Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators.[1][2]
Academic Ranking of World Universities
CategoriesHigher education
PublisherShanghai Ranking Consultancy (2009–present)
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2003–2008)
LanguageTen languages including English & Chinese
Since 2009, ARWU has been published and copyrighted annually by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, an organization focusing on higher education that is not legally subordinated to any universities or government agencies.[3] In 2011, a board of international advisory consisting of scholars and policy researchers was established to provide suggestions.[4][5] The publication currently includes global league tables for institutions and a whole and for a selection of individual subjects, alongside independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking.
ARWU is regarded as one of the three most influential and widely observed university rankings, alongside QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings​.​[6]​[7]​[8]​[9]​[10]​[11]​[12] It has received positive feedback for its objectivity and methodology,[10][11][12] but draws wide criticism as it fails to adjust for the size of the institution, and thus larger institutions tend to rank above smaller ones.[9][13][14]
Global rankings
ARWU methodology[15]
Quality of educationAlumni as Nobel laureates & Fields MedalistsAlumni10%Official websites of Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists[Note 1]
Quality of facultyStaff as Nobel Laureates & Fields MedalistsAward20%Official websites of Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists[Note 1]
Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categoriesHiCi20%Thomson Reuters' survey of highly cited researchers[Note 1]
Research outputPapers published in Nature and Science[* 1]N&S20%Citation index
Papers indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded and Social Science Citation IndexPUB20%
Per capita performancePer capita academic performance of an institutionPCP10%-
^ Not applicable to institutions specialized in humanities and social sciences whose N&S scores are relocated to other indicators.
A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities."[16] In 2010, The Chronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities".[17] EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31 December 2003: "The universities were carefully evaluated using several indicators of research performance."​[18]​University of Oxford Chancellor Chris Patten has said "the methodology looks fairly solid ... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison."[19] Former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University Ian Chubb has said "The SJTU rankings were reported quickly and widely around the world... (and they) offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation."[citation needed] Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's 'consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency' as significant strengths.[20] While ARWU has originated in China, the ranking have been praised for being unbiased towards Asian institutions, especially Chinese institutions.[21]
The ranking has been criticised for "relying too much on award factors" thus undermining the importance of quality of instruction and humanities.[9][22][23][24] A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng.[25] A 2013 paper in the same journal finally showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced.[26] In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyse how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Their main conclusions are that the criteria used are not relevant; that the aggregation methodology has a number of major problems; and that insufficient attention has been paid to fundamental choices of criteria.[27] The ARWU researchers themselves, N.C. Liu and Y. Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be precisely measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial. They suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood clearly before reporting or using the results. ARWU has been criticised by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour[ing] Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions". For instance, ARWU is repeatedly criticised in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic system[28][29] and the unreasonable weight given to research often performed decades ago.[30] It is also criticised in France for its use as a motivation for merging universities into larger ones.[31] Indeed, a further criticism has been that the metrics used are not independent of university size, e.g. number of publications or award winners will mechanically add as universities are grouped, independently of research (or teaching) quality; thus a merger between two equally-ranked institutions will significantly increase the merged institutions’ score and give it a higher ranking, without any change in quality.[14]
Academic Ranking of World Universities, 2003-2018, Top ten
Academic Ranking of World Universities (500) – Top 50[32][Note 2]
Harvard University111111111111111111
Stanford University223322232222222222
University of Cambridge532244455555543333
Massachusetts Institute of Technology655555543343354444
University of California, Berkeley444433324434435555
Princeton University778888877776666666
Columbia University1097777788888898887
California Institute of Technology366666666667789998
University of Oxford9810101010101010101091077779
University of Chicago1110989999999991010101010
Yale University81111111111111111111111111111121111
Cornell University121212121212121213131313131314121312
University of California, Los Angeles151614141313131312121212121212111113
Paris-Saclay University
Johns Hopkins University242219201920191818171717161618181615
University of Washington162017171616161616161615151513141416
University College London202526262522212120212120181716171516
University of California, San Diego141313131414141415151414141415151818
University of Pennsylvania181515151515151514141516171817161719
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
University of California, San Francisco131718181818181817181818182121212021
University of Michigan211921212121222222222322222324272022
University of Toronto232424242324272726272824252723232423
Washington University in St. Louis222828282829293031313232322320202223
Imperial College London172323232327262624242422232227242325
University of Tokyo
Duke University323132313232313535363131312526262827
New York University553229293031323129272727272929323027
Tsinghua University
Northwestern University293031332930302930303028272622252930
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill525655595838394142414336393533303330
University of Wisconsin–Madison271816161717171719191924242828282732
University of Copenhagen
Kyoto University
University of Melbourne928282787973756260575444444039384135
PSL University
University of Manchester897853504840414438404138413538343336
University of British Columbia353637363635363637394037403431433538
Sorbonne University
University of Minnesota373332323328282828292930303334374140
University of Texas at Austin474036393839383835353639374451404541
University of Edinburgh434747525355535453515145474132323142
Rockefeller University282930303032323433323433333736303543
University of Colorado Boulder313435343434343232333334343843383844
Karolinska Institute394645485351504244424447484444443845
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign452525252626252525252528293037413845
King's College London757780838381656368686759555046565147
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas343638383941484951484645444348484948
Peking University
University of California, Santa Barbara263534353536353233343541384245464849
As it may take much time for rising universities to produce Nobel laureates and Fields Medalists with numbers comparable to those of older institutions, the Institute created alternative rankings excluding such award factors so as to provide another way of comparisons of academic performance. The weighting of all the other factors remains unchanged, thus the grand total of 70%.
Alternative Rankings (500) – Top 10[Note 2]
Harvard University11
Stanford University22
Massachusetts Institute of Technology43
University of California, Berkeley34
California Institute of Technology55
University of Oxford66
University of Cambridge87
University of California, San Diego78
University of Washington109
Yale University910
There are two categories in ARWU's disciplinary rankings, broad subject fields and specific subjects. The methodology is similar to that adopted in the overall table, including award factors, paper citation, and the number of highly cited scholars.
Natural Sciences [35]EngineeringLife SciencesMedical SciencesSocial Sciences
Atmospheric ScienceAerospace EngineeringAgricultural SciencesClinical MedicineBusiness Administration
ChemistryAutomation & ControlBiological SciencesDentistry & Oral SciencesCommunication
Earth SciencesBiomedical EngineeringHuman Biological SciencesMedical TechnologyEconomics
EcologyBiotechnologyVeterinary SciencesNursingEducation
GeographyChemical EngineeringPharmacy & Pharmaceutical SciencesFinance
MathematicsCivil EngineeringPublic HealthHospitality & Tourism Management
OceanographyComputer Science & EngineeringLaw
PhysicsElectrical & Electronic EngineeringLibrary & Information Science
Energy Science & EngineeringManagement
Environmental Science & EngineeringPolitical Sciences
Food Science & TechnologyPsychology
Instruments Science & TechnologyPublic Administration
Marine/Ocean EngineeringSociology
Materials Science & EngineeringStatistics
Mechanical Engineering
Metallurgical Engineering
Mining & Mineral Engineering
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
Remote Sensing
Telecommunication Engineering
Transportation Science & Technology
Water Resources
Regional rankings
Considering the development of specific areas, two independent regional league tables with different methodologies were launched - Ranking of Top Universities in Greater China and Best Chinese Universities Ranking.
Mainland China
Mainland China Rankings (582) – Top 10[Note 2]
Tsinghua University
Peking University
Zhejiang University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Nanjing University
Fudan University
University of Science and Technology of China
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Wuhan University
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Greater China
Methodology of Greater China Rankings[37][Note 2]
EducationPercentage of graduate students5%
Percentage of non-local students5%
Ratio of academic staff to students5%
Doctoral degrees awarded10%
Alumni as Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists10%
ResearchAnnual research income5%
Nature & Science Papers10%
SCIE & SSCI papers10%
International patents10%
FacultyPercentage of academic staff with a doctoral degree5%
Staff as Nobel Laureates and Fields Medalists10%
Highly cited researchers10%
ResourcesAnnual budget5%
Greater China Rankings (100) – Top 10[Note 2]
Tsinghua University
Peking University
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Zhejiang University
University of Science and Technology of China
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Fudan University
The University of Hong Kong
City University of Hong Kong
National Tsing Hua University
  1. ^ a b c Official datum sources adopted by ARWU: Nobel Laureate Web, Fields Medalist Web, Thomson Reuters' survey of highly cited researchers & Thomson Reuters' Web of Science.
  2. ^ a b c d e Order shown in accordance with the latest result.
  1. ^ Pavel, Adina-Petruta (2015). "Global university rankings - a comparative analysis". Procedia Economics and Finance. 26: 54–63. doi​:​10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00838-2​.
  2. ^ "World university rankings: how much influence do they really have?". The Guardian. 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2015. The first international rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities or Shanghai Rankings
  3. ^ "About Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014. Since 2009 the Academic Ranking of World Universities has been published and copyrighted by ShanghaiRanking Consultancy.
  4. ^ "Shanghai rankings rattle European universities". ABS-CBN Interactive. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2015. France's higher education minister travelled to Jiaotong University's suburban campus last month to discuss the rankings, the Norwegian education minister came last year and the Danish minister is due to visit next month.; The idea for the rankings was born in 1998, when Beijing decreed China needed several world-leading universities.
  5. ^ "ARWU International Advisory Board". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  6. ^ Network, QS Asia News (2018-03-02). "The history and development of higher education ranking systems - QS WOWNEWS". QS WOWNEWS. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  7. ^ "About Academic Ranking of World Universities | About ARWU". www.shanghairanking.com​. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  8. ^ Ariel Zirulnick (2010-09-16). "New world university ranking puts Harvard back on top". Christian Science Monitor. Those two, as well as Shanghai Jiao Tong University, produce the most influential international university rankings out there
  9. ^ a b c Indira Samarasekera & Carl Amrhein. "Top schools don't always get top marks". The Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on October 3, 2010. There are currently three major international rankings that receive widespread commentary: The Academic World Ranking of Universities, the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education Rankings.
  10. ^ a b Philip G. Altbach (11 November 2010). "The State of the Rankings". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 27 January 2015. The major international rankings have appeared in recent months — the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings, and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE).
  11. ^ a b "Strength and weakness of varsity rankings". NST Online. 2016-09-14. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  12. ^ a b Marszal, Andrew (2012-10-04). "University rankings: which world university rankings should we trust?". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  13. ^ ""Shanghai Academic Ranking: a French Controversy" by Marc Goetzmann, for La Jeune Politique". Lajeunepolitique.com. 29 August 2013. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  14. ^ a b Bahram Bekhradnia (15 December 2016). "International university rankings: For good or ill?" (PDF). Higher Education Policy Institute. p. 16. Retrieved 10 June 2017. ARWU presents a further data issue. Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are adjusted to take account of the size of institutions, hardly any such adjustment is made by ARWU. So there is a distortion in favour of large institutions. If two institutions were to merge, the very fact of merger would mean that the merged institution would do nearly twice as well as either of the individual institutions prior to merger, although nothing else had changed.
  15. ^ "ARWU – Methodology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  16. ^ "A world of opportunity". The Economics. 8 September 2005. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2015. It is no accident that the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities, the Shanghai index, is produced by a Chinese university.
  17. ^ "International Group Announces Audit of University Rankings". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2015. Shanghai Jiao Tong University, which produces the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities...
  18. ^ "Chinese study ranks world's top 500 universities". European Research Headlines. 2003. Archived from the original on 2015-01-09. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  19. ^ Rankings and Accountability in Higher Education: Uses and Misuses. United Nations Educational. 2013. p. 26. ISBN 9789230011567. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  20. ^ Philip G. Altbach (11 September 2010). "The State of the Rankings". INSIDE HIGHER ED. Retrieved 30 January 2015. Nonetheless, AWRU's consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency are significant advantages.
  21. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2013 released". Times Higher Education (THE). 2013-08-15. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
  22. ^ Marszal, Andrew (2015). "University rankings: which world university rankings should we trust?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 27 January 2015. It is a remarkably stable list, relying on long-term factors such as the number of Nobel Prize-winners a university has produced, and number of articles published in Nature and Science journals. But with this narrow focus comes drawbacks. China's priority was for its universities to 'catch up' on hard scientific research. So if you're looking for raw research power, it's the list for you. If you're a humanities student, or more interested in teaching quality? Not so much.
  23. ^ J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry (1994). "Business School Prestige: Research versus Teaching" (PDF). Energy & Environment. 18 (2): 13–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-20.
  24. ^ "1741-7015-5-30.fm" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2014.
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  26. ^ Domingo Docampo (1 July 2012). "Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". Scientometrics. 94 (2): 567–587. doi​:​10.1007/s11192-012-0801-y​. S2CID 938534.
  27. ^ Jean-Charles Billaut, Denis Bouyssou & Philippe Vincke. "Should you believe in the Shanghai ranking?". CCSD. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  28. ^ ""Shanghai Academic Ranking: a French Controversy" by Marc Goetzmann, for La Jeune Politique". Lajeunepolitique.com. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  29. ^ Spongenberg, Helena (5 June 2014). "EUobserver / EU to test new university ranking in 2010". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  30. ^ Dagorn, Gary (16 August 2016). "Universités : pourquoi le classement de Shanghaï n'est pas un exercice sérieux". Le Monde.fr (in French). lemonde.fr. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  31. ^ Gérand, Christelle (September 2016). "Aix-Marseille, laboratoire de la fusion des universités" (in French). www.monde-diplomatique.fr​. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  32. ^ "ARWU World University Rankings 2019 | Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019 | Top 1000 universities | Shanghai Ranking - 2019". www.shanghairanking.com​. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  33. ^ "Alternative Ranking 2014 ( Excluding Award Factor ) ( Excluding Award Factor )". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  34. ^ "Alternative Ranking 2015 ( Excluding Award Factor )". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  35. ^ "Global Rankings of Academic Subjects 2020". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  36. ^ "中国大学排名". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2021. Archived from the original on 2021-04-28. Retrieved 2021-06-10.
  37. ^ "Greater China Ranking – Methodology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  38. ^ "Ranking of Top Universities in Greater China - 2019". www.shanghairanking.com​. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  39. ^ "Ranking of Top Universities in Greater China - 2020". www.shanghairanking.com​. Retrieved 2021-06-11.
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Last edited on 11 June 2021, at 02:29
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