Algerian Arabic
Not to be confused with Algerian Saharan Arabic.
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Algerian Arabic (known as Darja in Algeria) is a dialect derived from the form of Arabic spoken in northern Algeria. It belongs to the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum and is partially mutually intelligible with Tunisian and Moroccan.
Algerian Arabic
Dziria, دزيرية
Native toAlgeria
RegionCentral Maghreb
EthnicityAlgerian Arab-Berbers and Haratins
Native speakers
42.5 million (2020)[1]
3 million L2 speakers in Algeria (no date)[2]
Algerian Arabic
Arabic script
Language codes
ISO 639-3arq
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Play media
Reda speaking Algerian Arabic.
Like other varieties of Maghrebi Arabic, Algerian has a mostly Semitic vocabulary.[3] It contains Berber and Latin (African Romance)[4] influences and has numerous loanwords from French, Andalusian Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Spanish.
Algerian Arabic is the native dialect of 75% to 80% of Algerians and is mastered by 85% to 100% of them.[5] It is a spoken language used in daily communication and entertainment, while Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is generally reserved for official use and education.
The Algerian language includes several distinct dialects belonging to two genetically different groups: pre-Hilalian and Hilalian dialects.
Hilalian dialects
Hilalian dialects of Algeria belong to three linguistic groups:[6]
Modern koine languages, urban and national, are based mainly on Hilalian dialects.
Pre-Hilalian dialects
Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects are generally classified into three types: Urban, "Village" Sedentary, and Jewish dialects. Several Pre-Hilalian dialects are spoken in Algeria:[6][10]
Consonant phonemes of Algerian Arabic [11]
plainemphatic plain emphatic
Affricatevoiceless(t͡ʃ) 1
In comparison to other Maghrebi dialects, Algerian Arabic has retained numerous phonetic elements of Classical Arabic lost by its relatives;[11][12] In Algiers dialect, the letters /ðˤ/􏰣􏰄 ذ ,ظ /ð/ and ث ‎/θ/ 􏰝􏰌are not used, they are in most cases pronounced as the graphemes د ,ض‎and ت respectively.[11] This conservatism concerning pronunciation is in contrast to Algerian Arabic grammar which has shifted noticeably.[12] In terms of differences from Classical Arabic, the previous /r/ and /z/ phonemes have developed contrastive glottalized forms and split into /r/ and /rˤ/; and /z/ and /zˤ/. Additionally /q/ from Classical Arabic has split into /q/ and /ɡ/ in most dialects. The phonemes /v/ and /p/ which are not common in Arabic dialects arise almost exclusively from (predominantly French) loanwords[11]
^1 The voiceless "Ch" (t͡ʃ) is used in some words in the Algerian dialect like "تشينا" ‎/t͡ʃinaː/ (orange) or "تشاراك" ‎/t͡ʃaːraːk/ (A kind of Algerian sweet) but remains rare.
A study of Northwestern Algerian Arabic (specifically around Oran) showed that laterals /l/ or /ɫ/ or the nasal consonant /n/ would be dissimilated into either /n/ in the case of /l/ or /ɫ/; or /l/ or /ɫ/ in the case of n when closely preceding a corresponding lateral or nasal consonant.[13] Thus /zəlzla/ (earthquake) has become /zənzla/, conversely /lʁənmi/ "mutton" becomes /lʁəlmi/.[13]
The same study also noted numerous examples of assimilation in Northwestern Algerian Arabic, due to the large consonant clusters created from all of the historical vowel deletion: examples include /dəd͡ʒaːd͡ʒ/ "chicken", becoming /d͡ʒaːd͡ʒ/ and /mliːħ/ "good", becoming /mniːħ/.[13] An example of assimilation that occurs after the short vowel deletion is the historical /dərˤwŭk/ "now" becoming /drˤuːk/ and then being assimilated to /duːk/,[13] illustrating the order in which the rules of Algerian Arabic may operate.
Monophthong phonemes of Algerian Arabic
The phonemic vowel inventory of Algerian Arabic consists of three long vowels: //, //, and // contrasted with two short vowels: /u/ and /ə/.[11][13] Algerian Arabic Vowels retains a great deal of features in relation to Classical Arabic Arabic phonology, namely the continued existence of 3 long vowels: //, //, and //,[12] Algerian Arabic also retains the short close back vowel /u/ in speech, however the short equivalents of // and // have fused in modern Algerian Arabic, creating a single phoneme /ə/.[13] Also notable among the differences between Classical Arabic and Algerian Arabic is the deletion of short vowels entirely from open syllables[12] and thus word final positions,[11] which creates a stark distinction between written Classical Arabic, and casually written Algerian Arabic. One point of interest in Algerian Arabic that sets it apart from other conservative Arabic dialects is its preservation of phonemes in (specifically french) loanwords that would otherwise not be found in the language: /[[Nasal vowel|ɔ̃]]/, /y/, and /ɛ/ are all preserved in French loanwords such as /syʁ/ (sure) or /kɔnɛksiɔ̃/ (connection).[11]
Nouns and adjectives
EnglishAlgerian Arabic
woman / womenmra / nsa
man / menrajel / rjal
daynhar / yum
winter / rainšta / mṭar
toilet / bathroombit-el-ma / bit-er-raḥa / Twalat
Conjunctions and prepositions
EnglishAlgerian ArabicNotes of usage
butbeṣṣaḥis also used "wa lakin"
ifila, ida, lakan, kunused for impossible conditions and comes just before the verb
iflukan, kunfor possible conditions, Also used is "ida" and "kan"
so that, thatbaš, bah
as ifki šγul, tquši, tqul, tgul
becausexaṭar, xaṭrakeš, εlaxaṭer
whenila / wakta
beforeqbel ma / gbel maused before verbs
withoutbla ma / blachused before verbs
whetherkaš maused before verbs
over, on top offuq or fug
aftermur / mura / Baεd / wra
beforeqbel / gbelused only for time
next to, besidequddam or guddamis also used "ḥda"
atεend / εla
among, betweenbin, binat (plural)
same as, as much asεla ḥsab, qed, ged, kimaamount
oh, oh so muchya, ah
Some of them can be attached to the noun, just like in other Arabic dialects. The word for in, "fi", can be attached to a definite noun. For example, the word for a house has a definite form "ed-dar" but with "fi", it becomes "fed-dar".
Algerian Arabic uses two genders for words: masculine and feminine. Masculine nouns and adjectives generally end with a consonant while the feminine nouns generally end with an a.
[ħmɑr] "a donkey", [ħmɑrɑ] "a female donkey".
Hilalian dialects, on which the modern koine is based, often use regular plural while the wider use of the broken plural is characteristic to pre-Hilalian dialects.
The regular masculine plural is formed with the suffix -in, which derives from the Classical Arabic genitive and accusative ending -īna rather than the nominative -ūna:
mumen (believer) → mumnin
For feminine nouns, the regular plural is obtained by suffixing -at:
Classical Arabic: bint (girl) → banat
Algerian Arabic: bent → bnat
The broken plural can be found for some plurals in Hilalian dialects, but it is mainly used, for the same words, in pre-Hilalian dialects:
Broken plural: ṭabla → ṭwabəl.
The article el is indeclinable and expresses a definite state of a noun of any gender and number. It is also prefixed to each of that noun's modifying adjectives.
It follows the solar letters and lunar letters rules of Classical Arabic: if the word starts with one of these consonants, el is assimilated and replaced by the first consonant:
t, d, r, z, s, š, , , , l, n.
rajel →er-rajel "man" (assimilation)
qeṭṭ →el-qeṭṭ "cat" (no assimilation)
Important Notes:
When it is after lunar letters consonant we add the article le-.
qmer → le-qmer "moon"
ḥjer → le-ḥjer "stone"
We always use the article el with the words that begin with vowels.
alf → el-alf "thousand"
Verbs are conjugated by adding affixes (prefixes, postfixes, both or none) that change according to the tense.
In all Algerian Arabic dialects, there is no gender differentiation of the second and third person in the plural forms, nor is there gender differentiation of the second person in the singular form in pre-Hilalian dialects. Hilalian dialects preserve the gender differentiation of the singular second person.
1st- t- nan -n(e) - u
2nd (m)- t- tut -t - u
2nd (f)- ti- tut - it - u
3rd (m)-- ui/y(e) -i/y(e) - u
3rd (f)- t- ut(e) -i/y(e) - u
Example with the verb kteb "To write":
1st (m)ktebtktebnanektebnekketbu
2nd (m)ktebtktebtutektebtekketbu
2nd (f)ktebtiktebtutekketbitekketbu
3rd (m)ktebketbuyektebyekketbu
3rd (f)ketbetketbutektebyekketbu
PersonPastPresentFuturePresent continuous
1st (m)ktebtktebnanektebnekketbuRayenektebRayḥin nekketbuRani nektebRana nekketbu
1st (f)ktebtktebnanektebnekketbuRayḥanektebRayḥin nekketbuRani nektebRana nekketbu
2nd (m)ketbtktebtutektebtekketbuRayetektebRayḥin tekketbuRak tektebRakum tekketbu
2nd (f)ktebtiktebtutekketbitekketbuRayḥatekketbiRayḥin tekketbuRaki tekketbiRakum tekketbu
3rd (m)ktebketbuyektebyekketbuRayeyektebRayḥin yekketbuRah yektebRahum yekketbu
3rd (f)ketbetketbutektebyekketbuRayḥatektebRayḥin yekketbuRaha tektebRahum yekketbu
Future tense
Speakers generally do not use the future tense above. Used instead is the present tense or present continuous.
Also, as is used in all of the other Arabic dialects, there is another way of showing active tense. The form changes the root verb into an adjective. For example, "kteb" he wrote becomes "kateb".
Main article: Negation in Arabic
Like all North African Arabic varieties (including Egyptian Arabic) along with some Levantine Arabic varieties, verbal expressions are negated by enclosing the verb with all its affixes, along with any adjacent pronoun-suffixed preposition, within the circumfix ma ...-š (/ʃ/):
PersonPastPresentFuturePresent continuous
1st (m)ma ktebtma ktebnama nekteb-šma nekketbuma Rayeḥ-š nektebma Rayḥin-š nekketbuma Rani-š nektebma Rana-š nekketbu
2st (f)ma ktebtma ktebnama nekteb-šma nekketbuma Rayḥanektebma Rayḥin-š nekketbuma Rani-š nektebma Rana-š nekketbu
2nd (m)ma ketbtma ktebtuma tekteb-šma tekketbuma Rayeḥ-š tektebma Rayḥin-š tekketbuma Rak-š tektebma Rakum-š tekketbu
2rd (f)ma ktebtima ktebtuma tekketbima tekketbuma Rayḥatekketbima Rayḥin-š tekketbuma Raki-š tekketbima Rakum-š tekketbu
3rd (m)ma kteb-šma ketbuma yekteb-šma yekketbuma Rayeḥ-š yektebma Rayḥin-š yekketbuma Rah-š yektebma Rahum-š yekketbu
3rd (f)ma ketbetma ketbuma tekteb-šma yekketbuma Rayḥatektebma Rayḥin-š yekketbuma Raha-š tektebma Rahum-š yekketbu
Other negative words (walu, etc.) are used in combination with ma to express more complex types of negation. ʃ is not used when other negative words are used
or when two verbs are consecutively in the negative
ma šuft ma smeεt ("I neither saw nor did I hear").
Verb derivation
Verb derivation is done by adding suffixes or by doubling consonants, there are two types of derivation forms: causative, passive.
Causative: is obtained by doubling consonants :
xrej "to go out" → xerrej "to make to go out"
dxel "to enter" → dexxel "to make to enter, to introduce".
Passive:It is obtained by prefixing the verb with t- / tt- / tn- / n- :
qtel "to kill" → tneqtel "to be killed"
šreb "to drink" → ttešreb "to be drunk".
The adverbs of location
Things could be in three places hnaya (right here), hna (here) or el-hih (there).
Personal pronouns
Most Algerian Arabic dialects have eight personal pronouns since they no longer have gender differentiation of the second and third person in the plural forms. However, pre-Hilalian dialects retain seven personal pronouns since gender differentiation of the second person in the singular form is absent as well.
2nd (m)n'tan'tuma
2nd (f)n'tin'tuma
3rd (m)huwwahuma
3rd (f)hiyyahuma
Example: « ḥatta ana. » — "Me too."
PersonAlgerian Arabic
I amrani
You are (m)rak
You are (f)raki
He israh or Rahu
She isRahi or Raha
We arerana
You or Y'all areraku or rakum (m)and (f)
They arerahum (m)and (f)
Example: « Rani hna. » — "I'm here." and « Waš rak. » "How are you." to both males and females.
Possessive pronouns
Dar means house.
1sti (Dari)na (Darna)
2nd(e)k (Dar(e)k)kum (Darkum)
3rd (m)u (Daru)(h)um (Dar(h)um)
3rd (f)ha (Darha)(hum) (Dar(h)um)
Example : « dar-na. » — "Our house" (House-our) Possessives are frequently combined with taε "of, property" : dar taε-na — "Our house.", dar taε-kum ...etc.
taε-i = my or mine
taε-ek = your or yours (m, f)
taε-u = his
taε-ha = hers
taε-na = our or ours
taε-kum = your or yours (m, f)
taε-hum = their or theirs (m, f)
"Our house" can be Darna or Dar taε-na, which is more like saying 'house of ours'. Taε can be used in other ways just like in English in Spanish. You can say Dar taε khuya, which means 'house of my brother' or 'my brother's house'.
Interrogative pronouns
InterrogativesAlgerian Arabic
What ?waš ?
When ?waqtaš ? / wektaš ? / wektah ? / wekket ?
Why?3lah ? / 3laš ? / llah ?
Which ?waš-men ? / aš-men ? / ama ?
Where ?win ?
Who ?škun ? / menhu ?
How ?kifaš ? / kifah ?
How many ?šḥal ? / qeddaš ? / gueddaš ? / gueddah ?
Whose ?taε-men ?
Verbal pronouns
2nd (m)(e)kkum
3rd (m)u (after a consonant) / h (after a vowel)
/ hu (before an indirect object pronoun)
3rd (f)hahum
« šuft-ni. » — "You saw me." (You.saw-me)
« qetl-u. » — "He killed him." (He.killed-him)
« kla-h. » — "He ate it." (He.ate-it)
Unlike Classical Arabic, Algerian Arabic has no dual and uses the plural instead. The demonstrative (Hadi) is also used for "it is".
InterrogativesAlgerian ArabicEmphasized
Thishad (m), Hadi (f)hada, hadaya (m), hadiyya (f)
Thatdak (m), dik (f)hadak (m), hadik (f)
Sample text
The text below was translated from Kabylie, in Auguste Moulieras's Les fourberies de si Djeh'a.
BuzellufSheep Head
Waḥed en-nhar, jḥa med-lu baba-h frank, baš yešri buzelluf. šra-h, kla gaɛ leḥm-u. bqa γir leɛdem, jab-u l baba-h. ki šaf-u qal-lu: "waš hada?" Qal-lu: "buzelluf".
-A šmata, win rahi wedn-u?
-Kan ṭreš
-win rahum ɛini-h?
-Kan ɛma
-win rah lsan-u?
-Kan bekkuš.
- U el-jelda taɛ ras-u, win Rahi
-Kan ferṭas.
One day, Jha's father gave him one cent so he buys a sheep head. He bought it and ate all of its meat. Only an empty carcass was left. He brought it to his father. Then, when he saw it, he said: "what is that?" Jehha said: "a sheep head".
-You vile, where are its ears?
-It was deaf.
-Where are its eyes?
-It was blind.
-Where is its tongue?
-It was dumb.
-And the skin of its head, where is it?
-It was bald.
French loanwords
Algerian Arabic contains numerous French loanwords.
Algerian ArabicFrench loanwordEnglish meaningAlgerian ArabicFrench loanwordEnglish meaning
buja (v)bouger (v)move (v)taythétea
fermliinfirmier(male) nurseblaṣa/plaṣaplaceplace/seat
pyasa/byasapiècepiecešarja (v)charger (v)load (v)
girraguerrewarriska (v)risquer (v)risk (v)
See also
Languages portal
  1. ^ Algerian Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Algerian Arabic at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
  3. ^ Elimam, Abdou (2009). Du Punique au Maghribi :Trajectoires d'une langue sémito-méditerranéenne (PDF). Synergies Tunisie.
  4. ^ Martin Haspelmath; Uri Tadmor (22 December 2009). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. p. 195. ISBN 978-3-11-021844-2.
  5. ^ "Arabic, Algerian Spoken". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2016-02-25.
  6. ^ a b K. Versteegh, Dialects of Arabic: Maghreb Dialects Archived 2015-07-15 at the Wayback Machine, hteachmideast.org
  7. ^ The Eastern Hilal also includes central Tunisian Bedouin dialects.
  8. ^ The Central Hilal also includes Algerian Saharan Arabic.
  9. ^ The Mâqil family of dialects also includes Moroccan Bedouin Arabic dialects and Hassaniya. Those of the Oranais are similar to those of eastern Morocco (Oujda area)
  10. ^ D. Caubet, Questionnaire de dialectologie du Maghreb Archived 2013-11-12 at the Wayback Machine, in: EDNA vol.5 (2000-2001), pp.73-92
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Harrat, Salima; et al. (2016-11-03). "An Algerian Dialect Study and Resources"(PDF). HAL Archives. p. 390. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  12. ^ a b c d Souag, Lameen (2020-01-29). "Description of Algerian Arabic". Rosetta Project. Retrieved 2020-01-29.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Guerrero, Jairo (2014-01-01). "A Phonetical Sketch of The Arabic Dialect Spoken in Oran (Northwestern Algeria)". Academia. Retrieved 2020-02-13.
Algerian Arabic test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
Last edited on 5 April 2021, at 19:42
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