: أَكْرَم الْحَوْرَانِي
: ʾAkram al-Ḥawrānī
, also transcribedEl-Hourani
) (1912 – 24 February 1996), was a Syrian politician
who played a prominent role in the formation of a widespread populist, nationalist
movement in Syria and in the rise of the Ba'ath Party
. He was highly influential in Syrian politics from the beginning of the 1940s until his departure into exile in 1963. Al-Hourani held various positions including a government ministry and the joint vice-presidency of the United Arab Republic
. He is the grandfather of Akram Al-Hourani (born 1983), a lecturer and researcher in wireless network engineering and signal processing at RMIT University
The original header of Al-Hourani family tree, dated in 1519. The tree claims Al-Hourani family as descendant of the prophet Muhammad
. It is now displayed in the museum of Hama
Al-Hourani's family had its origins in the Arab
al-Halqiyyin tribe and moved to Hama
in central Syria
from the town of Jasim
in the southern Hawran
region (hence the surname Al-Hourani
Al-Hourani family is claimed to be descendant of the prophet Muhammad
as per the family tree displayed in the museum of Hama
. Akram Al-Hourani himself was born in Hama and grew up in modest circumstances as the family's wealth had dissipated. He was educated in Hama and Damascus
In 1936, he enrolled in the Damascus Law School, and became a member of the Syrian Social National Party
. In 1938 he left the party and returned to Hama to practice law. There he took over the Hizb al-Shabab
(Youth Party) founded by a cousin.
The province of Hama in the earlier part of the twentieth century was characterised by feudalism
, with landlords owning most of the land. The landlords exercised complete control over the peasantry, backed up by what amounted to private armies
. Al-Hourani set about attacking this system and called for agrarian reforms, giving him considerable popular support in Hama and its province, and in 1943 he was elected as a deputy to the Syrian Parliament
. He retained his seat in the elections of 1947, 1949, 1954, and 1962.
A reconstructed digital copy of Al-Hourani family tree, the original document is dated back to 1519 and displayed in Hama museum.
Closer to power
In 1950 Al-Hourani renamed his party the Arab Socialist Party
; at that point, Batatu states, "it counted no fewer than 10,000 members and was able to attract as many as 40,000 people from the countryside when in the same year it convoked at Aleppo
the first peasant congress in Syrian history."
Between 1949 and 1954 Syrian politics was punctuated by four military coups. Based on his strong influence in the army, Al-Hourani was considered to have played a part in these coups, however there is no concrete evidence to support that. He was initially particularly close to the leader of the third and fourth coups, Adib al-Shishakli
, who effectively ruled Syria from 1951 until 1954. Al-Shishakli's decision to sign a decree distributing state lands to the peasantry in January 1952 appears to have been under al-Hawrani's influence.
However, as the dictator grew more autocratic his influence waned, and when al-Shishakli decided to ban the Arab Socialist Party in April 1952, he went into exile in Lebanon
. There, in November that year, he agreed to merge the Arab Socialist Party with the Arab Ba'ath Party
led by Michel Aflaq
and Salah al-Din al-Bitar
. The latter thus gained a substantial base of active supporters for the first time. The unified party adopted the name Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party
. It was disbanded, along with all Syrian political parties by president Nasser in 1958. The relation between Al-Hourani and Aflaq ended acrimoniously in 1962.
The Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party Al-Hourani was a member of the Ba'ath Party
national command, meaning its pan-Arab
leadership, from its establishment in 1954 until 1959. Along with the other Ba'athists and members of most of Syria's political forces, he played a prominent role in the agitation and political mobilization that forced al-Shishakli to give up power in early 1954. He was speaker
of the Syrian parliament from 1957 to February 1958. In that position, Al-Hourani was able to influence the introduction of social and economical progressive reforms.[better source needed]
Akram Al-Hourani (speaker of the Syrian parliament)
The United Arab Republic
After the treaty of union between Syria and Egypt in 1958 Al-Hourani became Vice-President of the United Arab Republic
(UAR) under Gamal Abdel Nasser
, a post he held until 1959. After Nasser launched a bitter verbal attack on the Ba'ath Party in December that year, followed by a campaign of repression against its members, he resigned his position and went into exile in Lebanon
. He subsequently differed with Aflaq and al-Bitar over the party's position regarding the UAR, due to his support for secession from the UAR.
When a 1961 military coup in Syria led to the dissolution of the UAR, Al-Hourani publicly supported it and signed a statement in favor of the secession (as did Bitar, but he later withdrew his signature). The Ba'ath Party split into several competing factions, but as the national command decided in favour of reunification, Al-Hourani left it. He was officially expelled in June 1962, whereafter he and his loyalists re-established the Arab Socialist Party. However, popular support for unity hampered its growth and it was strong only in his original stronghold of Hama.
In September 1962 he joined the "secessionist" (infisali
) cabinet formed by Khalid al-Azm
, drawing strong criticism from the Ba'athist and Nasserist movements.
Death Akam alhorani died in his house in old Damascus Syria
- ^ Batatu, 1999, p. 370.
- ^ This section is based on the account of Hawrani's origins and early political career given by Batatu, pp. 728-729.
- ^ Batatu, p. 729.
- ^ Seale, p. 47.
- ^ Al-Hourani, Akram (2000). Akram Al-Hourani Memoirs. Cairo: Madbouly Bookshop.
- Batatu, Hanna, The Old Social Classes and New Revolutionary Movements in Iraq, Saqi Books, London, 2000
- Seale, Patrick, Asad: the struggle for the Middle East, California University Press, Berkeley, 1990. ISBN 0-520-06976-5
- Mufti, Malik, Sovereign Creations: Pan-Arabism and Political Order in Syria and Iraq, Cornell University Press: Ithaca, 1996. ISBN 0-8014-3168-9
- "Akram al-Hawrani", from the Syrian Encyclopedia
- Al-Hournai, Akram, "Akram Al-Hourani Memoirs", Madbouly Bookshop, 2000
Last edited on 14 March 2021, at 09:23
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