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Abdullah bin Faisal Al Saud (1831–1889)
Not to be confused with Abdullah bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz.
Abdullah bin Faisal Al Saud (Arabic: عبد الله بن فيصل آل سعود‎‎ ʿAbd Allāh bin Fayṣal Āl Suʿūd; 1831–2 December 1889) was one of the rulers of the Emirate of Najd, also known as Second Saudi State. His reign witnessed extensive struggle among the members of the Al Saud family which led to turmoil in the region.
Abdullah bin Faisal Al Saud
Ruler of the Second Saudi State
Reign1865 – 1871
PredecessorFaisal bin Turki bin Abdullah
SuccessorSaud bin Faisal bin Turki
Reign1871 – 1873
PredecessorSaud bin Faisal bin Turki
SuccessorSaud bin Faisal bin Turki
Born1831
Died2 December 1889 (aged 57–58)
Riyadh
SpouseTurayfa bint Ubayd Al Rashid
Noura bint Abdullah Al Rashid
Names
Abdullah bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah
HouseHouse of Saud
FatherFaisal bin Turki bin Abdullah
Early life
Abdullah was born in 1831.[1] He was the eldest son of Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah, who was the ruler of the Emirate of Najd[2] for 26 years.[3][4] He had three brothers: Saud, Mohammad and Abdul Rahman.[5][6][7] Of them Saud and Abdul Rahman were his half-brothers.[8] The mother of Abdullah and Mohammad was from the Al Saud.[9]
In December 1838 his father was surrendered by Egyptian commander Khurshid Pasha and sent to Egypt.[9] Abdullah and his brother Mohammad accompanied their father together with their uncle Jiluwi bin Turki.[9] Following his return to Nejd Faisal bin Turki managed to reestablish his rule, and during his reign there occurred a rivalry between his sons, Abdullah and Saud.[10]
In addition, the personality of Abdullah and Saud was very different in that the latter was much more liberal, but the former was a strict religious man.[10] Another difference between them is that Abdullah was a skilled military leader, but an autocratic administrator, whereas Saud was energetic and extrovert.[11]
Heir apparent
In June 1865 Abdullah was made heir apparent by his father, Faisal bin Turki.[9][10] He enjoyed great power during this period[5] and acted as the de facto ruler of the Emirate.[12] Abdullah's forces defeated rebellious governor of Buraida, Abdulaziz Al Ulaiyan, who joined riots in the province of Unaiza in 1848-1849 which is called the battle of Yalima.[12] Abdullah was also instrumental in having an agreement with Mohammad Al Khalifa, ruler of Bahrain, to continue his annual payments to the Emirate of Najd.[12] Another significant victory of Abdullah was against Rakan bin Hithlain who was the leader of Ajman tribe.[12] They rebelled against Faisal bin Turki in 1854 and again challenged his rule in 1860, but Faisal sent a large force against the Ajman tribe led by Abdullah who defeated them.[12] Next year the Ajman tribe reattempted to end the rule of Faisal which led to their total destruction.[12]
Reign
Faisal died in December 1865 and Abdullah succeeded him.[13][14] Following his accession to the throne Abdullah attempted to centralize the power.[15] He was backed by his uncle, Abdullah bin Turki, whose descendants are known as Al Turki branch,[16] and the Wahhabi leaders.[6] Sheikh Abdul Rahman (1779–1868) who was the grandson of Sheikh Mohammad ibn Abdul Wahhab and the son of Hasan bin Mohammad publicly announced that people should support Abdullah due to the fact that his succession had been previously established by Imam Faisal bin Turki.[6][17] In the first year of his reign Abdullah signed a treaty with the British authorities to get financial assistance and protection.[18] In 1867 the Ottomans send him a certificate of governance to strengthen his position as a ruler and to support him against the competitors.[19]
Although his succession was not problematic and his brother Saud also declared his allegiance to Abdullah,[6] Saud attacked Abdullah's rule in 1866-67.[13][14][20] They fought in the battle of Al Mutala, and Saud defeated and escaped to Trucial Oman.[14] The Ajman tribe supported Saud in his struggle with Abdullah.[4][21] Abdullah's tribal major supporters were Subai' and Al Suhul from the Al 'Aridh and the Qahtan of Najd during his struggle with Saud.[4] Abdullah's another brother, Mohammad, also challenged his rule.[22]
Therefore, Abdullah demanded the assistance of the Ottoman forces to defeat Saud and others[5][23] for which he granted a fatwa from a Wahhabi scholar, Mohammad bin Ibrahim bin Ajlan,[17] although more conservative ones declined his demand.[24] The Ottoman official who Abdullah appealed was Midhat Pasha, governor of Iraq.[24][25] Abdullah's request was accepted by Midhat Pasha,[24] but the Ottoman forces gained Al Hasa in 1871[5] which remained under the rule of the Ottoman state until 1913 when Abdullah's nephew, Ibn Saud or Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman, took over the region.[23] Following his cooperation with Midhat Pasha Abdullah was made qaimmaqam of Nejd in 1871.[25]
Saud won his struggle against Abdullah in the battle of Juda in December 1871, but at the same time a civil war broke out which lasted for more than a decade.[13][14] Abdullah escaped to Al Qasim to take assistance from the Al Rashids.[14] Instead, he was able to get assistance from the Qahtan tribe.[14] Following a brief rule of Saud Abdullah regained the throne, and Sheikh Abdul Latif, great-grandson of Mohammad bin Abdul Wahab,[17] announced his support to Abdullah.[6] The alliance between Abdullah and Ottomans ended in 1872 due to the former's reluctance to continue the cooperation.[23] In fact, Abdullah was regretful of his decision about formation of an alliance with the Ottomans.[24]
Abdullah's second term lasted one more year and finished in 1873 when Saud again became the ruler. This time the youngest brother, Abdul Rahman, ended the reign of Saud in 1875,[5] but Abdul Rahman's rule was very brief.[26] Abdullah regained the power the same year when his rival brother Saud died.[20] However, Abdullah's reign also lasted again very short.[26]
In 1887 Abdullah bin Faisal was imprisoned by Mohammad bin Saud, son of Saud bin Faisal.[23]Mohammad bin ʿAbdullah Al Rashid, Emir of Jabal Shammar, freed Abdullah as well as his younger brother Abdul Rahman who were both taken to Hail.[5][27] Eventually Al Rashids forced the members of the Al Saud family to leave Riyadh[28] when they were defeated by Mohammad bin Abdullah Al Rashid in the battle of Mulayda in 1891.[29]
Reasons for his failure to consolidate power
Years later King Abdulaziz stated three major reasons for the failure of his uncle, Abdullah bin Faisal, as follows: (1) negative propaganda of Abdullah bin Faisal's nephews in Al Kharj; (2) his support for the Al ‘Ulayyan, the former rulers of Al Qassim, against the Al Muhanna, the then rulers of the region and (3) the attempts of Mohammad Al Rashid to capture Najd.[30] Another factor cited by R. Bayly Winder, an expert Arabic, is that Abdullah tended to appoint non-local administrators to the regions and to his government and made them very powerful.[31] Such practices which caused irritation among the local people had not been followed by the previous Saudi rulers.[31]
In addition to these factors Abdullah bin Faisal did not have any male offsprings who could support him against the contenders such as his half-brother Saud who had six sons.[32] Therefore, Abdullah could not manage to have a large number of supporters in the family.[32]
Personal life and death
One of Abdullah bin Faisal's spouses, Turayfa bint Ubayd, was from the Rashidi dynasty who was the niece of Abdullah bin Ali Al Rashid, emir of Jabal Shammar.[15][33] Abdullah also married another woman from the Rashidi dynasty: Noura, daughter of Abdullah bin Ali Al Rashid.[31] The marriage took place soon after the beginning of Imam Faisal's second term.[31] Noura's father and brother, Talal bin Abdullah, joined the wedding ceremony in Riyadh.[31]
Abdullah had several daughters and had only one son who died young.[32] His daughter, Noura bint Abdullah, married Talal bin Abdullah who was the son of Abdullah Al Rashid.[34] Another, Sara, was one of King Abdulaziz's spouses, and they do not have any child.[9] Abdullah's another daughter wed Sheikh Abdul Latif Al Sheikh.[14]
Abdullah died in Riyadh on 2 December 1889 shortly after he was brought there by his younger brother, Abdul Rahman, from Hail.[5][33][35]
References
  1. ^ Khalid Abdullah Krairi (October 2016). John Philby and his political roles in the Arabian Peninsula, 1917-1953 (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Birmingham. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  2. ^ Dilip Hiro (1 February 2019). Cold War in the Islamic World: Saudi Arabia, Iran and the Struggle for Supremacy. Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-19-005022-1.
  3. ^ "Faisal bin Turki [1834-1834, 1843-1865]". Global Security. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Talal Sha'yfan Muslat Al-Azma' (July 1999). The Role of the Ikhwan under 'Abdul-Aziz Al Sa'ud 1916-1934 (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Durham. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Parvaiz Ahmad Khanday (2009). A Critical Analysis of the Religio-Political Conditions of Modern Saudi Arabia (PDF) (PhD thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e Alejandra Galindo Marines (2001). The relationship between the ulama and the government in the contemporary Saudi Arabian Kingdom: an interdependent relationship?(PDF) (PhD thesis). Durham University.
  7. ^ "Religion and Politics in Arabia". Foreign Affairs. 1 July 1928.
  8. ^ Roby C. Barrett (June 2015). "Saudi Arabia: Modernity, Stability, and the Twenty-First Century Monarchy" (Report). Joint Special Operations University. p. 23. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e Gary Samuel Samore (1984). Royal Family Politics in Saudi Arabia (1953-1982) (PhD thesis). Harvard University. pp. 23–26, 42. ProQuest 303295482. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  10. ^ a b c J.E. Peterson (2003). Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia. Scarecrow Press. p. 18.
  11. ^ James Wynbrandt (2010). A Brief History of Saudi Arabia (PDF). Infobase Publishing. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-0-8160-7876-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Bilal Ahmad Kutty (1997). Saudi Arabia under King Faisal (PDF) (PhD thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. pp. 45–46, 49. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  13. ^ a b c Joas Wagemakers (February 2012). "The Enduring Legacy of the Second Saudi State: Quietist and Radical Wahhabi Contestations of Al Walāʾ Wa-l-Barāʾ" (PDF). International Journal of Middle East Studies. 44 (1): 96. JSTOR 41474982.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g M. J. Crawford (August 1982). "Civil War, Foreign Intervention, and the Question of Political Legitimacy: A Nineteenth-Century Saudi Qadi's Dilemma" (PDF). International Journal of Middle East Studies. 14 (3): 232–234, 242. JSTOR 163672.
  15. ^ a b Nadav Safran (2018). "The Rise and Fall of the First Two Realms". Saudi Arabia: The Ceaseless Quest for Security. Cornell University Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780674789852.
  16. ^ Sharaf Sabri (2001). The House of Saud in Commerce: A Study of Royal Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. Sharaf Sabri. p. 234. ISBN 978-81-901254-0-6.
  17. ^ a b c Tarik K. Firro (2013). "The Political Context of Early Wahhabi Discourse of Takfir". Middle Eastern Studies. 49 (5): 778–779. doi​:​10.1080/00263206.2013.811648​. S2CID 144357200.
  18. ^ Abdullah Mohammad Sindi. "The Direct Instruments of Western Control over the Arabs: The Shining Example of the House of Saud"(PDF). Social sciences and humanities. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  19. ^ Sungur Doğançay (2018). "British Role in the Wahhabi Revolt and its Impact on the Policy over Iraq". Turkish Studies. 3 (15): 200. doi​:​10.7827/TurkishStudies.13498​. ISSN 1308-2140.
  20. ^ a b Nabil Mouline (2010). "Power and Generational Transition in Saudi Arabia". Critique Internationale. 46 (1). doi​:​10.3917/crii.046.0125​.
  21. ^ Khalid Abdullah Krairi (October 2016). John Philby and his political roles in the Arabian Peninsula, 1917-1953 (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Birmingham. p. 246. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  22. ^ Adam Beatty (2003). The Wahhabi tribe: An analysis of authority in the unification of the Arabian Peninsula, 1902–1932 (PhD thesis). McGill University. p. 57. ProQuest 305245920. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d Talha Çiçek (May 2017). "The tribal partners of empire in Arabia: the Ottomans and the Rashidis of Najd, 1880–1918". New Perspectives on Turkey. 56: 105–130. doi:10.1017/npt.2017.7.
  24. ^ a b c d Abdulaziz H. Al Fahad (May 2004). "Commentary. From Exclusivism to Accommodation: Doctrinal and Legal Evolution of Wahhabism" (PDF). New York University Law Review. 79 (2).
  25. ^ a b Peter Sluglett (December 2002). "The Resilience of a Frontier: Ottoman and Iraqi Claims to Kuwait, 1871-1990". The International History Review. 24 (4): 790. JSTOR 40111134.
  26. ^ a b Odah Sultan Odah (1988). Saudi-American relation 1968-78: A study in ambiguity (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Salford. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  27. ^ Madawi Al Rasheed (11 July 2002). A History of Saudi Arabia. Cambridge University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-521-64412-9.
  28. ^ Morton R. Davies; John Greenwood; Nicholas Walkley (8 May 2018). Serving the State: Global Public Administration Education and Training Volume II: Diversity and Change. Taylor & Francis. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-351-76820-7.
  29. ^ Christoph Baumer (2021). "Lt Col Hamilton's 1917 Political Mission to Emir Abd Al Aziz Al Saud of Najd". Asian Affairs. 52: 8. doi​:​10.1080/03068374.2021.1878737​. S2CID 232245475.
  30. ^ Peter Valenti (2015). State-Building in Central Arabia: Empires and Regional Actors at the Crossroads of al-Qasim (PhD thesis). New York University. p. 3. ProQuest 1666383783. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  31. ^ a b c d e R. Bayly Winder (1965). Saudi Arabia in the Nineteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 156, 230. doi​:​10.1007/978-1-349-81723-8​. ISBN 9780333055410.
  32. ^ a b c Alexander Blay Bligh (1981). Succession to the throne in Saudi Arabia. Court Politics in the Twentieth Century (PhD thesis). Columbia University. p. 20. ProQuest 303101806. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  33. ^ a b Michael John Baran (1992). The Rashidi Amirate of Hayl: The rise, development and decline of a premodern Arabian principality (PhD thesis). University of Michigan. pp. 104, 126. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  34. ^ Helen Chapin Metz, ed. (December 1992). Saudi Arabia. A country study (PDF). p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8444-0791-3.
  35. ^ Jerald L. Thompson (December 1981). H. St. John Philby, Ibn Saud and Palestine (PDF) (MA thesis). University of Kansas. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
Last edited on 21 July 2021, at 11:03
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