African dance - Wikipedia
African dance
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The term African dance refers mainly to the numerous dance styles of Sub-Saharan Africa. These dances must be viewed in close connection with the traditional rhythms and music traditions of the region. Music and dancing is an integral part of many traditional African societies. Songs and dances facilitate teaching and promoting social values, celebrating special events and major life milestones, performing oral history and other recitations, and spiritual experiences.[1] African dance utilizes the concepts of polyrhythm and total body articulation.[2] African dances are a collective activity performed in large groups, with significant interaction between dancers and onlookers in the majority of styles.[3]
Members from the Kankouran West African Dance Company perform during a ceremony in the Rose Garden, White House in 2007
Characteristics
Female dancer at a party in Canjambari, Guinea-Bissau, 1974
Traditional dance in Africa occurs collectively, expressing the values and desires of the community more than that of individuals or couples. Although dances may appear spontaneous, they are usually strictly choreographed. Improvisation is limited as it places the focus on the individual over the group.[4] Early outsider commentaries noted the absence of the kind of close couple dancing popular in Europe and North America: such dancing was thought to be immoral or in poor taste in many traditional African societies.[5][6] Among the Yoruba, to give a specific example, touching while dancing is rare except in special circumstances.[7] The only African country whose traditional dances involve partners is Cameroon.
Dances are usually segregated by sex, where gender roles in children and other community structures such as kinship, age, and political status are often reinforced.[8] Many dances are divided by gender, as a result of associations with gender-divided labor, as well as cultural beliefs about gender roles and gender expressions.[9] Dances celebrate the passage from childhood to adulthood or spiritual worship.[10] Among the Lunda people of Zambia, for example, young girls remain in seclusion for months to practice the dance for their coming of age ritual.[8]
In traditional African societies, children begin to learn their traditional songs, rhythms, and dances from the moment of birth, starting with the lullabies sung by their mothers.[11] While carried on their mother's backs during day-to-day work and social events, they are exposed to the music their mothers sing or listen to. Thomas Edward Bodwich, an early European observer, noted that "children will move their heads and limbs, while on their mother's backs, in exact unison with the tune which is playing."[12] Many traditional African children's games, particularly in western and central Africa, include elements that promote the child's ability to understand rhythms.[11] When children are old enough to attempt the dance moves, they imitate accomplished older dancers until they can replicate the dances precisely. They are only permitted to improvise when they have mastered the prescribed choreography.[13]
An African woman, wearing native garments, performs during a visit from participants in the West Africa Training Cruise 1983.
Musical accompaniment for African dances is highly varied. Most dances make use of the human voice in the form of singing, shouting, recitations, grunts, whispering, and other vocalizations.[14] Many groups use drums/ In an African community, coming together in response to the beating of the drum is an opportunity to give one another a sense of belonging and of solidarity, a time to connect with each other and be part of a collective rhythm of the life in which young and old, rich and poor, men and women are all invited to contribute to the society.[15] On the other hand, nomadic groups such as the Maasai do not traditionally use drums.[15]
Many African dances are polyrhythmic, that is, they utilize two or more conflicting rhythms simultaneously. Dancers may synchronize the movements of different body parts to different rhythms, or alternate fluidly between rhythms.[16] Dancers in Nigeria, for example, commonly combine at least two rhythms in their movement, or three if they are particularly talented. Any more than that is a rare feat.[6] They may also add rhythmic components independent of those in the music. Very complex movements are possible even though the body does not move through space.[17]
Dance historian Jacqui Malone describes how different groups use body parts in distinct ways: "The Anlo-Ewe and Lobi of Ghana emphasize the upper body, while the Kalabari of Nigeria give a subtle accent to the hips. The Akan of Ghana use the feet and hands in specific ways. Strong contraction-release movements of the pelvis and upper torso characterize both male and female dancing in Agbor."[18]
Notable dances
Specific notable African dances, divided by region, include:
Eastern Africa
Traditional Maasai jumping dance
Adumu: a Maasai jumping dance performed during the warriors' coming of age ceremony. A circle is formed by the warriors, and one or two at a time will enter the center to begin jumping. Members of the group may raise the pitch of their voices based on the height of the jump.[19]
Southern Africa
Mohobelo (Striding Dance)
Umteyo (Shaking Dance)
Western Africa
Dancers in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria
DancePurposeCountry / Tribe of Origin
AdowaGhana / Ashanti
AgbajaGhana / Ewe
AgwaraCourtshipUganda / Alur
AkogoCourtshipUganda / Iteso
AmaggunjuUganda / Buganda
Ambas-i-bayCelebrationCameroon
BakisiimbaCelebrationUganda / Buganda
BikutsiCelebrationCameroon
BwolaCelebrationUganda / Acholi
Coupé-DécaléCelebrationCôte d'Ivoire
Ding DingUganda / Acholi
EkitaguriroUganda / Banyankole
EkizinoCourtshipUganda / Bakiga
EntogGazeUganda / Lugbara
EntogoroGazeUganda / Banyoro, Batooro
GombeyHarvestSenegal
KeteGhana/ Ashanti
KakilambeFertility ritualGuinea or Mali / Baga people
Kwassa kwassaCelebrationCongo (DRC)
LambanCelebrationGuinea, Senegal, Mali
LarakarakaCourtshipUganda / Acholi
MakossaCelebrationCameroon
MapoukaCeremonialCôte d'Ivoire
MwagaCourtshipUganda / Bagisu
Ndombolo (Soukous)CourtshipCongo (DRC)
OwaroUganda / Samia-Bugwe
RunyegeCelebration / CourtshipUganda / Banyoro, Batooro
SabarCelebrationSenegal/ Wolof people
SunuWeddingGuinea, Mali / Mandinka
TamenaibugaFriendshipUganda / Basoga
UkusinaRite of passageSouth Africa
ZouglouCelebrationCôte d'Ivoire

Dance in the African diaspora
Main article: African-American dance
See also
References
  1. ^ Malone 1996, p. 9.
  2. ^ Welsh-Asante 2009, p. 28.
  3. ^ Welsh-Asante 2009, p. 35.
  4. ^ [1] Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Julie Malnig (ed.), Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake. A Social and Popular Dance Reader, p. 132. ISBN 978-0-252-03363-6; ISBN 978-0-252-07565-0
  6. ^ a b Malone 1996, p. 16.
  7. ^ Omofolabo S. Ajayi, Yoruba Dance – The Semiotics of Movement and Body Attitude in a Nigerian Culture, Africa World Press, 1998, p. 34. ISBN 0-86543-563-4 ISBN 0-86543-563-4
  8. ^ a b Henry Louis Gates, Anthony Appiah (eds), Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Basic Civitas Books, 1999, p. 556. ISBN 0465000711
  9. ^ Welsh-Asante 2009, pp. 16, 23, 33–34.
  10. ^ Welsh-Asante 2009, pp. 19, 21.
  11. ^ a b Malone 1996, p. 21.
  12. ^ Eileen Southern, The Music of Black Americans: A History, W. W. Norton & Company, 1997, p. 22. ISBN 0-393-02156-4
  13. ^ Welsh-Asante 2000, p. 60.
  14. ^ Malone 1996, p. 17.
  15. ^ a b Sebastian Bakare, The Drumbeat of Life, Geneva, Switzerland: WCC Publications, 1997.
  16. ^ Welsh-Asante 2009, p. 34.
  17. ^ [2] Archived December 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Malone 1996, p. 13.
  19. ^ "dfltweb1.onamae.com – このドメインはお名前.comで取得されています。"​. Laleyio.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-02. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
  20. ^ Tracey 1952, p. 4.
  21. ^ Welsh-Asante 2000, pp. 46, 56.
  22. ^ Tracey 1952, p. 11.
  23. ^ Welsh-Asante 2000, p. 74.
  24. ^ Tracey 1952, pp. 9–10.
  25. ^ Collins, John (1996). Highlife Time. Anansesem Publications.
  26. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2016-08-08). The Encyclopedia of World Folk Dance. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-5749-8.
  27. ^ Kennedy, Scott (1973). In Search of African Theatre. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-13044-6.
  28. ^ a b Keïta 1999, p. 50.
  29. ^ Abiola, Ofosuwa M. (2018-11-16). History Dances: Chronicling the History of Traditional Mandinka Dance. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-76784-5.
  30. ^ Doumbia, Adama; Doumbia, Naomi (2004). The Way of the Elders: West African Spirituality & Tradition. Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 978-0-7387-0626-9.
Bibliography
Further reading
External links
Last edited on 27 May 2021, at 15:29
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