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2019–2020 Iranian protests
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The 2019–2020 Iranian protests also known as the Bloody November (Persian: آبان خونین‎‎), were a series of nationwide civil protests in Iran, initially caused by a 50%–200%​[13]​[14]​[15]​[16] increase in fuel prices, leading to calls for the overthrow of the government in Iran and Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei.[17][18] The protests commenced as peaceful gatherings on the evening of 15 November but spread to 21 cities within hours, as videos of the protest circulated online,[19][20][21][22][23] eventually becoming the most violent and severe anti-government unrest since the rise of Iran's Islamic Republic in 1979.[24][25]
2019–2020 Iranian protests
Part of 2018–2019 Iranian general strikes and protests
Date15 November 2019 – 16 July 2020
LocationIn 29 provinces, 104 cities and 719 places in Iran. [1]
Caused by
Goals
MethodsDemonstrations, riots, sit-ins, civil resistance, strikes, online activisms, arson
Parties to the civil conflict
Protesters
Islamic Republic of Iran
Pro-government protesters[2][3]
Lead figures
Unknown
Ali Khamenei
Hassan Rouhani
Number
c. 200,000[4][5]
Casualties and losses
  • 200–225 killed (per Interior Ministry)[6]
  • 304+ protesters and bystanders killed (per Amnesty International)[7]
  • 1,500 in total killed (per Reuters) [8]
  • U.S. Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo stated that around 1,500 Iranians were killed in a November 2019 crackdown on protests.[9][10]
  • 7,000+ arrested[11]
731 banks and 140 government sites torched[12]
To block the sharing of information regarding the protests and the deaths of hundreds of protesters on social media platforms, the government shut down the Internet nationwide, resulting in a near-total internet blackout of around six days.[26][27][28] In an effort to crush the protests the Iranian government, (according to Amnesty international), shot protesters dead from rooftops, helicopters, and at close range with machine gun fire. In an effort to mask the scale and casualty count of the protests, it hauled away large numbers of bodies of the dead protesters, (according to the New York Times) and threatened families of slain protesters not to speak to the media or hold funerals, (according to Amnesty International).[25][29]
As many as 1,500 Iranian protesters were killed.[8][30][31] The government crackdown prompted a violent reaction from protesters who destroyed 731 government banks including Iran's central bank, nine Islamic religious centres, tore down anti-American billboards, and posters and statues of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei as well as former leader Khomeini. Fifty government military bases were also attacked by protesters.[32][33]
The uprising differed from earlier 2009 protests in not being limited to students and large cities, and in the speed, severity and higher death toll of the government crackdown, which crushed the uprising in three days,[34] although protests flared up periodically in the months after.
Background
Main article: 2018–2019 Iranian general strikes and protests
Iran has experienced numerous nationwide protests and civil unrest since 2016, including the 2016 Cyrus the Great Revolt, 2017–2018 Iranian protests, 2018–2019 Iranian general strikes and protests, Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 protests (in January 2020).
Sanctions by the United States and the European Union, coupled with economic mismanagement, were factors involved in a severe economic crisis in Iran in the 2010s.[35]
Multiple protests and strikes took place in Iran in December 2017,[36] throughout 2018[37][38] and in the first half of 2019.[39] Protest causes ranged from rising prices[36] to teachers'[38] and railway workers' rights.[39]
Prior to the November 2019 cycle of unrest, the President of Iran Hassan Rouhani said, "Iran is experiencing one of its hardest years since the 1979 Islamic revolution".[20] According to an estimate by Djavad Salehi-Isfahani cited in the Atlantic Council, inflation sent nearly 1.6 million Iranians into poverty in just a single year prior to the November 2019 protest,[40] with a similar figure given by the Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation’s office for employment and social welfare.[41]
One of the grievances of the protesters was thought to be the privileges of the Islamic Republic's elite. During this time of economic hardship, a decree issued by the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei exempted some trustees from paying taxes. They included the giant organization Khatam al Anbiya Construction Headquarters, and many other smaller entities belonging to Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).[citation needed] In September 2019, just two months before the uprising, a former member of Iran's Parliament, Behzad Nabavi, told an interviewer that the Razavi Economic Foundation (which is presided over by Khamenei), together with the Revolutionary Guards (IRGC) and the Ministry of Intelligence (MOIS), controls about 60% of the Iranian economy. None of these entities pay any taxes and no government organization is allowed to go through their books.[42]
In late 2019, anti-government protests took place in Iranian allies Lebanon and Iraq.[20]
The immediate cause of the protest was the increase in price of fuel, which was announced by the government at midnight on 15 November 2019.[20] Prior to the price increase, drivers could buy up to 250 litres (66 US gal) each month for 10,000 Iranian rial per litre ($0.90 per US gallon).[18] With the new price structure prices started at 15,000 rial per litre ($1.35 per US gallon) for the first 60 litres (16 US gal), and rose to 30,000 per litre ($2.70 per US gallon) after that, a price increase of 50% to 200%.[18] An Iranian state-television programme described these measures as a way to help fund the subsidies of around 60 million Iranians.[35]
Timeline
2019
November 2019
See also: Massacre of Mahshahr
After the government announced the price increase in the early hours of 15 November, Iranians in various cities took to the streets to protest.
One protester was reportedly killed in Sirjan after security forces opened fire. Other demonstrators in the city set fire to a gas station, and chanted "Rouhani, leave this country".[17] Protesters in Ahvaz demanded that people boycott fuel and stop their cars in the middle of the road as a sign of protest.[43]
In Mashhad, Iran's second-largest city, demonstrators blocked traffic in the streets and highways,[35] turning them into parking lots. Protesters gathered late into the night in Qods, a suburb of Tehran, and destroyed a police vehicle.[44] Protests were peaceful at first, as was the state response.[45]
Protests continued to expand for a second day on 16 November. Demonstrators gathered in over 50 cities and many major cities such as Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan, and Shiraz to protest the sudden price hike.[46] Security forces shot at protesters with live bullets in an effort to disperse them, killing at least ten protesters in Isfahan, Behbahan, Kermanshah, Karaj, and Shiraz.[47]
Several banks in Eslamshahr, Behbahan, and Tehran, and one religious school in Isfahan were burned down by protesters.[47] In Shahriar demonstrators burned down a monument depicting the ring of the Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic.[48]
On 16 November, internet access across the country was reported to be in a near-total shutdown, with online activity estimated to be 7% of ordinary levels.[49][50]
State news agencies reported that over 1,000 people had been arrested by the 16th, and that the protests had spread to over 100 cities in Iran.[47]
Shop owners in Tehran and Isfahan closed the bazaars and went on strike in protest. While in Tabriz, students from the University of Tabriz left their classes and demonstrated at the university.[51][52]
Students at the University of Tehran gathered for a second day to protest on 16 November, the current situation in the country and chanted "Death to the dictator", and "Not Gaza, not Lebanon, my life only for Iran".[53] Protests continued in the Sadeghiyeh neighbourhood of Tehran, and the bazaar was packed with security forces attempting to prevent bazaar merchants from going on strike.[54] Citizens of Tehran reported that despite the internet shutdown, the protests gathered in intensity on Tuesday.[54]
Heavy clashes were also reported in Shiraz, where the security forces fired directly at people.[54] Authorities reported that nine Islamic seminaries and Friday prayer offices were burned by protesters across the country.[55] Protests continued for a fifth consecutive day on 19 November despite a heavy security presence the country. Gatherings were reported in Tehran, Karaj, Shiraz and Isfahan.[56] The city of Shush in Khuzestan province, was effectively closed down as Haft Tappeh workers protested the current conditions.[57]
The Revolutionary Guards reportedly took the bodies of the dead protesters and the injured in hospitals, to hide to cover up the true death toll and downplay the protests. In some cases, government officials sold the bodies of the protesters.[27][28][58] The protests reached 70% of provinces according to The Guardian.[59]
On 21 November, Iran partially restored access to the internet. Residents of Tehran told the New York Times that the government had finished securing the northern area, but not the middle-class and working-class areas of the city.[60] A 26 November Guardian editorial characterized the protests as "crushed".[59]
December 2019
On 7 December, coinciding with Students Day in Iran, students in Tehran and various other cities conducted demonstrations in support of the protests.[61] In the early hours of 17 December, students at Shahid Beheshti University in Tehran gathered outside the dormitories and protested the killing of protesters.[62]
On 25 December, the day before the 40th day mourning procession of the protesters killed in the November protests, security forces arrested several members of Pouya Bakhtiari's family.[63]
On 26 December 2019, security forces attacked different cemeteries around Iran to prevent the families, of those killed in November uprising, from holding ceremonies in honour of the 40th day of the death of their loved ones. Some of the mourners were arrested and taken away. One month after Iranian rulers fears any anti-government gathering.[64][65]
2020
January 2020
Main article: Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 protests
Protests at Tehran's Hafez Street, 11 January 2020
On 11 January 2020, after Iranian authorities had stated that Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 had been shot down by Iranian military forces, killing all 176 passengers and flight personnel,[66] three thousand people protested in Tehran, with chants including "Death to the dictator". Police used tear gas on the protestors.[67] Officials reported that 82 Iranians among several other Iranians with dual citizenship were among the victims of the crash.[68] Hundreds of people protested in front of Amirkabir University of Technology.[69] The protestors called for the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei to resign, chanted "Death to the liars" and called "for the IRGC to leave the country".[70] Protests also took place at the Sharif University of Technology and in Isfahan, Rasht, Sari, and Hamedan. Protesters chanted against the Revolutionary Guards, the Supreme Leader, and the entire political system of the Islamic Republic.[71]
On 12 January, similar protests took place around Iran. In the morning, students gathered at the dormitories of the University of Tehran and chanted against the Supreme Leader.[72] There were around 3,000 participants in the main demonstration in Tehran according to the Iranian Labour News Agency.[67] In online social media videos posted in the evening of a location near Azadi Square in Tehran, there were sounds of gunshots, pools of blood on the ground, wounded people being carried and security personnel with rifles. Hossein Rahimi of the Tehran police stated the following day that police had "been given orders to show restraint" and didn't shoot during the protests.[73] The Iranian daily Etemad wrote "Apologise and resign" in a banner headline.[67] The Iranian president described the missile attack as an unforgivable error.[74]
Protests continued in Tehran on 13 January, including 40 students at a Tehran university who chanted "They killed our elites and replaced them with clerics", in reference to the Iranian students who had died on flight AUI752.[75]
In the video surfacing on the internet, many Tehran university students openly refused to walk over the American and Israeli flags which was the symbol of the country's foreign policy of anti-Americanism and anti-Zionism since the inception of the Islamic Republic.[76] The flags had been painted so that protesters would walk over them as they marched.[77]
On 14 January, students at various universities in Tehran, and other Iranian cities continued protesting against the regime and Ali Khamenei. At Amir Kabir University, protesters and the Basij clashed violently. Students at the University of Tehran chanted "We will die to reclaim Iran" and "Death to the concept of a [Supreme Leader]".[78]
On 15 January 2020 students in Isfahan and other Iranian cities held their 5th day of protests, after the government of Ayatollah Khamenei admitted downing the Ukrainian passenger plane. Students held banners showing 1500+176 meaning 176 innocent passengers was added to the 1500 killed in November uprising.[79]
On 16 January 2020, protesters planned to head down Valiasr Street to the IRIB headquarters in the capital city of Tehran, but were prevented by the heavy presence of in that street. Anti-riot police also took position in several other key points to prevent funeral gatherings for those killed in the missile attack on AUI752 flight. Nevertheless, many mourners attended the funerals.[79]
February 2020
On the 40th day anniversary of the Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 victims memorial at Amir Kabir University on 16 February, students chanted against the ruling system and called for the boycott of the 2020 parliamentary election.[80]
On 25 February 2020, a human rights center in Iran announced that a court in Iran sentenced five persons arrested during November uprising to different prison terms from 18 months to eleven years. The five detainees, who aged between 29 and 51 years, also received different number of lashes. The state court charged them with " collusion against national and international security" and "propaganda against the system".[81]
The organization Human Rights Watch has called on the Geneva United Nations Human Rights Council to adopt "Urgent action" in regard to the "brutal crackdown" of the November protests in Iran. Michael Page, the organization's deputy director for the Middle East says, "Iranian authorities are now confronting popular protests with an astonishing level of violence".[82]
July 2020
It is said that 237 protest movements were formed in 85 cities in Iran in July 2020.[by whom?][citation needed] On 16 July 2020, amid a heavy security presence, protesters took to the streets of Behbehan and chanted "We don't want a clerical regime" and "Not Gaza, not Lebanon, my life only for Iran".[83][84] The security forces fired tear gas to disperse the protesters. A heavy security presence was also reported in various other Iranian cities.[85]
Internet Shutdown
Main article: 2019 Internet blackout in Iran
Beginning on 17 November 2019, in response to the 2019 Iranian protests, because of Internet censorship in Iran an internet shutdown reduced Iran Internet traffic in the country 5% of normal levels.[86][87][88]
On the eve of the protests, Iranian authorities started disrupting internet connections and social media. The Internet was effectively blocked following Iran's Supreme National Security Council decision to shut it down for 24 hours.[89][90]
Because of internet censorship in Iran, the Iranian government and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Sepah have always opposed joining Iranian to popular social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and so on.[91][92] Therefore, popular social networks are blocked by those in Iran and because of Iranian protests, internet censorship in Iran has increased.[93][94][95] But now they have decided to Internet blackout in Iran.[91][96][92]
NetBlocks reports that users first reported outages in Mashhad on 15 November. The disruptions increased in extent and severity with impact also visible on overall connectivity charts. Iran's largest mobile network operators, including MCI, Rightel and IranCell, were deactivated on the evening of 16 November 2019. By 20 November, national connectivity was at 5% of ordinary levels, making it difficult to monitor human rights violations and cover incidents on the ground.[97]
The government has also jammed satellite TV connections and sent anonymous messages to people near protest sites reading: “We know you are here.”[98]
On 21 November 2019, a small return of connectivity was tracked by NetBlocks, along with reports that some users had returned online; national connectivity was up to 8%.[99]
Slogans and tactics
Chants, banners and posters of demonstrators targeted the government and its leaders, and such pillars of the Islamic Republic ideology as pan-Islamic unity, anti-Zionist solidarity with Palestine and Hezbollah of Lebanon, reverence and awe for the Supreme Leader, and hatred for the Pahlavi dynasty. Many protest chants and slogans were directed at expressing discontent with the Iranian government's spending on conflicts in Gaza, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen. Other chants praised the late Shah of Iran calling for his return.[100]
Slogans
In November 2019, people chanted, "Shah of Iran, return to Iran!", "Iran is muddled in a mess without the Shah", "Clerics must get lost", "No to Gaza, no to Lebanon. We sacrifice our lives for Iran," "Death to the dictator", "Death to the Islamic Republic", "Our military brothers, why do you kill your brother?", "Bless your soul Reza Shah", "Not Gaza, not Lebanon, my life only for Iran", "Oil money has been lost, it has all been spent on Palestine", "They have brought up Islam, but trampled the people", "The supreme leader lives like a God. We, the people live like beggars."[101] "We have no money or fuel, to hell with Palestine."[102]
Chants became even more radical in the January protests, with demonstrators calling for a revolution and chanting, "This is your last month, [Khamenei] it is time to go", "Oh Crown Prince, come to our help", "Clerics must get lost", "No reforms, no referendum, just strikes and revolution", "Sepah commits murders, and the Supreme Leader supports it", "You killed our elites, and replaced them with clerics", and "Death to Khamenei".[103]
Tactics and methods
Protesters began by organizing rallies in protest of Iran's government resulting in police gunfire. As protests were met with government crackdowns, protesters began to block streets and highways, often parking their vehicles in the road. The protests intensified with Iranians burning pictures and banners of the supreme leader Ali Khamenei and burning government banks.
According to the government, four of the security forces killed were shot even though civilians are "largely forbidden to have guns".[34]
Support for former monarchy
One common protest slogan was "Oh Shah of Iran return to Iran."[citation needed] Many protest chants praised the former Pahlavi Dynasty and its two leaders. Monarchist groups supporting the former Pahlavi monarchy were targeted and arrested by authorities across multiple cities. It was reported that some members in a monarchist organization had gone as far as infiltrating the government. During the protest the Iranian Revolutionary Guards had openly admitted the Pahlavi dynasty was popular among much of Iran's population.[104]
Detainees
November 2019 demonstrations Isfahan
On 10 December 2019 the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), which is a human rights organization based in New York City, put Iran among the countries with the highest number of imprisoned journalists.[105]
The Kurdistan Human Rights Network has stated that many detained protesters, some of them underage, are held under gruelling conditions. In addition, sources have characterized conditions in the Greater Tehran Central Penitentiary as "unbearable".[106][107]
In addition to the first phase of arrests during the demonstrations, the security forces examined photographs of licence plates taken during the protests "to identify leaders and speak to informants to identify more" protesters to arrest.[34]
Many observers are worried that some of those arrested have undergone severe torture and may face execution.[108]
On September 2, 2020, Amnesty International accused the Iranian government of widespread abuse of human rights during the 2019 protests that were sparked following soaring fuel prices. According to latest rights group report, Iran resorted to arbitrary detention, enforced disappearance, torture and other ill-treatment of those involved in the November unrest that rocked the Islamic Republic.[109]
Arrest of journalists and lawyers
The European Parliament condemned the government of Iran for harassment of lawyers and journalists, and for denying legal assistance to the large number of protesters already in jail.[110]
International organizations warn about torture
In a new statement Amnesty International has spoken about constant torture exerted on thousands arrested during November Uprising. The statement says, "they have been beaten, punched, kicked and flogged by security forces". Detainees include children of 15 and younger.
On 28 December 2019, international human rights watchdog has warned prisoners in Iran's jails "are at risk of being tortured".[111]
Allegations of sexual violence
In January 2020, Amnesty International's investigator on Iran, Raha Bahreini, said she had received reports that a woman protester, detained during anti-government demonstrations following the downing of a Ukrainian passenger plane, had been taken to a police station and sexually assaulted by security forces.[112]
Deaths and casualties
Death count estimates
See also: Casualty recording and List of victims of November 2019 protests in Iran
Deaths numbers by provinces[113]
  40 or more people killed
  Between 30–39 people killed
  Between 20–29 people killed
  Between 10–19 people killed
  Between 1–9 people killed
  No Data
The BBC has reported that there is a huge variance in reports of the number of people killed in the protests.[114] On 23 December, Reuters reported that a death toll provided by three unnamed Iranian interior ministry officials was "about 1,500" including "at least 17 teenagers and about 400 women". These numbers were described as "fake news" by a government spokesman and based on figures made by the MEK a week prior.[115] Amnesty International reported that "according to credible reports ... at least 304 people were killed and thousands injured between 15 and 18 November".[116]
The BBC has reported that unofficial reports from various sources say that from 15 to 19 November, about 200 people were killed and 3,000 injured. UN Human Rights said "dozens of people may have been killed" while Amnesty International places the number at "at least 106". Iranian authorities say "only a few people have been killed".[114] One anonymous dissident politician told US journalist Dexter Filkins that he thinks the higher death estimates may be more accurate as in one location "two hundred people" were buried in "a single night".[34]
The Iranian government has announced that 230 persons were killed, including at least six police officers and soldiers.[117]
A man in Sirjan was killed and several others were injured after security forces opened fire on protesters on 15 November.[118][119] The following day, ten protesters were killed during demonstrations.[47]
On 19 November, Amnesty International claimed that around 16 people were killed in Kermanshah, 14 each in Bandar-e Mahshahr and in Javanroud, 9 in Mariwan, 8 in Behbahan, 6 each in Ramhormoz, Sadra and in Shiraz, 4 each in Bukan, Karaj and in Robatkarim, 3 in Khorramshahr, 2 each in Abadan, Ahvaz and in Bumahen, and 1 each in Tehran, Isfahan, Eslamshahr, Sanandaj, Shahriar and in Sirjan.[120][121] According to witness evidence reported in mid-late December, the Bandar-eMahshar death toll was much higher than initially estimated. The Iranian government brought in tanks to the streets of the city and security forces and the IRGC used heavy machine guns against unarmed people, leading to the death of 40–100 people.[122][123][124]
As of 26 November, Amnesty International reported that over 100 people had been killed during the protests, including accounts of wounded or dead protesters removed by government authorities to hide the magnitude of the crackdown on protesters.[125] According to the BBC Persian, the number of deaths has exceeded 200.[126]
According to a report by The Guardian from Shiraz on 1 December, "those on the ground" in the city say the death toll is much higher than the 15 confirmed deaths counted by Amnesty International.[127]
Amnesty International reported that the Iranian government threatened families of the killed protestors against talking to the press. The families were forced to not arrange any funerals and to instead to carry out secret burials.[128]
Speaking at a news conference at the State Department on 5 December, U.S. Special Representative for Iran Brian Hook stated that Iranian government forces killed more than 1,000 protesters.[129][130] There were reports by US-backed Radio Farda that by 5 December 18 children had been killed by the Iranian government.[131][132]
As Reuters has reported, on the second day of Iran protest, in the presence of president Hassan Rouhani, some of his ministers and commanders of the security forces, asserting the government was in total danger, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei called to crush the demonstrators, stating "You have my order [...] Do whatever it takes to end it".[133][134] According to Reuters and the MEK, at least 1500 people, including 400 women and 17 teenagers, were killed in the uprising and that "many were shot directly in the head".[135]
Death of injured protesters
Human Rights organizations, including Amnesty International, report that many Iranian protesters wounded in November demonstrations, still cannot use hospital attention as they may get arrested. Two injured protesters, Mohammad Maleki, 23 and Amir Ojani, 43 years old, died in last days of January, of acute infection and respiratory diseases.[136]
Killing of children
On 3 March 2020, Amnesty International announced that security forces in Iran killed at least 23 children during November uprising in this country. The victims were 22 boys of age 12 to 17 and a girl who was under 12 years old.[137]
Government responsibility
Reuters reports that Iran's supreme leader, Ali Khamenei, and President Hassan Rouhani ordered deadly weapons be used against the protesters.[138] The order was "confirmed by three sources close to the supreme leader’s inner circle and a fourth official, set in motion the bloodiest crackdown on protesters since the Islamic Revolution in 1979".[138] Khamenei has allegedly stated "the decision to use force was not his",[34] but critics have noted that it is the "Supreme National Security Council" that makes decisions on how to deal with such demonstrations and deal with the political crisis in Iran. The council is presided by the president. Iran's constitution prescribes that all decisions taken by the council should be approved by Khamenei.[139] who is also Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces.[140]
The government agents in Iran were accused of stealing the bodies of the dead protesters from morgues, and arresting the injured from hospitals, to give the uprising a lower profile.[27][28]
Aftermath
Iranian news agency claimed that starting from 19 November 2019, thousands of people in cities across Iran participated in separate pro-government rallies in condemnation of the riots and showed support for the Iran supreme leadership.[141] On 20 November 2019, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani declared victory against the "enemy". Iran started gradually restoring internet connection the following day.[142][143] Many supporters (including IRGC leader Hossein Salami) also called for the death penalty on anti-government protesters.[144]
Amnesty International stated on 16 December that one month after the uprising, Iranian security forces are still arresting people and especially youth. Prisons, such as Fashafouyeh prison near the capital Tehran, are overcrowded with detainees, among them juveniles of 15 and younger. Prisoners are faced with daily torture and harassment.[145]
Impacts
The savings from the fuel price rises are planned to be distributed to 18 million poor families, representing 75% of Iran's population.[98][20] However, with inflation already at 40% and a plummeting currency, according to The Economist, "the inflationary effects of the price rise risk wiping out most of the benefit."[20] This inflationary threat has been acknowledged by Khamenei.[20]
Debate in the Iranian parliament
Several criticisms of the Iranian authorities were made in December 2019 by members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, the Iranian parliament. On 9 December 2019, Parvaneh Salahshouri, a female member of the parliament spoke against the country's top officials accusing them of not understanding the griefs of the low-income people and ignoring the deep-seated glitches of the country.[146]
On 10 December 2019, Ali Motahari, a member of Iran's parliament spoke out against the policies of the Supreme Leader and that entities under Khamenei's control have created a stalemate in the parliament. In return another hardliner has asked the Guardian Council to disqualify Motahari as a candidate for the upcoming elections for his "accuses the Supreme Leader in the gasoline issue".[147]
Fears that mass uprising could ignite again created conflicts within the Iranian ruling system. In early December 2019, Mahmood Alavi, the Intelligence Minister, has sent a letter to the speaker of the parliament asking him to stop Mahmoud Sadeghi, a member of Parliament, acting "against national interests". Since the protests began in November, Sadeghi continued his attacks against some government entities, including the intelligence system. Sadeghi has also spoken against the forced confessions run by the Ministry of Intelligence and shown on state television.[148]
Reactions
National
University students
On 7 December 2019, commemorating the student's day, university students in various parts of Iran organized rallies shouting slogans against Hassan Rouhani and chief Justice Ebrahim Raeesi. Students also condemned the government for shooting and killing people during recent demonstrations.[160]
Bus drivers
On 2 December 2019, the Tehran bus drivers' trade union called for the trial of those who ordered the shooting of the protesters. The union described the government's actions as a "massacre and bloody suppression". The statement by the Syndicate of Tehran and Suburbs Bus Company, also expressed concern about the situation of the thousands of detained protesters.[161]
Lawyers
On 10 December 2019, 160 Iranian lawyers called for an investigation into the November killings. The lawyers also called for information regarding the several thousand detained protestors.[162]
Mournings
Iranian regime threatens the families of those killed in recent protests not to talk to reporters or others. Nevertheless, families of young people killed by the regime's security forces are not giving in. Mother of Pooya Bakhtiari, killed by government agents, says her son was a "national hero". She continued that her son pursued "freedom, justice and truth", something that Iran's authorities will not grant to the people.[163]
International
States
Supernationals
Sanctions after November uprising
The United States implemented sanctions on Mohammad-Javad Azari Jahromi, Iran's communications minister, following the deactivation of internet servers inside Iran.[174]
On 19 December 2019, the United States Government enforced sanctions on two Iranian judges, Abolghassem Salavati and Mohammad Moghisseh, for suppressing "freedoms of speech and assembly". Thousands of people are now in Iran's jails just for participating in November uprising. They may face torture or even execution. The two judges have long records of issuing long term prison sentences or death penalties[175][176] for Iranians longing for democracy and opposed to the rule of the Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei.[177]
See also
References
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Last edited on 28 April 2021, at 18:27
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