Abdullah was one of the many sons of King Abdulaziz
, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia
, and he held important political posts throughout most of his adult life. In 1961 he became mayor of Mecca
, his first public office.
The following year, he was appointed commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard
, a post he was still holding when he became king. He also served as deputy defense minister and was named crown prince when his half-brother Fahd
took the throne in 1982. After King Fahd suffered a serious stroke in 1995, Abdullah became the de facto
ruler of Saudi Arabia until ascending the throne a decade later.
During his reign Abdullah maintained close relations with the United States
and the United Kingdom
and bought billions of dollars worth of defense equipment from both states.
He also gave women the right to vote for municipal councils and to compete in the Olympics
Abdullah maintained the status quo
when there were waves of protest
in the kingdom during the Arab Spring
In November 2013, a BBC
report claimed that, due to the close relations it had with Pakistan
, Saudi Arabia could obtain nuclear weapons
at will from that country.
The King also had a longstanding relationship with Pakistan, and brokered a compromise between ousted Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif
and General Pervez Musharraf
, whom he had requested to be exiled to Saudi Arabia for a 10-year exile, following his ouster in the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état
The King outlived two of his crown princes, who were all among the Sudairi Seven
full brothers (which had included King Fahd). His half-brother Nayef bin Abdulaziz
was named heir to the throne on the death of Sultan bin Abdulaziz
in October 2011, but Nayef himself died in June 2012. Abdullah then named Salman bin Abdulaziz
as crown prince. According to various reports, Abdullah married up to 30 times and had more than 35 children.
The King had a personal fortune estimated at US$18 billion, making him the third-wealthiest head of state
in the world.
He died on 23 January 2015, at the age of 90,
three weeks after being hospitalized for pneumonia, and was succeeded by his half-brother Salman.
Abdullah is said to have been born on 1 August 1924 in Riyadh
However, some sources state that this date is incorrect, and that he was approximately eight years older.
He was the tenth son of King Abdulaziz.
His mother, Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim
, was a member of the Al Rashid
dynasty, longtime rivals of the Al Saud dynasty.
She was descended from the powerful Shammar
tribe and was the daughter of former tribe chief, Asi Shuraim.
She died when Abdullah was six years old.
He had two younger full-sisters, Nouf and Seeta
and two maternal half-brothers, Abdulaziz
argues that his maternal roots and his earlier experience of a speech impediment
led to delay in his rise to higher status among the other sons of King Abdulaziz.
Commander of National Guard
In 1963, Abdullah was made commander of Saudi National Guard. This post allowed him to secure his position in the House of Saud. SANG, which had been based on the Ikhwan
, became a modern armed force under his command. Beginning 1985, SANG also sponsored the Janadiriyah festival that institutionalized traditional folk dances, camel races and tribal heritage.
Second in line
appointed Abdullah as second deputy prime minister on 29 March 1975 just four days after his kingship
which was a reflection of his status as second in the line of succession to the Saudi throne.
Therefore, he became the number three in the Saudi administration.
However, his appointment caused friction in the House of Saud.
Then-crown prince Fahd
, together with his full-brothers known as the Sudairi Seven, supported the appointment of their own full brother, Sultan.
Abdullah was pressured to cede control of SANG in return for his appointment as second deputy prime minister. In August 1977, this generated a debate among hundreds of princes in Riyadh.
Abdullah did not relinquish authority of SANG because he feared that this would weaken his authority.
In March 1979 when Crown Prince Fahd left Saudi Arabia and stayed in Europe for a long time Prince Abdullah presided over the Council of Ministers and held much more active role in diplomatic affairs of Saudi Arabia.
Crown Prince and Regent
On 13 June 1982 – the day King Khalid died – Fahd bin Abdulaziz became King, Abdullah became Crown Prince the same day and also maintained his position as head of the National Guard. During his years as crown prince, Abdullah bin Abdulaziz was described as a supporter of accommodation.
He managed to group a large number of fringe and marginalized princes discontented with the prospect of the succession being passed among the Sudairi brothers one after the other. His control of the National Guard was also a key factor to his success in becoming crown prince.
When King Fahd was incapacitated by a major stroke in 1995,
Crown Prince Abdullah acted as de facto regent
of Saudi Arabia.
On 4 June 2000, the Al Saud Family Council was established by Crown Prince Abdullah to discuss some private issues, including the business activities of House of Saud members and the marriages of princesses to nonroyals.
In May 2001 he did not accept an invitation to visit Washington due to the US support for Israel
in the Second Intifada
. He also appeared more eager than King Fahd to cut government spending and open Saudi Arabia up economically. He pushed for Saudi membership of the World Trade Organization
, surprising some.
In August 2001, he ordered then Saudi Ambassador to the US, Bandar bin Sultan
, to return to Washington. This reportedly occurred after Crown Prince Abdullah witnessed brutality inflicted by an Israeli soldier upon a Palestinian
Later, he also condemned Israel for attacking families of suspects.
"God Almighty, in His wisdom, tests the faithful by allowing such calamities to happen. But He, in His mercy, also provides us with the will and determination, generated by faith, to enable us to transform such tragedies into great achievements, and crises that seem debilitating are transformed into opportunities for the advancement of humanity. I only hope that, with your cooperation and leadership, a new world will emerge out of the rubble of the World Trade Center: a world that is blessed by the virtues of freedom, peace, prosperity and harmony."
By late 2003, after the Saudi Arabian branch of al-Qaeda
carried out a series of bombings that threatened to destabilize the country, Crown Prince Abdullah, together with other decision-making elites began to deal with political concerns. As Toby Jones wrote in Middle East Report
One of such moves was his project to promote more tolerance for religious diversity and rein in the forces of politico-religious extremism in the kingdom, leading to the establishment of National Dialogue
. In the summer of 2003, Abdullah threw his considerable weight behind the creation of a national dialogue that brought leading religious figures together, including a highly publicized meeting attended by the kingdom's preeminent Shi'i scholar Hasan al-Saffar, as well as a group of Sunni
clerics that had previously expressed their loathing for the Shi'i minority.
King of Saudi Arabia
Royal Standard of the King
Abdullah succeeded to the throne upon the death of his half-brother King Fahd. He was formally enthroned on 2 August 2005.
King Abdullah's administration attempted reforms in different fields.
In 2005, King Abdullah implemented a government scholarship program to send young Saudi men and women abroad for undergraduate and postgraduate studies in different universities around the world. The program offered funds for tuition and living expenses up to four years. It is estimated that more than 70,000 young Saudis studied abroad in more than 25 countries, with the United States, England
, and Australia
as top three destinations aimed for by the students. There are more than 22,000 Saudi students studying in the United States, exceeding pre-9/11 levels. Public health engagement included breast cancer
awareness and CDC
cooperation to set up an advanced epidemic screening network to protect 2010's three million Hajj
In 2005 King Abdullah declared that the national day
of the country, 23 September, would be a public holiday in an attempt to reduce the influence of religious figures and some of the social restrictions.
It was criticized by the religious figures who argued that such celebration was not part of Islam.
King Abdullah implemented many reform measures. He re-shuffled the ministry of education's leadership in February 2009 by bringing in his pro-reform son-in-law, Faisal bin Abdullah
, as the new minister. He also appointed Nora Al Fayez
, a U.S.-educated former teacher, as deputy education minister in charge of a new department for female students.
He brought about a top-to-bottom restructuring of the country's courts to introduce, among other things, review of judicial decisions and more professional training for Shari'a judges. He developed a new investment promotion agency to overhaul the once-convoluted process of starting a business in Saudi Arabia and created a regulatory body for capital markets. He also promoted the construction of the King Abdullah University for Science and Technology
(the country's new flagship and controversially co-ed institution for advanced scientific research). King Abdullah invested in educating the workforce for future jobs. The Saudi government also encouraged the development of non-hydrocarbon sectors in which the Kingdom had a comparative advantage, including mining, solar energy, and religious tourism. The Kingdom's 2010 budget reflected these priorities—about 25 percent was devoted to education alone—and amounts to a significant economic stimulus package.
The response of his administration to homegrown terrorism was a series of crackdowns including raids by security forces, arrests, torture and public beheadings.
He vowed to fight terrorist ideologies within the country. He also made the protection of Saudi Arabia's critical infrastructure a top security priority.
His strategy against terrorism was two-pronged: he attacked the roots of the extremism that fed Al-Qaida through education and judicial reforms to weaken the influence of the most reactionary elements of Saudi Arabia's religious establishment.
In August 2010, King Abdullah decreed that only officially approved religious scholars associated with the Senior Council of Ulema
would be allowed to issue fatwas
. Similar decrees since 2005 were previously seldom enforced. Individual fatwas relating to personal matters were exempt from the royal decree. The decree also instructed the Grand Mufti to identify eligible scholars.
In light of the Arab Spring
, Abdullah laid down a $37 billion (€32.8 billion) programme of new spending including new jobless benefits, education and housing subsidies, debt write-offs, and a new sports channel. There was also a pledge to spend a total of $400 billion by the end of 2014 to improve education, health care and the kingdom's infrastructure.
However, Saudi police arrested 100 Shiite protesters who complained of government discrimination.
Later during the 2011–2012 Saudi Arabian protests
, in September 2011, the King announced women's right to vote
in the 2015 municipal council elections
, a first significant reform step in the country since the protests. He also stated that women would become eligible to take part in the unelected shura
In January 2012, King Abdullah dismissed the head of Saudi Arabia's powerful religious police, replacing him with a more moderate cleric, state news agency SPA reported, without giving reasons. Abdullatif Abdel Aziz al-Sheikh was named, in place of Sheikh Abdulaziz al Humain, to head the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice
. King Abdullah had appointed Humain in 2009 to head the "mutaween," which ensures the strict application of the country's ultra-conservative version of Islam, as a step towards reforming it. Humain hired consultants to restructure the organisation, met local human rights groups and consulted professional image-builders in a broad public relations campaign. Under his leadership the commission also investigated and punished some "out-of-control" officers for misbehaviour.
In July 2012, Saudi Arabia announced that it would allow its women athletes to compete in the Olympics for the first time and that the country's Olympic Committee would "oversee participation of women athletes who can qualify". The decision ended speculation that the entire Saudi team might have been disqualified on grounds of gender discrimination. The public participation of women in sport was still fiercely opposed by many Saudi religious conservatives. There had been almost no public tradition of women participating in sport in the country. Saudi officials said that, if successful in qualifying, female competitors would be dressed "to preserve their dignity".
On 11 January 2013, King Abdullah appointed thirty women to the Consultative Assembly or Shura Council and modified the related law to mandate that no less than 20 percent of 150 members would be women.
In August 2013, the Saudi cabinet, for the first time, approved a law making domestic violence a criminal offence. The law calls for a punishment of up to a year in prison and a fine of up to 50,000 riyals (€11,500/US$13,000).
The maximum punishments could be doubled for repeat offenders. The law criminalizes psychological, sexual
as well as physical abuse. It also includes a provision obliging employees to report instances of abuse in the workplace to their employer.
The move followed a Twitter
campaign. The new laws were welcomed by Saudi women's rights activists, although some expressed concerns that the law could not be implemented successfully without new training for the judiciary, and that the tradition of male guardianship would remain an obstacle to prosecutions.
In November 2007, King Abdullah visited Pope Benedict XVI
in the Apostolic Palace
, being first Saudi monarch to do so.
In March 2008, he called for a "brotherly and sincere dialogue between believers from all religions".
Abdullah in a meeting with US Secretary of State John Kerry
, 5 January 2014
In June 2008, he held a conference in Mecca
to urge Muslim leaders to speak with one voice with Jewish and Christian leaders.
He discussed with, and obtained approval from, Saudi and non-Saudi Islamic scholars to hold the interfaith
dialogue. In the same month, Saudi Arabia and Spain agreed to hold the interfaith dialogue in Spain.
The historic conference finally took place in Madrid in July 2008, wherein religious leaders of different faiths participated,
and which later led to the 2010 proclamation of World Interfaith Harmony Week
He had never previously made overtures for dialogue with eastern religious leaders, such as Hindus
and Buddhists. The Mecca conference discussed a paper on dialogue with monotheists—highlighting the monotheistic religions of southeast Asia, including Sikhism
—in the third axis of the fourth meeting, titled "With Whom We Talk," presented by Sheikh Badrul Hasan Al Qasimi. The session was chaired by Ezz Eddin Ibrahim, cultural adviser to the president of the United Arab Emirates
. The session also discussed a paper presented on coordination among Islamic institutions on Dialogue by Abdullah bin Omar Nassif, Secretary General of the World Islamic Council for Preaching and Relief and a paper on dialogue with divine messages, presented by Professor Mohammad Sammak—Secretary General of the Islamic Spiritual Summit in Lebanon.
In November 2008, he and his government arranged discussion at the United Nations General Assembly
to "promote dialogue among civilizations, cultures and peoples, as well as activities related to a culture of peace" and calling for "concrete action at the global, regional and subregional levels."
It brought together Muslim and non-Muslim nations to eradicate preconceptions as to Islam and terrorism, with world leaders—including former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair
, Israeli President Shimon Peres
, US President George W. Bush
and King Abdullah II of Jordan
Arab common market
King Abdullah called for the establishment of an Arab common market in January 2011. Saudi foreign minister, Saud bin Faisal, stated that the Arab Customs Union would be ready by 2015, and that by 2017 the common market would also be in place. There have been intensive efforts to link Arab countries with a railway system and an electricity power grid. Work on the power grid project has started in some Arab countries.
Abdullah visits the United States in April 2005
King Abdullah had long been pro-American and a longtime close ally of the United States. In October 1976, as Prince Abdullah was being trained for greater responsibility in Riyadh, he was sent to the United States to meet with President Gerald Ford
. He again traveled to the United States as Crown Prince in October 1987, meeting Vice President George H. W. Bush
. In September 1998, Crown Prince Abdullah made a state visit
to the United States to meet in Washington with President Bill Clinton
. In September 2000, he attended millennium
celebrations at the United Nations in New York City. In April 2002, Crown Prince Abdullah made a state visit to the United States with President George W. Bush
and he returned again in April 2005 with Bush. In April 2009, at a summit for world leaders President Barack Obama met with King Abdullah, while in June 2009 he hosted President Obama in Saudi Arabia. In turn, Obama hosted the King at the White House
in the same month.
King Abdullah showed great support for Obama's presidency. "Thank God for bringing Obama to the presidency", he said, adding that Obama's election created "great hope" in the Muslim world.
He stated, "We (the US and Saudi Arabia) spilled blood together" in Kuwait and Iraq, that Saudi Arabia valued this tremendously and that friendship could be a difficult issue that requires work, but that the United States and Saudi Arabia had done it for 70 years over three generations. "Our disagreements don't cut to the bone", he stated.
He was the leading gift-giver to the US president and his office in his first two years in office, his gifts totaling more than $300,000. A ruby and diamond jewelry set, given by the king and accepted by Michelle Obama
on behalf of the United States, was worth $132,000.
However, according to US federal law, gifts of such nature and value are accepted "on behalf of the United States" and are considered property of the US government.
The Bush administration ignored advice from him and Saudi foreign minister Saud Al Faisal against invading Iraq.
However, other sources said that many Arab governments were only nominally opposed to the Iraq invasion because of popular hostility.
Before becoming king, Prince Abdullah was thought to be completely against the US invasion of Iraq; this, however, was not the case. Riyadh provided essential support to the United States during the war and proved that "necessity does lead to some accommodations from time to time".
The King expressed a complete lack of trust in Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri Al Maliki
and held out little hope for improved Saudi-Iraqi relations as long as Al Maliki remained in office.
King Abdullah told an Iraqi official about Al Maliki, "You and Iraq are in my heart, but that man is not."
In September 2014, following the spread of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
(ISIL), he issued a statement, "From the cradle of revelation and the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, I call on leaders and scholars of the Islamic nation to carry out their duty towards God Almighty, and to stand in the face of those trying to hijack Islam and present it to the world as a religion of extremism, hatred, and terrorism, and to speak the word of truth, and not fear anybody. Our nation today is passing through a critical, historic stage, and history will be witness against those who have been the tool exploited by the enemies to disperse and tear the nation and tarnish the pure image of Islam".
In 2006, Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei had sent his adviser Ali Akbar Velayati
with a letter asking for King Abdullah's agreement to establish a formal back channel of communication between the two leaders. Abdullah said he had agreed, and the channel was established, with Velayati and Saud Al Faisal as the points of contact. In the ensuing years, the King noted, the channel had never been used.
In April 2008, according to a US cable released by WikiLeaks
, King Abdullah had told the US Ambassador to Iraq, Ryan Crocker
, and General David Petraeus
to "cut off the head of the snake". Saudi Arabia's Ambassador to Washington, Adel al-Jubeir
, "recalled the King's frequent exhortations to the US to attack Iran" and to put an end to that country's nuclear program
King Abdullah asserted that Iran was trying to set up Hezbollah
-like organizations in African countries, observing that the Iranians didn't think they were doing anything wrong and didn't recognize their mistakes. He said that the Iranians "launch missiles with the hope of putting fear in people and the world". The King described his conversation with Iranian foreign minister Mottaki
as "a heated exchange, frankly discussing Iran's interference in Arab affairs". When challenged by the King on Iranian meddling in Hamas
affairs, Mottaki apparently protested that "these are Muslims". "No, Arabs", countered the King. "You as Persians have no business meddling in Arab matters". King Abdullah said he would favor Rafsanjani
in an Iranian election.
He told General Jones that Iranian internal turmoil presented an opportunity to weaken the regime—which he encouraged—but he also urged that this be done covertly, stressing that public statements in support of the reformers were counterproductive. The King assessed that sanctions could help weaken the government, but only if they are strong and sustained.
Saudi Arabia, by the endorsement of the Gulf Cooperation Council
, sent 1,200 troops to Bahrain
to protect industrial facilities, resulting in strained relations with the United States. The military personnel were part of the Peninsula Shield Force
, which is stationed in Saudi Arabia, but not affiliated to one country alone.
In December 2010, leaked diplomatic cables
published by WikiLeaks revealed that King Abdullah wanted all released detainees from the Guantanamo Bay detention camp
to be tracked using an implanted microchip, in a way similar to race horses. The King made the private suggestion during a meeting in Riyadh in March 2009 with White House counterterrorism adviser, John O. Brennan
. Brennan replied that "horses don't have good lawyers" and that such a proposal would "face legal hurdles" in the United States.
Since King Abdullah's visit to Beijing in January 2006, Saudi-Chinese relations have focused predominantly on energy and trade. The king's visit was the first by a Saudi head of state to China since the two countries established diplomatic ties in 1990.
Bilateral trade with China has more than tripled, and China would soon be Saudi Arabia's largest importer. Saudi Arabia also committed significant investments in China, including the $8 billion Fujian
refinery. Based on a WikiLeaks cable, the King told the Chinese that it was willing to effectively trade a guaranteed oil supply in return for Chinese pressure on Iran not to develop nuclear weapons.
In late March 2011, King Abdullah sent Bandar bin Sultan, Secretary General of the National Security Council
, to China to gain its support regarding Saudi Arabia's attitude towards the Arab Spring. In turn, lucrative arms contracts were secretly offered to China by the Kingdom. Furthermore, King Abdullah believed that China as well as India
were the future markets for Saudi energy.
Relations with other nations
In November 2009, King Abdullah was received by Nicolas Sarkozy
, who committed various diplomatic faux pas. The diplomatic relationship Jacques Chirac
had with Saudi Arabia was not evident with Sarkozy.
In January 2011, the Kingdom granted asylum to the ousted Tunisian leader, Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali
, under conditions of no further political involvement.
According to leaked cables, King Abdullah was more receptive than Crown Prince Sultan to former Yemeni
King Abdullah supported renewed diplomatic relations with the Syrian government and Bashar al-Assad
. They met in Damascus
on 7 October 2009.
In addition, Assad attended the opening of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
in October 2009. Relations between Syria and Saudi Arabia deteriorated as a result of the Syrian Civil War
. In August 2011, King Abdullah recalled the Saudi Ambassador from Damascus due to the political unrest in Syria and closed its embassy.
In December 2011, King Abdullah called on leaders of the Gulf Cooperation Council
to strengthen their alliance into a united "single entity" as they confront threats to national security. "I ask you today to move from a stage of cooperation to a stage of union in a single entity", King Abdullah said at the opening session of a GCC meeting in Riyadh in comments aired on Saudi state television. "No doubt, you all know we are targeted in our security and stability".
Criticism as king
On 16 February 2003, Parade magazine
's David Wallechinsky
rated King Fahd and Crown Prince Abdullah as the second worst dictators in the world.
Most of this criticism stems from the fact that most of Saudi citizens live under a strict Wahhabist
interpretation of Sharia law
, which mandates the amputation of hands as a punishment for theft and floggings for crimes like drunkenness.
Execution by public beheading is common for murder, rape, drug trafficking and witchcraft, and Abdullah's policies towards the rights of women have also been criticized. In a slight rebuff to accusations of human rights violations, Saudi inmates of Najran Province
sent the King well-wishes from jail and wished him a speedy recovery.
King Abdullah has also been criticized for his policies on religious freedom and the Saudi government allegedly has arrested Shiite pilgrims on the Hajj
On 24 January 2007, Human Rights Watch
sent an open letter to King Abdullah asking him to cease religious persecution of the Ahmadi
faith in Saudi Arabia. Two letters were sent in November 2006 and February 2007 asking him to remove the travel ban on critics of the Saudi government.
Human Rights Watch has not yet indicated whether they have received any response to these letters.
On 30 October 2007, during a state visit to the UK, King Abdullah was accused by protestors of being a "murderer" and a "torturer". Concerns were raised about the treatment of women and homosexuals by the Saudi kingdom and over alleged bribes involving arms deals between Saudi Arabia and the UK.
Succession to the throne
King Abdullah's heir apparent
was his half-brother Crown Prince Sultan until the latter's death on 22 October 2011. The title of Crown Prince then passed to Prince Sultan's full-brother, Nayef, until his death in Geneva
, on 16 June 2012, while undergoing medical tests for an undisclosed ailment. His third heir apparent was his half-brother Salman, who was named as crown prince on 18 June 2012,
and would succeed him in 2015.
In 2006, Abdullah set up the Allegiance Council
, a body that is composed of the sons and grandsons of Saudi Arabia's founder, King Abdulaziz, to vote by a secret ballot to choose future kings and crown princes. The council's mandate was not to have started until after the reigns of both King Abdullah and late Prince Sultan were over. It was not clear what was to happen when Prince Sultan died before the end of Abdullah's reign, leaving a question as to whether the council would vote for a new crown prince, or whether Prince Nayef would automatically fill that position. Despite such concerns, Prince Nayef was appointed Crown Prince on 27 October 2011 after consultation with the Allegiance Council by Abdullah.
In November 2010, Prince Nayef chaired a cabinet meeting because of the deterioration of the King's health.
During the same month, King Abdullah transferred his duties as Commander of the Saudi National Guard to his son Prince Mutaib
. King Abdullah is credited with building up the once largely ceremonial unit into a modern 260,000-strong force that is a counterweight to the army. The Guard, which was Abdullah's original power base, protects the royal family. This was suggested as an apparent sign that the elderly monarch was beginning to lessen some of his duties.
King Abdullah was Commander of the Saudi National Guard from 1963 to 2010. He was Chairman of the Saudi Supreme Economic Council until 2009.
He also continued to be the President of the High Council for Petroleum and Minerals, President of the King Abdulaziz Center For National Dialogue
, Chairman of the Council of Civil Service, and head of the Military Service Council until his death in 2015.
King Abdullah was a falconer
in his youth
King Abdullah had many children from different wives who have been subject to travel ban since 2017. This restriction has been also applied to his grandchildren and great grandchildren.
King Abdullah followed his father's path in terms of marriage in that he married the daughters of the al Shalan of Anizah
, al Fayz of Bani Sakhr, and al Jarbah of the Iraqi branch of the Shammar tribe.
King Abdullah had about 30 wives,
and fathered 36 children.
Munira bint Abdullah Al Sheikh was the mother of his eldest living son, Prince Khaled.
One of King Abdullah's wives was the sister of Rifaat al-Assad
's wife, Aida Fustuq
, with whom he had two children, Adila
They divorced later.
He also married Jawahir bint Ali Hussein from Al Jiluwi clan, with whom he had a daughter, Princess Anoud and a son, Prince Saud.
Tathi bint Mishan Al Faisal Al Jarba gave birth to Prince Mishaal, Prince Turki, Princess Oraib and three more children.
His another wife was Malka bint Saud bin Zaid Al Jarba Al Choumri, and they had three children: Prince Saad, Princess Sahab and Prince Sultan
Haifa Al Muhanna was the mother of King Abdullah's youngest child, Prince Bandar.Hessa bint Trad Al Shaalan
was the prominent wife of King Abdullah during his reign who is the mother of Prince Faisal and Princess Abeer among others.
King Abdullah had thirty-six children sixteen of whom are male.
His eldest son was Mutaib who died young.
The second eldest son of him, Prince Khalid
, was deputy commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard West until 1992. His second son, Prince Mutaib, is former commander and former minister of the National Guard. Prince Mishaal
was governor of the Makkah Province
between 2013 and 2015).Prince Abdulaziz
was the king's former Syria adviser
and was deputy foreign affairs minister from 2011 to 2015. Prince Faisal
was the head of the Saudi Arabian Red Crescent Society. King Abdullah's seventh son, Prince Turki
, who was a pilot in the Royal Saudi Air Force
, was governor of the Riyadh Province
from 2014 to 2015).
The youngest son, Prince Bandar, was born in 1999, when Abdullah was about 75 years old.
In October 2015, his son, Majid bin Abdullah Al Saud
, was arrested in Los Angeles
on suspicion of "forcing oral copulation",
amid allegations that he had been unlawfully imprisoning, threatening, sexually harassing, and assaulting employees, while under the influence of cocaine and alcohol.
He was released on bail,
and felony charges were dropped for lack of evidence; a civil suit filed by three housekeepers continues.
Another son, Mohammad, is married to Nouf bint Nayef, a daughter of late Prince Nayef and Maha bint Mohammad Al Sudairi
An Eritrean nanny of Nouf and Mohammad's children sued them for improper working conditions and other negative acts in 2018.
One of King Abdullah's daughters, Nuora, died in 1990 in a car accident near Riyadh airport.
She was married to Sultan bin Turki Al Saud
Fayza is yet another daughter, the mother of Prince Saud bin Abdulaziz bin Nasser Al Saud
who was accused of murdering his servant Bandar Abdulaziz in London in 2010.
His daughter, Haya, was featured on the cover of Vogue Arabia
magazine's June 2018 issue.Salman bin Abdulaziz bin Salman
, a member of Al Kabir branch of Al Saud, is married to another daughter of King Abdullah,
Oraib bint Abdullah who is the blood sister of Turki bin Abdullah.
Another daughter, Seeta, was married to Faisal bin Thamir, a son of Thamir bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
From his marriage to Al Anoud Al Fayez
(arranged when she was 15 without her having ever met him), whom he later divorced, he had four daughters— Sahar, Maha, Hala and Jawahir.
They have been under house arrest for several years, and are not allowed to leave the country.
After media releases in March 2014, Sahar and Jawahir received no food or clean water for 25 days, lost 10 kg each and their mother carried out weekly protests in front of the Saudi Arabian embassy in London.
Sahar and Jawahir spoke
and released a video while under house arrest,
pleading for help from the international community. After 2014, media reports of their condition dried up.
Illness and death
The King had curtailed his activities from June 2010 with no clear explanation. Diplomats said there had been uncertainty about the extent of his health problems since Abdullah canceled a visit to France.[when?]
In a television appearance in which he was seen to use a cane, King Abdullah said he was in good health but had something "bothering" him. In a visit by US diplomats to Saudi Arabia in April 2014 the Saudi King was seen connected to breathing tubes during talks, indicating increasing health problems.
From 2010 to 2012 King Abdullah had four back surgeries.
The first two of the surgeries were in New York, one in 2010 for a slipped disk and a blood clot pressing on nerves in his back and a second to stabilize vertebrae in 2011.
The third one was in Riyadh in 2011. And the last one was also in Riyadh on 17 November 2012.
In November 2010, his back problems came to light in the media. He had an "accumulation of blood" around the spinal cord. He suffered from a herniated disc and was told to rest by doctors. To maintain the Kingdom's stability, Crown Prince Sultan returned from Morocco during the King's absence.
The King was admitted to NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital
after a blood clot complicated a slipped disc and underwent successful back surgery. The lead surgeon was Muhammad Zaka, who probably removed the herniated disk and performed a lumbar fusion.
He subsequently had another successful surgery in which surgeons "stabilized a number of vertebras". He left the hospital on 22 December 2010 and convalesced at The Plaza
in New York City.
On 22 January 2011, he left the United States for Morocco
and returned to the Kingdom on 23 February 2011.
King Abdullah left Saudi Arabia on "special leave" on 27 August 2012. Al-Quds
reported that he had an operation at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York
, on or before 4 September 2012, following a heart attack.
However, there was no official report on this alleged operation—instead, it was announced that the King went on a private trip to Morocco, where he was known to frequent. The King returned to Saudi Arabia from Morocco on 24 September.
Nearly two months later, in November 2012, King Abdullah underwent another back surgery in Riyadh
and left hospital on 13 December 2012.
A report in April 2014 stated that the King had around six months left to live, citing a diagnosis of terminal lung cancer.
On 2 January 2015, Abdullah was hospitalized in Riyadh for pneumonia
and died on 23 January at the age of 90.
In accordance with Islamic tradition, his funeral was held the same day, a public ceremony at the Grand Mosque of Riyadh before burial in an unmarked grave at the Al Oud cemetery
Three days of national mourning were declared, in which flags would fly at half-mast.
Flags were also flown half-mast at Buckingham Palace
and Westminster Abbey
In 2012 King Abdullah was named as the most influential Muslim among 500 Muslims for the previous 4 years.
In December 2012, Forbes named him as the seventh-most-powerful figure in its list of the "World's Most Powerful People" for 2012, being the sole Arab in the top ten.
Honours and awards
King Abdullah received a number of international high orders. Most notably, he was an honoured knight of the strictly Roman Catholic Order of the Golden Fleece
(the Spanish branch), which caused some controversy.
In April 2012, he was awarded by the United Nations a gold medal for his contributions to intercultural understanding and peace initiatives.
In 2011, the financial magazine Forbes
estimated his and his immediate family's documentable wealth at US$21 billion, making him one of the world's richest monarchs.
Abdullah was an expert equestrian
in his youth. His stables were considered the largest in Saudi Arabia, with over 1,000 horses spread throughout five divisions led by his son Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah.
The King also owned Janadria Farm, a large complex located in the suburbs of Riyadh.
For holidays, the King maintained a large palace complex with several residential compounds in Casablanca, Morocco.
It is equipped with two heliports
and is surrounded by large mansions on 133 acres of vegetation.
- ^ "King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz". 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015.
- ^ "Who's who: Senior Saudis". BBC. 30 October 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- ^ US confirms $60bn Saudi arms dealArchived 9 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Al Jazeera 20 October 2010
- ^ Saudi Arabia profile Archived 27 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine BBC
- ^ Saudi Arabia: Fundamental change?Archived 29 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine Al Jazeera 19 October 2010
- ^ Saudi nuclear weapons 'on order' from Pakistan Archived 11 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine BBC
- ^ "King Abdullah said Nawaz was his friend, had to let him go: Musharraf". Dunya News. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- ^ a b "King Abdullah Ibn Abdulaziz Al Saud - Obituary". The Daily Telegraph. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- ^ a b Madawi Al Rasheed (22 January 2015). "King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- ^ a b "'We are hostages': A Saudi princess reveals her life of hell". New York Post. 19 April 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- ^ a b "King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia". Asian History. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Anita Singh (21 August 2008). "The world's richest royals". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- ^ "King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia dies at the age of 90". Aljazeera. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- ^ a b "Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah dies". BBC. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- ^ "King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz". Saudi Embassy. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ "King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". Ministry of Higher Education of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia. 4 August 2010. Archived from the original on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- ^ "Too Many Saudi Princes". The National Interest. 7 December 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 9 April 2016. King Abdullah’s advanced age—a leaked U.S. cable placed him at ninety-six, much older than the previously estimated eighty-eight or eighty-nine
- ^ P. R. Kumaraswamy; Md. Muddassir Quamar (2016). "More effective as regent than as monarch: Abdullah's reform legacy". Contemporary Arab Affairs. 9 (3): 445–460. doi:10.1080/17550912.2016.1189108.
- ^ Nabil Mouline (April–June 2010). "Power and generational transition in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Critique Internationale. 46: 1–22.
- ^ Winberg Chai (2005). Saudi Arabia: A Modern Reader. University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-88093-859-4.
- ^ Hassan Hanizadeh (2010). "Saudi Arabia without King Abdullah". PPP. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- ^ a b Christopher Dickey (30 March 2009). "The Monarch who Declared His own Revolution". Newsweek. 153 (13): 40. – via Questia (subscription required)
- ^ Karen Hedwig Backman (16 June 2012). "Born of Hassa bint Ahmad al Sudairi". Daily Kos. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- ^ Talal Kapoor (1 February 2007). "Analysis: Al Rashid Opposition Group (part one)". Datarabia.
- ^ a b c Madawi Al Rasheed (2009). "Modernizing authoritarian rule in Saudi Arabia". Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2 (4): 587–601. doi:10.1080/17550910903244976.
- ^ Gulshan Dhanani (19 June 1982). "The King Is Dead, Long Live the King" (PDF). Economic and Political Weekly. 17 (25): 1021–1022. JSTOR 4371042.
- ^ Simon Henderson (1994). "After King Fahd"(Policy Paper). Washington Institute. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- ^ Nadav Safran (1985). Saudi Arabia: The Ceaseless Quest for Security. Cornell University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-8014-9484-0. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- ^ P. Edward Haley; Lewis W. Snider; M. Graeme Bannerman (1979). Lebanon in Crisis: Participants and Issues. Syracuse University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8156-2210-9.
- ^ a b c d e Simon Henderson (August 2009). "After King Abdullah" (Policy Paper). Washington Institute. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- ^ J. A. Kechichian (2 August 2001). Succession In Saudi Arabia. Springer. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-312-29962-0.
- ^ Gulshan Dhahani (1980). "Political Institutions in Saudi Arabia". International Studies. 19 (1): 59–69. doi:10.1177/002088178001900104. S2CID 153974203.
- ^ Sherifa Zuhur (2005). Saudi Arabia: Islamic Threat, Political Reform, and the Global War on Terror. DIANE Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-4289-1011-9.
- ^ Mai Yamani (2009). "From fragility to stability: A survival strategy for the Saudi monarchy" (PDF). Contemporary Arab Affairs. 2 (1): 90–105. doi:10.1080/17550910802576114. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2013.
- ^ "King Fahd ibn Abdel Aziz Al Saud: The Times obituary"Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Times Online, 1 August 2005. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
- ^ Daniel L. Byman (Spring 2005). "The Implications of Leadership Change in the Arab World". Political Science Quarterly. 120 (1): 59–83. doi:10.1002/j.1538-165x.2005.tb00538.x. JSTOR 20202473.
- ^ a b Elsa Walsh (24 March 2003). "The prince"(PDF). The New Yorker. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- ^ a b Bruce Maddy-Weitzman (Summer 2010). "Arabs vs. the Abdullah Plan". The Middle East Quarterly: 3–12. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- ^ "Crown Prince sends message to America"(Press release). Saudi Embassy. Jeddah. 10 September 2002. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- ^ Toby Jones (2007). "Saudi Arabia's not so New Anti-Shi'ism". Middle East Report. 242 (242): 29–32. JSTOR 25164776.
- ^ a b c d Screensetter for Clinton's visitWikileaks, 2010
- ^ "Saudi Arabia Sending Seventh Most Students to United States". PR Newswire. Saudi Arabia, District of Columbia. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ a b Eman Alhussein (1 June 2019). "Saudi First: How Hyper-Nationalism is Transforming Saudi Arabia" (PDF). European Council on Foreign Relations.
- ^ Julian Borger (16 February 2009). "Woman Saudi Education Minister". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Ursula Lindsey (3 October 2010). "Saudi Arabia's Education Reforms Emphasize Training for Jobs". The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- ^ Colin Brown. (31 October 2007). Shouts of 'murderers' and 'torturers' greet King Abdullah on Palace tour Archived 2 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, Retrieved 17 May 2008.
- ^ a b 09RIYADH496 Wikileaks, 31 March 2009
- ^ Christopher Boucek (23 October 2010). "Saudi Fatwa Restrictions". Carnegie Endowment. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Ambrose Evans-Pritchard (24 February 2011). "Saudi ruler offers $36bn to stave off uprising amid warning oil price could double". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- ^ Jason Benham (23 March 2011). "Saudi arrests 100 Shi'ite protesters – rights group". Reuters. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- ^ Asma Alsharif. (25 September 2011). "Saudi king gives women right to vote" Archived 17 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- ^ "Women in Saudi Arabia 'to vote and run in elections'". BBC News. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- ^ "Saudi king dismisses religious police head". Google News. 13 January 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ Frank Gardner (24 June 2012). "London 2012 Olympics: Saudis allow women to compete". BBC. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- ^ "Saudi Arabia's Timid Flirtation With Women's Rights". The Atlantic. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- ^ a b Sebastian Usher (28 August 2013). "Saudi Arabia cabinet approves domestic abuse ban". BBC. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- ^ Lisa Anderson (28 August 2013). "Saudi Arabia passes historic domestic abuse legislation". Reuters. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- ^ "Historic Saudi visit to Vatican". BBC News. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ "The 500 Most Influential Muslims" (PDF). Center Muslim-Christian Understanding. 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- ^ The King’s call for interfaith dialogueArchived 14 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Saudi Gazette.
- ^ Saudis launch Islamic unity drive Archived 19 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 4 June 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
- ^ Inter-faith meet to be held in Spain Archived 14 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Saudi Gazette.
- ^ Let concord replace conflict – AbdullahArchived 14 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Saudi Gazette.
- ^ Rebecca Tobias. (15 January 2014). When a King and a Pope Sit Down to Talk ReligionArchived 23 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine The Interfaith Observer Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- ^ Speech of Vice Chancellor and Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger in the King Abdullah Center, Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs
- ^ "New centre for interreligious dialogue". International Vienna (2). 2013. Archived from the original on 14 July 2013.
- ^ "KAICIID: Historic Day for International Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue". PR Newswire Europe. 2 November 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- ^ a b "No Politics for Ben Ali in Kingdom"Archived 21 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Arab News, 19 January 2011.
- ^ a b Mike Vilensky (20 April 2008). "WikiLeaks: Saudi King Abdullah Encouraged U.S. to Attack Iran; Chinese Politburo Hacked into Google". Nymag.com. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ a b Andrew Hough (29 November 2010). "Wikileaks: King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia 'wanted Guantánamo Bay detainees microchipped'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- ^ "Saudi king's gifts for Obama worth $300,000". Ndtv. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Bush belatedly tries good-will building over Iraq, Midea Archived 18 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine Pittsburgh Post, 15 March 2003
- ^ "Who Will Be the Next King of Saudi Arabia...And does It Matter?". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ Scott Shane; Andrew W. Lehren (28 November 2010). "WikiLeaks Archive – Cables Uncloak U.S. Diplomacy". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- ^ Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud’s statement to the Arab and Islamic Nations and the International Community Archived 4 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine Saudi Embassy in Washington DC. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- ^ a b "US embassy cables: Saudi king's advice for Barack Obama". The Guardian. London. 28 November 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- ^ Saudi King urged US to attack Iran, 28 November 2010, Agence France-Presse, copy at Internet Archive Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ "Bahrain imposes state of emergency". Al Jazeera. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Jamie Doward and Philippa Stewart. (28 May 2011) ("UK Training Saudi Forces Used to Crush Arab Spring" Archived 29 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian
- ^ "Chinese president arrives in Riyadh at start of "trip of friendship, cooperation"_English_Xinhua". Xinhuanet. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Bruce Riedel (September 2011). "Brezhnev in the Hejaz" (PDF). The National Interest. 115: 27–32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2013.
- ^ Angelique Chrisafis (30 November 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: Nicolas Sarkozy, the Saudis and Carla Bruni". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- ^ "Yemeni Tribal Leader: For Saleh, Saudi Involvement in Sa'Ada Comes Not A Moment Too Soon". Al Akhbar. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Hilal Khashan (Winter 2011). "Saad Hariri's Moment of Truth". Middle East Quarterly. XVIII (1): 65–71.
- ^ "Saudi Arabia recalls ambassador to Syria". BBC. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- ^ Glen Carey (19 December 2011). "Saudi King Abdullah Calls for a Closer Arab Gulf Union". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ "The World's 10 Worst Dictators: King Abdullah". Parade. 4 February 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- ^ a b "Asia's 5 Worst Dictators". About. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- ^ "Saudi inmates send king wishes from jail". France 24. 8 January 2011. Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ "Letter to King Abdullah". HRW. 8 February 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Saudi king's royal meet draws fire Archived 1 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine, CNN, 31 October 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
- ^ Neil MacFarquhar (18 June 2012). "Defense Minister New Heir to Throne in Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ Aged Saudi ruler to fly to US over blood clotAP 21 November 2010
- ^ "Saudi king suffers herniated disc". 12 November 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ "Saudi king transfers National Guard duties to son". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 October 2011.[dead link]
- ^ Anne-Beatrice Clasmann (20 November 2009). "Discreetly, Saudis speculate about the throne succession". M&C News. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- ^ David Ignatius (19 June 2020). "Saudi Arabia's crown prince uses travel restrictions to consolidate power". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
- ^ a b c d "تعرّف على أبناء وبنات الملك عبد الله الـ36". Al Sharq. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
- ^ "A Princely Rivalry: Clash of The Titans?". Datarabia. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- ^ a b Simon Henderson. (14 April 2011). "Outraged in Riyadh" Archived 13 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Foreign Policy.
- ^ Stig Stenslie (21 August 2012). Regime Stability in Saudi Arabia: The Challenge of Succession. ISBN 9781136511578.
- ^ a b Stig Stenslie (2011). "Power Behind the Veil: Princesses of the House of Saud". Journal of Arabian Studies. 1: 69–79. doi:10.1080/21534764.2011.576050. S2CID 153320942.
- ^ "More talk, less distortion". The Daily Star. 27 March 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- ^ Mordechai Abir (1988). Saudi Arabia in the Oil Era: Regime and Elites: Conflict and Collaboration. Kent: Croom Helm. ISBN 9780709951292.
- ^ Sharaf Sabri (2001). The House of Saud in commerce: A study of royal entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. New Delhi: I.S. Publications. ISBN 978-81-901254-0-6.
- ^ "Rediscovering Southern Arabia: Najran, The Emirate of King Abdullah's Son Prince". Wikileaks. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- ^ "Young Entrepreneur Prince Sultan bin Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is Looking to Establish Peace in the Middle East". PR Newswire. 21 June 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- ^ a b Jafar Al Bakl (16 December 2014). "الفحولة وآل سعود... والشرف المراق على جوانبه الدم". Al Akhbar (in Arabic). Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- ^ "Saudi Embassy Hosts Reception and Photo Exhibit for Breast Cancer Awareness". PR Newswire. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- ^ "King Abdullah Arrives in Morocco"Archived 23 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Arab News, 22 January 2011.
- ^ "Khaled appointed Riyadh governor, Turki his deputy". Arab News. Jeddah. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- ^ "Saudi prince avoids felony charges in sex assault case near Beverly Hills". Los Angeles Times. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ Cheri Mossburg. "Saudi prince arrested, faces sex charge in Los Angeles". CNN. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ a b Shehab Khan (24 October 2015). "Saudi prince accused over drug-taking, drinking and escorts at LA mansion". The Independent. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ Ben Hoyle (21 October 2015). "Police drop sexual assault case against Saudi prince". The Times. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ Michael Martinez; Cheri Mossburg. "Saudi prince won't face felony charges in sex case". CNN. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ "L.A. police arrest Saudi prince on sex charge". CBS. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ "Saudi Prince Accused of Sex-Crime Arrested at Beverly Glen Compound". CBS Los Angeles. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ "New abuse allegations filed in civil suit against Saudi prince". Los Angeles Times. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ a b Brandi Buchman (27 February 2018). "Nanny to Saudi Royals Claims They Forced Her into Slavery". Courthouse News Service. Alexandria, Virginia. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- ^ "Second Amended Complaint" (PDF). Cohen Milstein. 27 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
- ^ "Saudi Arabia's King Changes the Guard". Saudiwave. 29 November 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ "Saudi Arabia Changes Course, Slowly". Washington Institute. 18 February 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ "Shaikh Khalid bin Hamad marries daughter of Saudi Monarch". Bahrain News Agency. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- ^ Simon Henderson (26 September 2011). "All the King's Women". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- ^ David Hearst (7 September 2020). "Saudi purge: Why Mohammed bin Salman can never rest". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
- ^ a b c "رسالة من ابناء واحفاد الملك عبدالله رحمه الله". Almrsal (in Arabic). 3 February 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
- ^ a b Bradley Hope; Justin Scheck (25 August 2020). ""This Plane is not Going to Land in Cairo": Saudi Prince Sultan Boarded a Flight in Paris. Then, He Disappeared". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
- ^ Caroline Gammell (5 October 2010). "Gay Saudi prince 'murdered servant in ferocious attack'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- ^ "Picture of Saudi princess on magazine cover sparks controversy". The Economic Times. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ "The case of a Saudi prince illustrates a pattern of arbitrary detention". Egypt Independent. CNN. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
- ^ "هكذا يعبر مئات الأمراء من آل سعود عن رفضهم لابن سلمان". Arabi 21 (in Arabic). 25 August 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- ^ 'They are hanging to life' - Saudi king's ex-wife speaks out Archived 19 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Channel 4, Fatima Manji, 10 March 2014
- ^ Fatima Manji. 10 March 2014. 'They are hanging to life' - Saudi king's ex-wife speaks outArchived 19 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Channel 4
- ^ "Ex-wife of Saudi King Pleads for Her Daughters." Archived 4 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine Al Akhbar. 11 April 2014
- ^ "An Interview with the Imprisoned Daughter of Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah". web.archive.org. 1 April 2016. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016.
- ^ Fatima Manji. "New footage emerges of 'trapped' Saudi princesses". Channel 4 News. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ Ishaan Tharoor (25 January 2015). "King Abdullah dead: The late Saudi monarch's 'jailed' princesses". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ a b c "Saudi King Abdullah has back surgery described as successful". The Washington Post. Riyadh. AP. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- ^ "Saudi prince returns as king readies for US treatment". BBC. 22 November 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- ^ "Saudi king has back surgery in New York". CNN. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
- ^ Peter S. Green (24 November 2010). "Saudi Arabia King Abdullah's NY Back Surgery Successful, Royal Court Says". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ "Saudi king Abdullah has 'successful operation'". BBC News. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
- ^ "Saudi Arabia's Oil Policy Vacancies". Washington Institute. 7 January 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ "Saudi King Arrives in Morocco After Treatment in US" Archived 22 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, New York Times, 22 January 2011
- ^ "Saudi King offers benefits as he returns from treatment". BBC News. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- ^ "SPA News". Saudi Press Agency. 27 August 2012. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- ^ "Saudi Arabia's King undergoes heart surgery in New York: Report". Press TV. 3 September 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- ^ "Saudi King Abdullah returns after month-long Morocco trip". The National. Riyadh. AFP. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- ^ "Saudi king health fears calmed after back operation". BBC. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- ^ Bakr, Amena (13 December 2012). "Saudi King Abdullah leaves hospital". Reuters. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- ^ Saudi King may die in 6 months Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine Press TV. 19 April 2014.
- ^ Saudi King, 90, Hospitalized; Pneumonia Is Diagnosed Archived 18 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times. 3 January 2015.
- ^ Douglas Martin; Ben Hubbard (22 January 2015). "King Abdullah, Who Nudged Saudi Arabia Forward, Dies at 90". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- ^ a b Lubna Hussain; F. Brinley Bruton (23 January 2015). "Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah Given Simple Muslim Burial". NBC News. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- ^ Andrew Sparrow (23 January 2015). "Whitehall's King Abdullah half-mast flag tribute criticised by MPs". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- ^ Mohammed Rasooldeen (5 January 2005). "Thank you, Crown Prince". Arab News. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- ^ "More countries offer aid to quake-hit China". Xinhua. 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
- ^ "Saudi's King Abdullah grants $10 Bn for new university fund". Financial Times. 19 May 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- ^ Sohail Choudhury (9 June 2012). "The philanthropist Saudi King". Blitz. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- ^ "The Muslims 500: The World's Most Influential Muslims". Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- ^ "Saudi King Abdullah named 7th most powerful figure in the world". Al Arabiya. 7 December 2012. Archived from the original on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ "King Juan Carlos of Spain dishonors the Order of the Golden Fleece". Traditionin Action. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- ^ Are Spanish media betting on King Juan Carlos again? Archived 7 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Corner. 1 February 2015
- ^ "King Abdullah receives UNESCO Gold Medal". Royal Embassy. 25 April 2012. Archived from the original on 31 August 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- ^ "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1982"(PDF). Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- ^ "Semakan Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan". Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- ^ "No. 3: King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz". Forbes. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- ^ a b "The stables of the king abdullah". Janadria Farm. Riyadh. 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- ^ "Metropolitan Emmanuel in Casablanca". The National Herald. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
Last edited on 15 April 2021, at 17:48
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.