Ismāʿīl b. ʿAlī b. Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Shāhanshāh b. Ayyūb b. Shādī b. Marwān
: إسماعيل بن علي بن محمود بن محمد بن عمر بن شاهنشاه بن أيوب بن شادي بن مروان
), better known as Abū al-Fidāʾ
: أبو الفداء
, Latinized Abulfeda
; November 1273 – 27 October, 1331),
was a Mamluk era Kurdish
geographer, historian, Ayyubid
prince and local governor of Hama
إسماعيل بن علي بن محمود بن محمد بن عمر بن شاهنشاه بن أيوب بن شادي بن مروانNovember 1273Damascus
27 October 1331 (aged 57)Hama
In his boyhood he devoted himself to the study of the Qur'an
and the sciences, but from his twelfth year onward, he was almost constantly engaged in military expeditions, chiefly against the crusaders
In 1285 he was present at the assault of a stronghold of the Knights of St. John
, and took part in the sieges of Tripoli
and Qal'at ar-Rum
. In 1298 he entered the service of the Mamluk Sultan Malik al-Nasir
and after twelve years was invested by him with the governorship of Hama
. In 1312 he became prince with the title Malik us-Salhn
, and in 1320 received the hereditary rank of sultan with the title Malik ul-Mu'ayyad
For over twenty years he reigned in tranquillity and splendour, devoting himself to the duties of government and to the composition of the works to which he is chiefly indebted for his fame. He was a munificent patron of men of letters, who came in large numbers to his court. He died in 1331.
("A Sketch of the Countries") is, like much of the history, founded on the works of his predecessors, including the works of Ptolemy
and Muhammad al-Idrisi
. A long introduction on various geographical matters is followed by twenty-eight sections dealing in tabular form with the chief towns of the world. After each name are given the longitude, latitude, climate, spelling, and then observations generally taken from earlier authors. Parts of the work were published and translated as early as 1650 in Europe
In his works Abu'l-Fida correctly mentions the latitude and longitude of the city of Quanzhou
The book also contains the first known explanation of the circumnavigator's paradox. Abu'l-Fida wrote that a person who completed a westward circumnavigation
of the world would count one fewer day than a stationary observer, since he was traveling in the same direction as the apparent motion of the sun in the sky. A person traveling eastward would count one more day than a stationary observer.
This phenomenon was confirmed two centuries later, when the Magellan–Elcano expedition
(1519–1522) completed the first circumnavigation. After sailing westward around the world from Spain, the expedition called at Cape Verde
for supplies on Wednesday, 9 July 1522 (ship's time). However, the locals told them that it was actually Thursday, 10 July 1522.
His Concise History of Humanity
: المختصر في أخبار البشر
Tarikh al-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar
, also An Abridgment of the History at the Human Race
, or History of Abu al-Fida
تاريخ أبى الفداء) was written between 1315 and 1329 as a continuation of The Complete History
by Ali ibn al-Athir
(c. 1231). It is in the form of annals
extending from the creation of the world to the year 1329.
- ^ Encyclopaedia Islamica.
- ^ Gibbs (1986), p. 119
- ^ Field, Henry (1939). Field Museum of Natural History. 29. Field Museum of Natural History of Chicago. p. 79. ISBN 9785873406647.
- ^ Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, (edited by) Helaine Selin, pp. 7–8, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1997 Identifiants et Référentiels Sudoc Pour L'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche – Abū al-Fidā (1273–1331) (in French)
- ^ Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 5
- ^ Jett, Stephen C. (2017). Ancient Ocean Crossings: Reconsidering the Case for Contacts with the Pre-Columbian Americas. University of Alabama Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780817319397.The Kurds: A Concise Handbook, p. 45, at Google Books
- ^ a b c d One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abulfeda". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 80.
- ^ The Travels of Ibn Batūta: With Notes, Illustrative of the History, p. 211, at Google Books
- ^ Gunn, Geoffrey C. Overcoming Ptolemy: The Revelation of an Asian World Region. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. p. 47–48. ISBN 9781498590143.
- ^ Winfree, Arthur T. (2001). The Geometry of Biological Time (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4757-3484-3.
- ^ Helaine Selin, Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures (1997), p. 7.
- ^ Henricus Orthobius Fleischer, Abulfedae historia anteislamica, arabice: E duobus codicibus bibliothecae regiae Parisiensis, 101 et 615, F.C.W.Vogel (1831).
- Gibb, H. A. R. (1986). "Abu'l Fidā". The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume 1: A-B. Leiden: Brill. pp. 118–119.
- Studies on Abul-Fida' al-Ḥamawi (1273–1331 A.D.) by Farid Ibn Faghül, Carl Ehrig-Eggert, E. Neubauer. Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science (Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften) at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1992.
- Encyclopedie de l'Islam, 2nd ed. E.J. Brill, Leiden and G.P. Maisonneuve, Paris, 1960. (in French)
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