Algeciras’s site was also that of Roman cities called Portus Albus
("White Harbor"), Caetaria
(current Getares) and Iulia Traducta
. In the later "Byzantine" period
, the site would come to be known in Greek as "Mesopotamenoi", meaning "between rivers/canals"; the later invading Arabs translated it to "al-Djazirat". "Al-Djazirat" gave the modern Spanish "Algeciras".
The area of the city has been populated since prehistory, and the earliest remains belong to Neanderthal
populations from the Paleolithic
Due to its strategic position it was an important port under the Phoenicians
, and was the site of the relevant Roman port of Portus Albus
("White Port"), with two nearby cities called Caetaria
(most likely Iberians
) and Iulia Traducta
, founded by the Romans
Roman coin referencing ivlia tradvcta
Recently it has been proposed that the site of Iulia Transducta
was the Villa Vieja
In the year 859 AD Viking troops on board 62 drekars
and commanded by the leaders Hastein
and Björn Ironside
besieged the city for three days and subsequently laid waste to much of it. After looting the houses of the rich, they burnt the Aljama mosque and the Banderas mosque. Reorganized near the medina, the inhabitants managed to recover the city and make the invaders run away, capturing two boats.
It enjoyed a brief period of independence as a taifa
state from 1035 to 1058. It was named al-Jazirah al-Khadra'
("Green Island") after the offshore Isla Verde
; the modern name is derived from this original Arabic
name (compare also Algiers
and Al Jazeera
). In 1055 Emir Al-Mutadid of Seville drove the Berbers from Algeciras, claiming it for Arabs.
Vowing to counter the Castilian expansion initiated by 1265, Nasrid Granada
required assistance from Fez in late 1274 and ceded the place of Algeciras (together with Tarifa) to the Marinids
The Marinid grip over the town further increased in the ensuing decades, and the place turned into a Marinid stronghold from which razzias
were launched into the still incipient Christian settlements in the Lower Guadalquivir and the Guadalete area.
In July 1309 Ferdinand IV of Castile
laid siege to Algeciras
as well as Gibraltar
The latter fell into Christian hands, but Muslim Algeciras held on for the following three decades, until Alfonso XI
resumed its siege. Juan Núñez de Lara
, Juan Manuel
, Pedro Fernández de Castro
, Juan Alfonso de la Cerda
, lord of Gibraleón
all participated in the siege, as did knights from France, England and Germany, and even King Philip III of Navarre
, king consort of Navarra, who came accompanied by 100 horsemen and 300 infantry. In March 1344, after several years of siege, Algeciras surrendered.
On winning the city, Alfonso XI made it the seat of a new diocese
, established by Pope Clement VI
's bull Gaudemus et exultamus
of 30 April 1344, and entrusted to the governance of the bishop of Cadiz
The bishops of Cadiz continued to hold the title of Aliezira, as it called, until 1851, when in accordance with a concordat
between Spain and the Holy See its territory was incorporated into the diocese of Cadiz. No longer a residential bishopric, Aliezira is today listed by the Catholic Church
as a titular see
Left relatively unguarded during the Castilian Civil War
, the town was easily seized in 1369 by the Nasrids from Granada with assistance from a Marinid fleet.
It was destroyed on the orders of Muhammed V
While tradition asserts that it was tore down immediately after the 1369 occupation, the Nasrid scorched-earth policy
has been also dated to 1375, once Granadan repopulation efforts should have failed.
The garrison was thus relocated to Gibraltar, with a worse port but more easily defensible, in Nasrid control after the Marinid retreat from the Iberian Peninsula.
While the jurisdiction was ceded to Gibraltar in 1462 after the Castilian conquest of the latter place, there are hints about the continued existence of informal settlements by farmers and sepherds in the area, at least after 1466.
Illustration drawn circa 1716 depicting the ruins of Algeciras.
Algeciras was refounded after 1704 by refugees from Gibraltar following the territory's capture by Anglo-Dutch forces in the War of the Spanish Succession
. As early as 1705, the place was described as "...a heap of stones,...only a few hovels scattered here and there, amidst an infinity of ruins".
The sense of temporariness among the displaced population and the hopes for a return to Gibraltar were shattered by the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht.
Besides Gibraltarians, throughout the 18th century repopulation was also participated by settlers from the rest of the Iberian Peninsula and from elsewhere, standing out Italians in the latter regard.
Population rapidly increased (from 1,845 in 1725 to 6,241 in 1787).
The Algeciras' social structure featured a comparatively small number of nobles and comparatively larger weight of clergy.
Just like the rest of the Campo de Gibraltar, husbandry
(cattle in particular) played an important role in the economy during the 18th century thanks to the rich pastures.
Given the abundance of international conflicts in the Strait area during the 18th century, corsair activities against ships belligerent with Spain or neutral ships provisioning the enemy also became an important part of the economy.
It was fortified to guard against British raids with installations such as the Fuerte de Isla Verde
built to guard key points. The city was rebuilt on its present rectangular plan by Charles III
in 1760. In July 1801, the French and Spanish navies fought the British Royal Navy
offshore in the Battle of Algeciras
, which ended in a British victory.
Aerial view of Algeciras taken in May 1928.
The city became the scene for settling a major international crisis as it hosted the Algeciras Conference
in 1906. The international forum to discuss the future of Morocco
which was held in the Casa Consistorial (town hall). It confirmed the independence of Morocco against threats from Germany, and gave France control of banking and police interests.
In July 1942 Italian frogmen set up in a secret base in the Italian tanker Olterra
, which was interned in Algeciras, in order to attack shipping in Gibraltar.
During the Franco
era, Algeciras underwent substantial industrial development, creating many new jobs for the local workers made unemployed when the border between Gibraltar and Spain was sealed by Franco between 1969 and 1982.
In 1982 there was a failed plan codenamed Operation Algeciras
conceived by the Argentinian
military to sabotage the British military facilities in Gibraltar during the Falklands War
. The Spanish authorities intervened just before the attack, and deported the two Argentine Montoneros
and military liaison officer involved.
Topographic map of the municipality
The municipality spans across a total area of 87.96 km2
bordering with the municipalities of Los Barrios
. The lower course of the river Palmones
forms part of the boundary of Algeciras with the municipality of Los Barrios.
The urban aglomeration formed by Algeciras and the surrounding settlements is the sixth largest in Andalusia
and the third largest off the region's coast.
Algeciras has a subtropical climate
with very mild, rainy winters and warm, dry summers with occasional heat waves, and temperature fluctuations are small because of the strong Oceanic
influence. There aren't snow registers in the city since the 19th century.
Temperature of sea (Bay of Gibraltar)
Historical population of Algeciras
(Source: INE (Spain)
Port of Algeciras
Algeciras is principally a transport hub and industrial city. Its main activities are connected with the Port of Algeciras
, which serves as the main embarkation point between Spain and Tangier
and other ports in Morocco as well as the Canary Islands
and the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta
. It is ranked as the 16th busiest port in the world. The city also has a substantial fishing industry and exports a range of agricultural products from the surrounding area, including cereals, tobacco and farm animals.
In recent years it has become a significant tourist destination, with popular day trips to Tarifa
to see bird migrations; to Gibraltar to see the territory's sights and culture; and to the Bay of Gibraltar
on whale watching
Algeciras is the southern terminus of two principal north–south Euroroutes
, the E05
. Both routes, moreover, run to Scotland (the E05 terminates at Greenock
and the E15 at Inverness
) via France and England.
Places of interest include:
Fishing port in Algeciras
San Bernardo Bus Station
Transport links of Algeciras
Passport stamp from the Port of Algeciras
The bus urban transport in managed by C.T.M. (Cooperativa de transporte de Marruecos).
- Line 1: Bajadilla-Pajarete
- Line 2: Colinas-San Bernabé-Reconquista
- Line 3: Rinconcillo
- Line 4: La Granja
- Line 5: Bahía de Algeciras
- Line 6: Juliana
- Line 7: Saladillo
- Line 8: San García-Saladillo
- Line 9: San García Directo
- Line 10: El Cobre
- Line 11: La Piñera
- Line 12: San García playa
- Line 16: Cementerio-Centro Penitenciario
- Line 18: Cortijo Vides-Piñera
- Line 19: Puerto-S.J.Artesano-Rinconcillo
- Line 21: San García – Residencia – Puerto – Parque
The main routes serving Algeciras include:
The main bus station is located next to the train station. Several bus companies operate intercity bus services
from and to Algeciras.
The nearest airports are:
Capilla de Nuestra Señora de Europa
Elaborate bench in Plaza Alta.
- Hornos Romanos del Rinconcillo (first century B.C.). (furnaces)
- Factoría de salazones de la calle San Nicolás (first century). (salt meat factory)
- La Villa Vieja, torres de la Huerta del Carmen (tenth century). (Towers)
- Parque Arqueológico de las Murallas Meriníes (thirteenth century). (Archeological Park)
- Capilla de Nuestra Señora de Europa (1690). (Chapel)
- Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Palma (1736). (Church)
- Hospital de La Caridad, (1748).
- Capilla de la Caridad (1752). (Chapel)
- Casa Consistorial (1756). (City Council)
- Capilla de San Servando (1774). (Chapel)
- Capilla del Santo Cristo de la Alameda (1776). (Chapel)
- Plaza Alta (1807).
- Mercado de Abastos de Algeciras of engineer Eduardo Torroja Miret (1935). (Supplies Market)
- Art School Building. (1971) architect: Fernando Garrido Gutiérrez.
- Faro de Isla Verde. Project of Jaime Font, constructed in 1864. (Light)
- Hotel Reina Cristina (1901).
- District de San Isidro, typical district designed in the twentieth century.
- Arrastre de latas (5, January).
- Feria Real de Algeciras (June).
- Fiestas patronales en honor de Ntra. Sra. la Virgen de la Palma (August).
- Fiesta de los Tosantos (1, November).
- Carnival of Algeciras.
, the professionnal handball
club, played in the Liga ASOBAL
between 2005 and 2008. The team was dissolved due to enormous debts after relegation to second level in 2008.
Avenida Blas Infante
Universidad de Cádiz – Campus Bahia de Algeciras
- Escuela Politécnica Superior de Algeciras
- Escuela Universitaria de Enfermería de Algeciras
- Escuela Universitaria de Estudios Jurídicos y Económicos del Campo de Gibraltar "Francisco Tomás y Valiente"
- Escuela Universitaria de Magisterio "Virgen de Europa"
- Centro Universitario de Derecho de Algeciras (CUDA)
- Campus Bahia de Algeciras (in Spanish and English)
Noted Natives of Algeciras
- ^ Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
- ^ a b "Datos del Registro de Entidades Locales". Ministerio de Asuntos Económicos y Transformación Digital. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
- ^ Plan de Ordenación del Territorio del Área del Campo de Gibraltar Archived 2011-06-15 at the Wayback Machine, Junta de Andalucía (Spanish)
- ^ José Soto Chica y Ana María Berenjeno (2014). «La última posesión bizantina en la península ibérica: Mesopotamenoi-Mesopotaminoi. Nuevas aportaciones para su identificación.». II Jornadas de Estudios Bizantinos: De Roma a Bizancio: el territorio en el sureste peninsular.
- ^ a b O'Shea, Henry George (1865). A Guide to Spain. Longmans, Green. p. 91. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- ^ Gozalbes Cravioto, Enrique (2001a). "La supuesta ubicación de Iulia Traducta en Tarifa". Aljaranda (in Spanish) (21). Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- ^ Mrabet, Abellatif; Rodriguez, José Remesal (2007). In Africa et in Hispania: études sur l'huile africaine (in French). Edicions Universitat Barcelona. p. 191. ISBN 978-84-475-3257-5. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
- ^ Livermore, Harold (1 October 2006). The Twilight of the Goths: The Rise and Fall of the Kingdom of Toledo C.575–711. Intellect Books. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-84150-966-2. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- ^ García Fernández 1987, p. 61.
- ^ a b Rogers, Clifford (21 June 2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Oxford University Press. p. 33 and 209. ISBN 978-0-19-533403-6. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- ^ García Fernández 1987, p. 62.
- ^ Bulas fundacionales de la Diócesis de Cádiz (III). La creación de la Diócesis de Algeciras
- ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 829
- ^ Gómez de Avellaneda Sabio 2018, p. 101.
- ^ Chaucer, Geoffrey; Andrew, Malcolm (1993). The General Prologue. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-8061-2552-7. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- ^ Gómez de Avellaneda Sabio 2018, p. 110; 112.
- ^ Gómez de Avellaneda Sabio 2018, pp. 109–110.
- ^ a b Ocaña Torres et al. 2001, p. 18.
- ^ Ocaña Torres et al. 2001, p. 19.
- ^ Ocaña Torres et al. 2001, pp. 53.
- ^ Ocaña Torres et al. 2001, p. 62.
- ^ Ocaña Torres et al. 2001, pp. 6364.
- ^ Ocaña Torres et al. 2001, p. 72.
- ^ Ocaña Torres et al. 2001, pp. 83–86.
- ^ Musteen, Jason R. (15 October 2011). Nelson's Refuge: Gibraltar in the Age of Napoleon. Naval Institute Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-61251-084-2. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- ^ Eugene Newton Anderson, The first Moroccan Crisis, 1904–1906 (1930)
- ^ Olson, James Stuart; Shadle, Robert (1991). Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-313-26257-9.
- ^ Hammond, Eleanor; Hughes, Wade (7 April 2012). The Judas Reef. D Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-74335-009-6. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- ^ Tremlett, Giles (24 July 2004). "Falklands war nearly spread to Gibraltar". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- ^ a b "Campo de Gibraltar" (PDF). Seville: Centro de Estudios Paisaje y Territorio. p. 286.
- ^ "Recomendaciones para la Adaptación de los Municipios Litorales Gaditanos a los Efectos del Cambio Climático" (PDF). Diputación de Cádiz. 2019. p. 60.
- ^ "OLAS DE FRÍO, ENTRADAS FRÍAS Y TEMPORALES DE NIEVE EN ESPAÑA 1830 - 1985". Tiempo (in Spanish). 5 July 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- ^ "Monthly Averages for Algeciras, Spain". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- ^ "Gibraltar Climate Guide". weather2travel.com. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- ^ "Algeciras: Stations". Travelinho.com.
- Algeciras. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006.
- Algeciras. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004
- Lonely Planet Andalucia, Lonely Planet, 2005
- García Fernández, Manuel (1987). "Algeciras 1344–1369" (PDF). Estudios de historia y de arqueología medievales. 7–8: 59–76.
- Gómez de Avellaneda Sabio, Carlos (2018). "Gibraltar, causa de la destrucción de Algeciras en el siglo XIV y la verdadera fecha de esta"(PDF). Almoraima. Revista de Estudios Campogibraltareños. Algeciras: Instituto de Estudios Campogibraltareños (48): 101–114.
- Ocaña Torres, Mario L.; Sáez Rodríguez, Ángel; Castillo Navarro, Luis Alberto del; Gómez Arroquia, Maribel; Torremocha Silva, Antonio; Vicente Lara, Juan Ignacio de; Pardo González, Juan Carlos; Téllez Rubio, Juan José (2001). "Capítulo V: El siglo XVIII: el resurgimiento". Historia de Algeciras. Tomo II. Algeciras moderna y contemporánea (PDF). Cádiz: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Diputación de Cádiz. pp. 15–118. ISBN 84-95388-34-0.
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