: أبو القاسم الشابي
: Abū al-Qāsim al-Shābbī
; 24 February 1909 – 9 October 1934) was a Tunisian
poet. He is probably best known for writing the final two verses of the current National Anthem of Tunisia, Humat al-Hima
(Defenders of the Homeland
), which was originally written by the Egyptian
poet Mustafa Sadik el-Rafii
Echebbi was born in Tozeur
, Tunisia, on 24 February 1909, the son of a judge
. He obtained his attatoui
diploma (the equivalent of the baccalauréat
) in 1928. In 1930, he obtained a law diploma from the University of Ez-Zitouna
. The same year, he married and subsequently had two sons, Mohamed Sadok, who became a colonel
in the Tunisian army, and Jelal, who later became an engineer
He was very interested in modern literature
in particular, and translated romantic literature
, as well as old Arab literature
. His poetic talent manifested itself at an early age and this poetry covered numerous topics, from the description of nature to patriotism
. His poems appeared in the most prestigious Tunisian and Middle-Eastern reviews. His poem To the tyrants of the world
became a popular slogan chant during the 2011 Tunisian and subsequently Egyptian demonstrations.
Mausoleum of Abou El Kacem Chebbi
Echebbi died on 9 October 1934 at the Habib-Thameur Hospital in Tunis
following a long history of cardiac disorders. His portrait is on the current 10 DT
note. Echebbi was considered by later Egyptian literary critic Shawqi Daif
to be among the very finest Arabic poets of the modern era.
In late 2010 and 2011, Echebbi's poems became a source of inspiration for Arab protestors during the revolutions of the Arab Spring, which began with the Jasmine revolution
Since then, there has been a revived interest in his work and his biography.
Echabbi was buried in hometown Tozeur, Tunisia. His mausoleum
is opened for visitors where they can visit his tomb.
- Ilā Ṭuġāt al-Ɛālam (To the tyrants of the world),
- Aġānī al-Ḥayāt (canticles of the life),
- Muđakkarāt (Memories),
- Rasā'il (A collection of letters),
- Ṣadīqī (A collection of seminars given to the Alumni Association of the college; caused quite a lot of controversy among
conservative literary groups)
To the Tyrants of the World
.Hey you, the unfair tyrants... You the lovers of the darkness... You the enemies of life... You've made fun of innocent people's wounds; and your palm covered with their blood You kept walking while you were deforming the charm of existence and growing seeds of sadness in their land
Wait, don't let the spring, the clearness of the sky and the shine of the morning light fool you... Because the darkness, the thunder rumble and the blowing of the wind are coming toward you from the horizon Beware because there is a fire underneath the ash
Who grows thorns will reap wounds You've taken off heads of people and the flowers of hope; and watered the cure of the sand with blood and tears until it was drunk The blood's river will sweep you away and you will be burned by the fiery storm.
The Will To Live
If the people one day will to live then destiny must respond and the night must disappear and the chain must break. Those who never been cuddled by the passion of life will evaporate in its air and perish. So beware to those who don't desire life from a slap of the victorious nothingness! Thus told me the living organisms And what their concealed souls reported to me. And the winds banged between the crevices on top of the mountains and underneath the trees. If I have the ambition to achieve a goal I will climb up my desire and forget any precaution. I don't avoid the dangers of the routes or the blazing fireball. Those who don't like climbing the mountains will live forever in holes. So, the youth's blood has filled my heart, and other winds have roared in my chest. I pondered, listening to the rumble of thunder to the winds’ music and the rain's cadence. And the earth told me when I asked: “O Mother do you hate humans?” “I bless those who have ambitions and those who enjoy taking risks and I damn those who don’t flow with the times and those who are complacent about life, life between the stones. The universe is alive, loves life And pities the dead no matter how glorious. The horizon won’t embrace dead birds, and the bees won’t kiss dead flowers. Were it not for the motherhood of my adoring heart those holes wouldn’t have embraced the dead. Beware those who beware to those who don’t desire life from a slap of the victorious nothingness!” On one autumn night filled with sorrow and ennui I got drunk from the night's shining stars and I sang to sadness until it got drunk . I asked darkness: Will life come back to what the spring of life decays? But the darkness's lips didn't talk, nor did the virgins’ dawn croon. Then the forest told me in a lovely softness like the throbbing of strings. The winter comes, the foggy winter, the snowy winter, the rainy winter. Then extinguished will be the magic, the magic of the tree branches, the magic of the flowers and fruits, and the magic of the quiet, peaceful evening and the magic of the delicious and fragrant meadows. And the tree branches and leaves will fall and the flowers of a dear new succulent era. ... The sacred chanting of life rang in the dreamy enchanted temple, and declared in the universe that ambition is the flame of life and spirit of glory. So if the souls will to live, then destiny must answer.
Humat al-Hima (Defenders of the Homeland)
O defenders of the Homeland! Rally around to the glory of our time! The blood surges in our veins, We die for the sake of our land. Let the heavens roar with thunder Let thunderbolts rain with fire. Men and youth of Tunisia, Rise up for her might and glory. No place for traitors in Tunisia, Only for those who defend her! We live and die loyal to Tunisia, A life of dignity and a death of glory. As a nation we inherited Arms like granite towers. Holding aloft our proud flag flying, We boast of it, it boasts of us, Arms that achieve ambitions and glory, Sure to realize our hopes, Inflict defeat on foes, Offer peace to friends. When the people will to live, Destiny must surely respond. Oppression shall then vanish. Fetters are certain to break.
- ^ All Things Considered (2011-01-30). "Tunisian Poet's Verses Inspire Arab Protesters". NPR. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- ^ Journal of the Middle East, vols. 4-6. Cairo: Markaz Buḥūth al-Sharq al-Awsaṭ of Ain Shams University, 1979.
- ^ Mohamed-Salah Omri, Tunisia's revolution of dignity and freedom cannot be colour-coded, Academia.edu
- ^ Mohamed-Salah Omri, al Shabbi, Abu al Qasim, Academia.edu
- ^ Tunisian National Anthem on NationalAntems.info
Last edited on 28 March 2021, at 15:22
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