnateur, et désormais président, Abderrahmane Arar se porte candidat au scrutin" [The FCC meets in support of the presidential election: its coordinator, and now its president, Abderrahmane Arar, runs for election]. Reporters (newspaper) [fr] (in French). 2019-10-06. Archived from the original on 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ a b c "Femmes algériennes pour un changement vers l'égalité" [Algerian women for shifting to equality]. El Watan (in French). 2019-03-21. Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
- ^ a b Iddir, Nadir (2019-11-17). "Dynamiques de la société civile : Cap sur la conférence nationale" [Dynamiques de la société civile: towards a national meeting]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-12-15. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
- ^ Litamine, Khelifa (2019-08-21). "Création d'un comité national pour la libération des détenus du Hirak" [Creation of a national committee for the release of Hirak detainees]. Algérie Eco (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-12-24. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ a b "Création du Pacte de l'Alternative démocratique (PAD) France (Communiqué)". L'Avant-Garde. 2019-09-26. Archived from the original on 2019-11-03. Retrieved 2019-11-03.
- ^ "EU condemns the arbitrary arrests of political opponents in Algeria". Algiers Herald. 2019-09-13. Archived from the original on 2020-01-15. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
- ^ "Human Rights breaches in Haiti, Algeria and Cuba". European Parliament. 2019-11-28. Archived from the original on 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2019-11-28.
- ^ a b "Regional Organizations Condemn EP's Interference in Algeria's Affairs". Echorouk Online. 2019-11-29. Archived from the original on 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2019-11-29.
- ^ "Reactions pour in over EP's resolution on freedoms in Algeria". Algeria Press Service. 2019-12-01. Retrieved 2019-12-01.
- ^ a b "Größte Proteste gegen Bouteflika: 200 Verletzte und 200 Festnahmen in Algerien" [Biggest protests against Bouteflika: 200 injured and 200 arrests in Algeria]. ZDF (in German). 2019-03-09. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Amir, Nabila (2020-03-30). "Le nombre de détenus d'opinion dépasserait les 1200 : Le CNLD dénonce «l'opacité» qui entoure ce dossier" [The number of prisoners of conscience is said to exceed 1,200: The CNLD denounces the "opacity" surrounding this case]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2020-03-31. Retrieved 2020-03-30.
- ^ "Proteste weiten sich aus: Hunderte Festnahmen in Algerien" [Protests are spreading: hundreds of arrests in Algeria]. n-tv (in German). 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algerian Police Arrest 400 in Protest Calling for Overhaul of Political System". Haaretz. 2019-12-12. Archived from the original on 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
- ^ Adlène Meddi (2019-03-15). "Algérie, les 4 pièges à éviter pour la "révolution du sourire"" [Algeria, the 4 traps to avoid for the "smile revolution"]. Le Point (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-26. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- ^ Myriam Belkaïd (2019-03-19). "La révolution du sourire, Acte 1, scène 4" [The Smile Revolution, Act 1, Scene 4]. HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-27. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
- ^ "26th Friday Protest Marches Reiterate Main Hirak Movement's Demands". Algeria Press Service. 2019-08-16. Archived from the original on 2019-08-24. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
- ^ a b "Imposante manifestation contre le cinquième mandat à Kherrata" [Imposing demonstration against the fifth term in Kherrata]. Algérie Patriotique (in French). 2019-02-16. Archived from the original on 2019-02-17. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ a b c Tlemçani, Rachid (2008). "Algeria Under Bouteflika: Civil Strife and National Reconciliation" (PDF). Carnegie Papers. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
- ^ a b "Algeria: Said Bouteflika and two spy chiefs arrested". DW. 2019-05-04. Archived from the original on 2019-05-26. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
- ^ a b "Algeria Military Judge Orders Arrest of Bouteflika's Brother". Asharq Al-Awsat. 2019-05-05. Archived from the original on 2019-05-26. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
- ^ Rasmus Alenius Boserup; Luis Martinez, eds. (2016). Algeria Modern: From opacity to complexity. CERI/Sciences Po. London: Hurst. ISBN 9781849045872.
- ^ Pascal Jalabert. "Bouteflika écoute le peuple et renonce" [Bouteflika listens to the people and gives up]. Le Progrès (in French). pp. 2–3. Archived from the original on 2019-03-27. Retrieved 2019-03-12. Sa première prioité, rétablir la paix, alors que l'Algérie est plongée dans la guerre civile depuis 1992 contre le guérilla islamiste (quelque 200 000 morts en dix ans).
- ^ Mellah, Salima. "The Massacres in Algeria"(PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-16. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
- ^ Farid Alilat (2015-07-17). "Algérie: Tlemcen Power, une ville au coeur du pouvoir" [Algeria: Tlemcen Power, a city in the heart of power]. Jeune Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-04-06. Retrieved 2019-04-06. Quant aux entrepreneurs locaux qui ont bénéficié de projets en tant que sous-traitants des Chinois, ils attendent toujours d'être payés.
- ^ Youcef Bouandel (2019-03-06). "Algerians have learned the lessons of the Arab Spring". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 2019-03-10. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
- ^ "L'Algérie réforme sa Constitution et limite à deux le nombre de mandats présidentiels" [Algeria reforms its constitution and limits to two the number of presidential terms]. France 24 (in French). 2016-02-07. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Yassin Ciyow (2019-02-27). "Abdelaziz Bouteflika, l'absent omniprésent en Algérie" [Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the omnipresent absentee in Algeria]. Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ a b c d Adlène Meddi (2019-02-24). "Manifestations du 22 février: pourquoi les Algériens sont en colère" [22 February protests: why Algerians are angry]. Le Point Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Scandal envelops Sonatrach". Meed. 2010-01-27. Archived from the original on 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- ^ Martinez and Boserup, Luis and Rasmus (2016). Algeria Modern: From opacity to complexity. London: Hurst & Company, London. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-84904-587-2.
- ^ "Algérie: scandale à la Sonatrach" [Algeria: scandal at the Sonatrach]. BBC (in French). 2013-02-21. Archived from the original on 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- ^ "Le clan Bouteflika et les oligarques ont exacerbé la corruption" [The Bouteflika clan and the oligarchs exacerbated the corruption]. El Watan (in French). 2019-04-08. Archived from the original on 2019-09-18. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
- ^ Adlène Meddi (2018-06-29). "Algeria suffers a long hot summer of political scandal – again". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 2019-04-06. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
- ^ "Algeria's Cocainegate Continues to Uncover Corrupt Officials". The North Africa Post. 2018-09-15. Archived from the original on 2019-04-06. Retrieved 2019-04-21.
- ^ "Africa's largest mosque has been completed with thanks to China". Quartz Africa. 2019-04-28. Archived from the original on 2019-04-28. Retrieved 2019-04-29.
- ^ "Algeria set to finally open world's 3rd largest mosque built at". Al Arabiya English. 2019-04-29. Archived from the original on 2019-06-21. Retrieved 2019-04-29.
- ^ Ali Ezhar (2019-04-03). "La Grande Mosquée d'Alger, le chantier de trop du président déchu Abdelaziz Bouteflika". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-04-05. Retrieved 2019-04-05. Elle symbolise [...] tous les ratés du « système » algérien, la « gestion calamiteuse » de l'argent public par le chef de l'Etat, comme l'avait décrit la presse algérienne, mais aussi sa « mégalomanie » et ses « caprices ».
- ^ "La folie des grandeurs du Président déchu". El Watan (in French). 2019-04-08. Retrieved 2019-04-08. Soit 55 m de plus que celui de la mosquée Hassan II de Casablanca, la grande rivale marocaine.
- ^ "Djamaa el Djazair – Algeria". Francesco Lovison, architetto (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- ^ a b Amir Mohamed Aziz (2019-03-26). "Protesting Politics in Algeria". Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP). Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-04-15.
- ^ Yazid Alilat. "A la suite d'un appel anonyme à une marche: Alger bouclée par la police" [Following an anonymous call to a march: Algiers cordoned off by the police]. www.lequotidien-oran.com (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Mystérieux appels à manifester à Alger: une journée ordinaire sous haute surveillance policière" [Mysterious calls to demonstrate in Algiers: an ordinary day under heavy police surveillance]. TSA (in French). 2018-12-01. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: manifestations à Béjaïa contre la candidature de Bouteflika pour un cinquième mandat (vidéo)" [Algeria: protests in Béjaïa against Bouteflika's candidacy for a fifth term (video)]. France Maghreb (in French). 2019-02-21. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: retour sur une journée de mobilisation inédite contre la candidature de Bouteflika" [Algeria: return on a day of unprecedented mobilization against the candidacy of Bouteflika]. Le Point Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: la rue ne peut plus "encadrer" la candidature de Bouteflika à un 5e mandat" [Algeria: the street can no longer "frame" the candidacy of Bouteflika for a 5th term]. Franceinfo (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Un cheval offert au portrait de Bouteflika: naissance d'un culte rituel?" [A horse offered to the portrait of Bouteflika: birth of a ritual worship?]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). 2018-04-26. Archived from the original on 2019-03-23. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Le FLN offre un cadre ... au cadre du président Bouteflika (Vidéo)" [FLN offers a framework ... to President Bouteflika's framework (Video)]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-02-14. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Jérôme Duval; Jenny Bright (trans.) (2019-03-08). "The "Hirak" Movement in Algeria Against Bouteflika's "Mandate of Shame"". Counterpunch. Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
- ^ a b Amir Akef; Charlotte Bozonnet; Madjid Zerrouky (2019-02-23). "Algérie:révolte inédite contre le pouvoir". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-02-24. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
- ^ "Une vague anti-5e mandat prend forme: Toute l'actualité sur" [An anti-5th term wave takes shape: All the news on]. liberte-algerie.com (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-02-16. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
- ^ a b c d "Manifestations massive en Algérie contre un cinquième mandat de Bouteflika" [Massive protests in Algeria against Bouteflika's fifth term]. La Tribune (in French). 2019-03-02. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: manifestations émaillées de heurts contre un 5e mandat de Bouteflika" [Algeria: Enamelled demonstrations of clashes against a 5th term of Bouteflika]. FranceSoir (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: "un million de personnes dans la rue et aucune image à la télévision"" [Algeria: "a million people on the street and no picture on television"]. Franceinfo (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-02-27. Retrieved 2019-03-09. Selon Akram Kharief, fondateur du site Menadefense, spécialisé dans la défense et le renseignement qui cite de sources policières, ils étaient entre 800 000 et un million dans la rue.
- ^ a b Olivier Bot (2019-03-01). "Les médias du monde parlent de Bouteflika et de Genève" [World media speak of Bouteflika and Geneva]. 24 heures (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: une nouvelle manifestation contre un 5e mandat du président Bouteflika, plusieurs arrestations" [Algeria: a new demonstration against a 5th term of President Bouteflika, several arrests]. BFMTV (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-02-25. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Dozen journalists arrested at Algiers censorship protest". TheEastAfrican. 2019-02-28. Archived from the original on 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2019-04-07 – via AFP.
- ^ Hacen Ouali (2019-03-07). "Algérie: et le camp "Boutef" flippa" [Algeria: and camp "Boutef" flippa]. Libération (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-04-01. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- ^ "Algérie. La télévision d'Etat diffuse des images des manifestations contre un 5e mandat" [Algeria. State television broadcasts footage of protests against a fifth term]. Ouest-France (in French). 2019-03-02. Archived from the original on 2019-03-02. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
- ^ "Le défunt Hassan Benkhedda inhumé au cimetière de Sidi Yahia à Alger" [The late Hassan Benkhedda buried at the cemetery of Sidi Yahia in Algiers] (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Hassan Benkhedda est mort lors de la marche de la dignité: la famille de l'ancien président du GPRA confirme" [Hassan Benkhedda died during the walk of dignity: the family of the former president of the GPRA confirms] (in French). 2019-03-02. Archived from the original on 2019-09-18. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
- ^ Shehab Kahn (2019-03-03). "Algeria protests: Son of former prime minister dies in anti-government demonstration". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- ^ a b "Algérie: Bouteflika limoge son directeur de campagne" [Algeria: Bouteflika sacks his campaign director]. Le Figaro (in French). 2019-03-02. Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Le verdict a été donné par le peuple!" [The verdict was given by the people!]. El Watan (in French). Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: l'option d'un report de la présidentielle a bien été évoquée – RFI" [Algeria: the option of a postponement of the presidential election has been raised – RFI]. RFI Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Bouteflika formellement candidat à la présidentielle du 18 avril" [Bouteflika formally presidential candidate of 18 April]. L'Orient-Le Jour (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: Abdelaziz Bouteflika dit comprendre "l'inquiétude" mais maintient sa candidature" [Algeria: Abdelaziz Bouteflika says he understands "worry" but maintains his candidacy]. Le Monde (in French). 2019-03-03. Archived from the original on 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Adam Nossiter (2019-03-03). "Algeria Protests: President's Offer Fails to Temper Outrage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Présidentielle en Algérie: Benflis, principal adversaire de Bouteflika, renonce" [Presidential election in Algeria: Benflis, Bouteflika's main opponent, gives up]. L'Obs (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Bouteflika s'engage à céder le pouvoir s'il est élu président en avril" [Bouteflika commits to hand over power if elected president in April]. Le Figaro (in French). 2019-03-03. Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: Bouteflika brigue un cinquième mandat" [Algeria: Bouteflika seeks fifth term]. La Tribune (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Manifestations nocturnes en Algérie contre la candidature de Bouteflika" [Nocturnal demonstrations in Algeria against Bouteflika's candidacy]. Europe 1 (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "A Alger, la colère de la jeunesse répond à la candidature de Bouteflika" [In Algiers, the anger of youth responds to Bouteflika's candidacy]. Le Monde (in French). 2019-03-04. Archived from the original on 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: les étudiants boycottent les cours pour dénoncer la candidature de Bouteflika" [Algeria: Students boycott courses to denounce Bouteflika's candidacy]. Le Figaro (in French). 2019-03-04. Archived from the original on 2019-03-10. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Fayçal Métaoui (2019-03-04). "Les mobilisations anti-Bouteflika s'intensifient en Algérie" [Anti-Bouteflika mobilizations intensify in Algeria]. www.leparisien.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Amayas Zmirli (2019-03-04). "Annonces de Bouteflika: les Algériens plus que sceptiques" [Bouteflika's announcements: Algerians more than skeptical]. Le Point Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-07. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Béjaïa: Le maire FLN de Oued Amizour s'oppose à un 5e mandat de Bouteflika" [Bejaia: Mayor FLN of Oued Amizour opposes a 5th term of Bouteflika]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Le doyen des maires algériens dit "non-au 5e mandat" et démissionne" [Algerian mayor says "no to 5th term" and resigns]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-08-04. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: plusieurs milliers d'étudiants manifestent à Alger contre la candidature à un 5e mandat de Bouteflika" [Algeria: Several thousand students protest in Algiers against Bouteflika's fifth term]. LCI (in French). 2019-04-26. Archived from the original on 2019-03-05. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- ^ "Contestation en Algérie: les étudiants maintiennent la pression" [Challenging Algeria: Students keep up the pressure]. Le Point Afrique (in French). 2019-03-05. Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Le Point, magazine (2019-03-05). "Algérie: nouvelles manifestations et mise en garde de l'armée" [Algeria: new demonstrations and warnings of the army]. Le Point (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: un millier d'avocats contre Bouteflika" [Algeria: a thousand lawyers against Bouteflika]. Le Figaro (in French). 2019-03-07. Archived from the original on 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ a b Yves Bourdillon (2019-03-11). "Algérie: Bouteflika rentre dans une capitale en pleine ébullition" [Algeria: Bouteflika returns to a capital city boiling]. Les Échos (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- ^ "Les "18 commandements" du manifestant en Algérie" [The "18 Commandments" of the protester in Algeria]. Nouvel Obs (in French). 2019-03-08. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- ^ "Les vacances universitaires avancées pour tenter d'affaiblir la contestation" [Advanced university holidays to try to weaken the challenge]. tsa-algerie.com (in French). 2019-03-09. Archived from the original on 2019-03-27. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: l'armée déclare partager la même vision que le peuple" [Algeria: the army declares to share the same vision as the people]. RFI (in French). 2019-03-11. Archived from the original on 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
- ^ Ruth Michaelson (2019-03-11). "Algerian president says he will not run again after weeks of protests". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
- ^ "Algérie: les étudiants mobilisés dans la rue contre la "ruse" de Bouteflika" [Algeria: students mobilized in the street against the "ruse" of Bouteflika]. La Croix (in French). 2019-01-12. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-03-13 – via AFP. le véritable révélateur sera vendredi, premier jour de week-end et traditionnelle journée de manifestation depuis bientôt trois semaines.
- ^ Madjid Zerrouky (2019-03-15). "En Algérie, l'opposition rejette le processus de "transition" du régime" [In Algeria, the opposition rejects the regime's "transition" process]. Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-19. Retrieved 2019-03-19. Pour le régime, il y a urgence. Après les étudiants et les enseignants, mardi et mercredi, les professions médicales, les avocats et les magistrats manifestaient jeudi dans plusieurs villes pour exiger le « départ immédiat » d'Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
- ^ "Algerians keep up pressure on Bouteflika with more mass protests". France 24. 2019-03-15. Archived from the original on 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
- ^ a b "Marée humaine en Algérie pour le quatrième vendredi de manifestation contre le pouvoir" [Human tide in Algeria for the fourth Friday of protest against power]. Le Monde (in French). 2019-03-15. Archived from the original on 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-03-15 – via AFP.
- ^ Jason Burke; Ruth Michaelson (2019-03-15). "Algeria protests grow as elite distances itself from ailing president". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- ^ Amine Kadi (2019-03-15). "Algérie, la transition dirigée par Bouteflika cale d'entrée" [Algeria, the transition directed by Bouteflika stalls before it starts]. La Croix (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-09-18. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- ^ News Agencies (2019-03-17). "Algerian PM has started talks to form new government". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 2019-03-17. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- ^ a b Lamine Chikhi; Hamid Ould Ahmed (2019-03-19). "Thousands rally in Algiers as protest leaders tell army to stay away". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
- ^ Adam Nossiter (2019-03-26). "Algeria Army Chief Opens Path to End of Bouteflika's Rule". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2019-03-28. Retrieved 2019-03-28.
- ^ "Algérie: un nouvel allié lâche le président Bouteflika" [Algeria: a new loose ally President Bouteflika]. Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-31. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
- ^ "Le PT démissionne de l'APN" [PT resigns from the NPC]. HuffPost Maghreb (in French). 2019-03-27. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
- ^ William Maclean, ed. (2019-03-29). "Algeria authorities deny Algiers protest drew one million demonstrators". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-03-31. Retrieved 2019-03-31.
- ^ "Bouteflika "nomme un nouveau gouvernement"" [Bouteflika "appoints a new government"]. HuffPost Maghreb (in French). 2019-03-31. Archived from the original on 2019-04-01. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
- ^ "Des patrons claquent la porte du FCE" [Bosses slam the door of the FCE]. HuffPost Mahgreb (in French). 2019-03-02. Archived from the original on 2019-04-06. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
- ^ a b "Déclenchement de l'opération "mains propres" contre les oligarques" [Triggering of the "clean hands" operation against the oligarchs]. HuffPostMaghreb (in French). 2019-04-01. Archived from the original on 2019-09-18. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
- ^ a b Mehdi Alloui (2019-04-02). "Le président Bouteflika démissionne" [President Bouteflika resigns]. HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
- ^ a b Adam Nossiter (2019-04-02). "Algerian Leader Bouteflika Resigns Under Pressure From Army". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
- ^ "Algeria's next in line: Bouteflika loyalist Abdelkader Bensalah". France 24. 2019-04-02. Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
- ^ a b c "Algerian Constitutional Council declares presidency vacant". TASS. 2019-04-03. Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
- ^ a b James McDougall (2019-04-06). "How Algeria's army sacrificed a president to keep power". BBC. Archived from the original on 2019-04-11. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
- ^ Aomar Ouali; Nadine Achoui-Lesage (2019-04-09). "Algeria's interim leader pledges to hold 'honest' election". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2019-04-09. Retrieved 2019-04-10.
- ^ Zahra Chanoui (2019-04-06). "En Algérie, sans Bouteflika, les manifestants réclament le départ de ceux "qui ont mangé le pays"" [In Algeria, without Bouteflika, protesters demand the departure of those "who ate the country"]. Le Monde. Archived from the original on 2019-04-06. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
- ^ "Marche des étudiants à Alger: La police charge les manifestants à coups de gaz lacrymogènes et de jets d'eau" [Student march in Algiers: Police charge protesters with tear gas and water jets]. El Watan (in French). 2019-04-10. Archived from the original on 2019-05-01. Retrieved 2019-04-10.
- ^ "Algeria transition: Constitutional council head Belaiz resigns". Al Jazeera. 2019-04-16. Archived from the original on 2019-04-16. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- ^ "Conseil constitutionnel: Tayeb Belaiz démissionne" [Constitutional Council: Tayeb Belaiz resigns]. El Watan (in French). 2019-04-16. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- ^ a b "Algeria arrests five business tycoons". France24. 2019-04-22. Archived from the original on 2019-04-22. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
- ^ Shérazade (2019-04-22). "Algérie. Arrestation de Issad Rebrab : Ce que l'on sait" [Algeria. Arrest of Issad Rebrab: What we know]. ObservAlgerie.com (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-04-22. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
- ^ "thousands protest against Algeria's ruling elite". al-Jazeera.com. 2019-04-26. Archived from the original on 2019-04-26. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
- ^ "'You must go' Algerians tell leaders at mass demonstration". al-Jazeera.com. 2019-05-03. Archived from the original on 2019-05-04. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
- ^ "Algérie : Saïd Bouteflika a été arrêté". Le Point (in French). 2019-05-04. Archived from the original on 2019-05-04. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
- ^ "Brother of Algerian ex-president Bouteflika, two former intelligence chiefs arrested". France 24. AP. 2019-05-04. Archived from the original on 2019-05-04. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
- ^ Farid, Nemoura. "Lieutenant General Ahmed Gaid Salah passes away". www.aps.dz. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
- ^ "Algérie: seul le drapeau algérien toléré dans les manifestations". Le Figaro (in French). 2019-06-19. Archived from the original on 2019-11-06. Retrieved 2019-11-30.
- ^ "Political crisis: Civil Forum for Change proposes figures to lead mediation, dialogue". Archived from the original on 2019-07-23. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- ^ a b c Fedjkhi, Amar (2019-09-21). "Déferlante humaine à Bouira : "Trouvez-nous une place dans la prison !"" [Human overflow at Bouira: 'Give us a spot in prison!']. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-09-21. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
- ^ a b c Douici, Nouredine (2019-09-21). "Acte 31 du mouvement populaire à Béjaïa : "Empêcher l'élection pour sauver le pays"" [Act 31 of the popular movement at Béjaïa: 'Stop the election to save the country']. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-09-21. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
- ^ Nadir, Iddir (2019-09-21). "Des manifestants se sont vu retirer leur emblème national : Poursuite des arrestations et solidarité avec les détenus" [Protestors had their national emblem confiscated: further arrests and solidarity with the detained]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-09-21. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
- ^ "Algerians take to streets, call for 'new revolution' on independence anniversary". France 24. 2019-11-01. Archived from the original on 2019-11-01. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- ^ Ouali, Aomar (2019-11-01). "Algerians protest election plan, celebrate independence". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2019-11-03. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- ^ "Algerians protest election plan, mark independence war". Al Jazeera English. 2019-11-01. Archived from the original on 2019-11-02. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- ^ Djouadi, Farouk (2019-11-01). "Marche du 1er novembre à Alger : l'incroyable force de la révolution pacifique". El Watan. Archived from the original on 2019-11-02. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- ^ Yechkour, A. (2019-11-16). "Chlef : Forte mobilisation pour la "libération des jeunes arrêtés et le rejet des élections"" [Chlef: strong turnout for "freeing the arrested youths and for rejecting the election"]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-11-17. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
- ^ Chikhi, Lamine (2019-11-17). "Algerian protesters attack 'garbage' presidential campaign". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-11-17. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
- ^ "Marée humaine à Alger pour le dernier vendredi avant un scrutin rejeté" [Overwhelming crowds in Algiers on the last Friday before the rejected election]. Le Figaro (in French). AFP. 2019-12-06. Archived from the original on 2019-12-07. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
- ^ a b c Aimeur, Karim (2019-07-29). "Le Forum civil pour le changement s'explique" [The Forum civil pour le changement explains]. Le Soir d'Algérie (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ a b c d Kebir, Karim (2019-07-20). "Multiplication des initiatives pour une sortie de crise" [Multiple initiatives to solve the crisis]. Liberté (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ Nadir, Iddir (2019-12-17). "Réaction des autorités après l'invitation au dialogue de Tebboune : Répression ou mesures d'apaisement ?" [Authorities' reaction after Tebboune's dialogue invitation: repression or deescalation?]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-12-17. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ a b "La demande de liberté provisoire de Samir Benlarbi renvoyée à dimanche prochain" [Request for the provisional release of Samir Benlarbi delayed to next Sunday]. El Watan (in French). 2019-12-26. Archived from the original on 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ a b "Algeria appoints new government amid political crisis". France 24. 2020-01-01. Archived from the original on 2020-01-02. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
- ^ "Algeria buries military chief, de facto ruler amid protests". Associated Press. 2019-12-25. Archived from the original on 2020-01-14. Retrieved 2019-12-25.
- ^ a b Makedhi, Madjid (2020-01-18). "Rétrécissement des espaces publics et interpellation de manifestants : Le pouvoir veut-il en finir avec le hirak ?" [Narrowing of public space and detentions of protestors: Do those in power wish to finish off Hirak?]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2020-01-18. Retrieved 2020-01-18.
- ^ "Police disperse protesters in Algerian capital". News24. 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
- ^ "CNLD : Treize détenus du Hirak entament une grève de la faim" [CNLD: Thirteen Hirak detainees start a hunger strike]. Algérie 360 (in French). 2020-01-15. Archived from the original on 2020-01-18. Retrieved 2020-01-18.
- ^ a b Iddir, Nadir (2020-01-18). "Plusieurs dizaines de détenus en prison et sans procès : Quelles sont les arrière-pensées des autorités ?" [Several tens of detainees imprisoned without a trial: What are the authorities' motives?]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2020-01-18. Retrieved 2020-01-18.
- ^ "Algeria president pardons thousands but not protesters". 2020-02-06.
- ^ "Algerians forego weekly protest amid coronavirus". Reuters. 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2020-03-20.
- ^ Madjid Zerrouky (2020-04-24). "Radio Corona internationale, la station qui maintient la flamme du Hirak algérien". Le Monde (in French). 'Nous ne prétendons pas être une radio du Hirak, tenait-il à insister. 'Nous sommes là pour maintenir la flamme, jusqu’à ce que le mouvement reparte.'
- ^ "Hundreds take to Algiers streets despite ban on protests".
- ^ "Chaïma: Algeria women protest over teen's rape and murder".
- ^ "Rape and murder of woman in Algeria sparks outrage".
- ^ "Protests after teenage girl 'stabbed, raped, and burned alive' in Algeria".
- ^ "Algeria: Thousands take to the streets to relaunch protest movement | DW | 16.02.2021". DW.COM. Deutsche Welle. 2021-02-22. Retrieved 2021-03-11.
- ^ Goldstein, Eric (2021-02-23). "Algeria's Hirak Protest Movement Marks Second Anniversary". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2021-03-11.
- ^ Nacima Ourahmoune (2019-03-13). "Algeria: how millennials used humour and creativity to force Abdelalziz Bouteflika to stand aside". Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
- ^ Aili Mari Tripp (2019-03-08). "Women are deeply involved in the Algerian protests – on International Women's Day, and all the time". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
- ^ Amine Kadi (2019-03-07). "Les Algériennes descendent en masse manifester" [Algerian women go down in protest]. La Croix (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- ^ "Algeria protests: Youth lead the movement for change". BBC. 2014-04-14. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
- ^ "Lyon: une manifestation contre un 5e mandat de Bouteflika en Algérie" [Lyon: a protest against a 5th term of Bouteflika in Algeria]. Le Parisien (in French). 2019-03-02. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Plusieurs rassemblements auront lieu à partir de vendredi: La diaspora algérienne s'organise contre le 5e mandat" [Several rallies will be held from Friday: The Algerian diaspora is organizing against the 5th term]. El Watan (in French). 2019-02-20. Archived from the original on 2019-08-04. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Thousands join Algeria protests in France". The Local. 2019-03-10. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
- ^ Massinissa Benlakehal; Sudarsan Raghavan (2019-04-05). "Their president is gone, but Algerians keep protesting and calling for democracy". The Washington Post. A circle of Bouteflika allies – the influential lawmakers, relatives and business executives known as the "pouvoir," or power – remains in control of the levers of the nation. They have become the protesters' new targets.
- ^ Kimberly White (2013-12-17). "Le Mystère des origines de Bouteflika" [The mystery of the origins of Bouteflika]. Slate Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 2018-03-10. Retrieved 2018-03-11 – via Reuters.
- ^ "Algérie: "Non, c'est non!" Des étudiants se rassemblent à nouveau dans le centre d'Alger" [Algeria: "No, it's no!" Students gather again in the center of Algiers]. L'Obs (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Amale Ajebli (2019-03-04). "Libérer l'Algérie, la chanson contre un cinquième mandat de Bouteflika fait un tabac" [Free Algeria, the song against a fifth term of Bouteflika is a hit]. Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Plus de 4 millions de vues" [More than 4 million views]. El Watan (in French). 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
- ^ Hamrouche, Ghada (2019-03-15). ""La Liberté" de Soolking repris en cœur à Alger" [Soolking's "Liberty" taken up again in Algiers]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-20. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
- ^ Hacène Boukaraoun (2019-08-03). "Hirak et sécurité extérieure de l'Algérie : l'ANP est un socle". El Watan. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ Mohamed Berkani (2019-03-04). "Algérie: le cachir, ce saucisson devenu symbole de la révolte des opposants au 5e mandat de Bouteflika" [Algeria: the cachir, this sausage become symbol of the revolt of the opponents of the 5th term of Bouteflika]. Franceinfo (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Comedy and Dissent in the Algerian Popular Protests". jadaliyya.com. 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
- ^ "Welcome to the new Algerian revolution: an interview with Hamza Hamouchene". 2019-04-17. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- ^ "In Algeria's Bordj Bou Arreridj, political art takes centre stage". al-Jazeera.com. 2019-04-28. Archived from the original on 2019-04-28. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
- ^ Makhlouf Mehenni (2019-03-02). "La mort symbolique du fils de Benkhedda – TSA" [The symbolic death of Benkhedda's son – TSA]. TSA (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Le Point, magazine (2019-02-23). "Algérie: 41 arrestations lors des manifestations vendredi (police)" [Algeria: 41 arrests during protests Friday (police)]. Le Point (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Marche du 1er March: un décès, 63 blessés et 45 arrestations à Alger (officiel)" [March 1st march: one death, 63 wounded and 45 arrests in Algiers (official)]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ a b c "Manifestations en Algérie: la radio nationale muette, une cadre démissionne" [Protests in Algeria: the national radio mute, an executive resigns]. L'Orient-Le Jour (in French). 2019-02-23. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: Campagne de boycott à l'encontre de plusieurs médias" [Algeria: Boycott campaign against several media]. Observ'Algérie (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ a b "Algérie: La télévision d'État évoque enfin les manifestations, tout en les censurant" [Algeria: State television finally evokes the demonstrations, while censoring them]. L'Orient-Le Jour (in French). 2019-03-02. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: "un million de personnes dans la rue et aucune image à la télévision"" [Algeria: "a million people on the street and no picture on television"]. Franceinfo (in French). 2019-02-25. Archived from the original on 2019-02-27. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Listening Post (2019-03-08). "The media battle of Algiers". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 2019-03-16. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- ^ "Algérie: une présentatrice quitte le JT après avoir dû lire la lettre de Bouteflika" [Algeria: Presenter leaves the news after reading Bouteflika's letter]. Le Figaro (in French). 2019-03-04. Archived from the original on 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ Sidali Amzal (2019-03-05). "Echourouk et El Bilad privés de publicité" [Echourouk and El Bilad deprived of advertising]. Algerie Eco (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
- ^ "Dynamiques de la Société civile: la rencontre du 24 août, une "solution salutaire"" [Dynamiques de la Société civile: the 24 August meeting, "a good solution"]. Le Matin d'Algérie [fr] (in French). 2019-08-19. Archived from the original on 2019-12-09. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
- ^ Poletti, Arianne (2019-07-26). "Algérie : comprendre les différentes propositions de sortie de crise en une infographie" [Algeria: a diagram for understanding the different proposals for solving the crisis]. Jeune Afrique (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ "Naissance du " Réseau de lutte contre la répression, pour la libération des détenus d'opinions, et pour les libertés démocratiques "" [Birth of the "Network for fighting against repression, for the release of prisoners of conscience, and for democratic freedoms"]. Reporters (newspaper) [fr] (in French). 2019-06-02. Archived from the original on 2019-12-27. Retrieved 2019-12-27.
- ^ "Algérie : appel à libérer les personnes arrêtées lors des manifestations" [Algeria: a call for the release of people detained during the demonstrations]. Jeune Afrique (in French). 2019-08-29. Archived from the original on 2019-12-05. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ Lamriben, Hocine (2019-12-24). "Kaci Tansaout. Coordinateur du CNLD : "Il n'y a aucun signe d'apaisement"" [Kaci Tansaout. Coordinator of the CNLD: "There's no sign of deescalation"]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-12-24. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- ^ Ouali, Hacen (2020-01-26). "Le mouvement a tenu ses assises hier à Alger : Le PAD tient à "la transition démocratique"" [The movement held its meeting yesterday in Algiers: PAD insists on a 'democratic transition']. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2020-01-27. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
- ^ "Algerian president Adelaziz Bouteflika drops bid for fifth term". BBC. 2019-03-11. Archived from the original on 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
- ^ "Algerian businessman with ties to President Bouteflika arrested". Al Jazeera. 2019-03-31. Archived from the original on 2019-04-01. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
- ^ "Abdelkader Bensalah, un fidèle de Bouteflika qui va assurer l'intérim en Algérie" [Abdelkader Bensalah, a faithful Bouteflika who will ensure the interim in Algeria]. Le Monde (in French). 2019-04-04. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
- ^ pagesTSA-Tout-sur-lAlgérie135765743142770, ed. (2020-05-07). "Mandats présidentiels, Armée, Tamazight : les principaux points du projet préliminaire de la révision constitutionnelle – TSA" [Presidential mandates, Army, Tamazight: the main points of the preliminary draft of the constitutional revision - TSA]. TSA. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- ^ pagesTSA-Tout-sur-lAlgérie135765743142770, ed. (2020-05-07). "Révision de la Constitution : les six grands axes et 73 propositions du comité Laraba – TSA" [Revision of the Constitution: the six main axes and 73 proposals of the Laraba committee - TSA]. TSA. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- ^ Rédaction AE (2020-09-08). "Projet de révision de la Constitution : Les principales dispositions" [Draft revision of the Constitution: The main provisions]. Algérie Eco. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
- ^ "Clashes between rival Sudan armed forces risk 'civil war', protesters warn". The Independent. 2019-04-10. Archived from the original on 2019-04-10. Retrieved 2019-04-10. Protests [...] have been reignited by the successful 3 April ouster of Algeria's Abdelaziz Bouteflika [...]
- ^ Omar Benderra (2019-02-28). "Omar Benderra: quelques clés pour comprendre les manifestations du 22 février 2019 en Algérie" [Omar Benderra: some keys to understand the demonstrations of 22 February 2019 in Algeria]. Investig'action (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-10. Algerian opinion has long been beyond exasperation and it is only through the traditions of patience and rejection of violence that society has held itself together [...]. What the people contest and reject is not limited to extending the mandate of a president-zombie.
- ^ Alexandre Devecchio; Boulem Sansal (2019-02-28). "Boualem Sansal: "Les jeunes exècrent le régime mais l'Algérie a peur d'une autre guerre civile"" [Boualem Sansal: "Young people execrate the regime but Algeria is afraid of another civil war"]. Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algeria in revolt: "We woke up and you will pay"". openDemocracy. 2019-04-12. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
- ^ Nabeel, Fahad (2019-04-10). "Geopolitics of post-Bouteflika Algeria". Centre of Strategic and Contemporary Research. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
- ^ "The emerging front-runners in Algeria's uncertain election". Al-Monitor. 2019-04-06. Archived from the original on 2019-04-16. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- ^ Al-Sholi, Ahmad (2019-04-21). "The End of Absurdity in Algeria". Jacobin. Archived from the original on 2019-04-21. Retrieved 2019-04-21.
- ^ "Algérie: le camp Bouteflika perd certains de ses soutiens – RFI" [Algeria: Bouteflika camp loses some of its support – RFI]. RFI Afrique (in French). 2019-03-06. Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-09. collusion entre et des parties influentes au sein du pouvoir et des hommes d'affaires véreux qui ont bénéficié de manière illicite de l'argent public.
- ^ a b "Washington & EU Support Algerian People's Right to Protest". The North Africa Post. 2019-03-06. Archived from the original on 2019-08-04. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Algérie: l'UE appelle au respect de la liberté d'expression" [Algeria: EU calls for respect for freedom of expression]. Le Figaro (in French). 2019-03-05. Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
- ^ "Emmanuel Macron appelle à "une transition d'une durée raisonnable" en Algérie" [Emmanuel Macron calls for "a transition of a reasonable duration" in Algeria]. France 24 (in French). 2019-03-12. Archived from the original on 2019-04-16. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- ^ Fatiha (2019-03-19). "Situation politique en Algérie : l'Italie conseille à l'Algérie d'écouter son peuple" [Political situation in Algeria: Italy advises Algeria to listen to its people]. algeriepatriotique.com (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-05-17. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- ^ a b c Daou, Marc (2019-03-15). "Tunisia and Morocco quietly 'uneasy' with Algeria's popular movement". France 24. Archived from the original on 2019-05-06. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
- ^ Salim Mesbah (2019-03-19). "Conférence de presse conjointe Lamamra et Lavrov: "C'est au peuple algérien de décider de son destin"" [Joint press conference Lamamra and Lavrov: "It's up to the Algerian people to decide their destiny"]. HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-04-04. Moscou refuse toute ingérence dans les affaires internes de l'Algérie [...] C'est au peuple algérien de décider de son destin en s'appuyant sur sa constitution et les lois internationales.
- ^ "Les Etats-Unis "soutiennent le peuple algérien et son droit à manifester pacifiquement"" [The United States "supports the Algerian people and their right to demonstrate peacefully"]. HuffPost (in French). 2019-03-06. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
Last edited on 25 April 2021, at 13:37
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.