All-China Federation of Trade Unions
All-China Federation of Trade Unions
The ACFTU building in Beijing
The Federation was officially founded on 1 May 1925, when the "Second National Labor Congress" of China convened in Canton with 277 delegates representing 540,000 workers, and adopted the Constitution of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions. Between 1922 and 1927, the organization flourished, as did the Chinese Communist Party
’s control over the trade union movement. The labor movement
had grown enormously, particularly in the three industrial and commercial centers of Canton, Hong Kong, and Shanghai, but it also had some organizational success in other cities such as Wuhan.
The ACFTU was restricted in 1927 by the newly established rule of the Nationalist regime
under Chiang Kai-shek
who had ordered the execution of thousands of CPC cadres and their sympathizers as part of a crackdown on Communism. All Communist Party-led unions were banned and replaced with yellow unions loyal to him (e.g. the "Chinese Federation of Labor
," which has since reformed into an independent union).
By the rise of Mao Zedong
in 1949, the ACFTU was established as China's sole national labor union center, but was again dissolved in 1966 in the wake of the Cultural Revolution
in favor of revolutionary committees
Following Mao's death in 1976, in October 1978 the ACFTU held its first congress since 1957. Since the early 1990s it has been regulated by the Trade Union Law of the People’s Republic of China
According to a 2011 study during the period of rapid economic growth in China the ACFTU has prioritized the interests of business over the interests of labor and has lost legitimacy in the eyes of many laborers.
In 2018, the 17th National Congress of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions was held at the Great Hall of the People
At the congress Union leadership faced pressure to stop acting as a bridge or mediator between workers and management and start acting as a genuine voice of the workers. This pressure arose both internally and was also applied by the Chinese Communist Party.
Lack of Independence
There are differing approaches among ICFTU affiliates and Global Union Federations concerning contacts with the ACFTU ranging from “no contacts” to “constructive dialog.” The ICFTU, noting that the ACFTU is not an independent trade union organization
and, therefore, cannot be regarded as an authentic voice of Chinese workers, reaffirms its request to all affiliates and Global Union Federations having contacts with the Chinese authorities, including the ACFTU, to engage in critical dialog. This includes raising violations of fundamental workers’ and trade union rights in any such meetings, especially concerning cases of detention of trade union and labor rights
According to Charter of China Trade Union, which is passed by the 17th National Congress of China Trade Unions on 26 October 2018, “The China Trade Union is a mass organization of the working class led by the Chinese Communist Party and a voluntary union of employees. It is a bridge and link between the Chinese Communist Party and the masses of workers, an important social pillar of the state power, and a representative of the interests of its members and workers.” “ The China trade unions persist in consciously accepting the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, shoulder the political responsibility of uniting and guiding the workers and the masses to listen to and follow the Communist Party of China, and consolidate and expand the class basis and mass basis of the Communist Party of China’s governance.”
However, activists within the ACFTU and the World Federation of Trade Unions
dispute the claims of the rival trade union federation.
ACFTU activist Guo Wencai
has said that democratic elections were a key standard to measure the effectiveness of a trade union and noted that the practice of Chinese company chiefs "appointing union leaders or assigning someone from their human resources department to act as union leader hampers a trade union's independence and its ability to protect workers' rights."
Other labor activism in China
The ACFTU remains the country's only legally-permissible trade union. Attempts to form trade unions independent of the ACFTU have been rare and short-lived. One notable example is the Beijing Workers' Autonomous Federation
formed during the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests
. Martial Law Command Headquarters issued a public notice declaring the BWAF an illegal organization and ordering it to disband on the grounds that Federation leaders were among "the main instigators and organizers in the capital of the counterrevolutionary rebellion.
The failure of the ACFTU to advocate for workers has led to an increase in wildcat strikes
and other unauthorized labor action.
Wildcat strikes are one of few options available to workers because the ACFTU refuses to authorize strikes no matter what the conditions are.
List of Chairmen
- 1st (1922.5 – 1925.5)
- 2nd (1925.5 – 1926.5)
- 3rd (1926.5 – 1927.6)
- 4th (1927.6 – 1929.11)
- 5th (1929.11 – 1948.8)
- 6th (1948.8 – 1953.5)
- 7th (1953.5 – 1957.12)
- 8th (1957.12 – 1966.12)
- Lai Ruoyu (1957.12 – 1958.5)
- Liu Ningyi (1958.8 – 1966.12)
- 9th (1978.10 – 1983.10)
- 10th (1983.10 – 1988.10)
- 11th (1988.10 – 1993.10)
- 12th (1993.10 – 1998.10)
- 13th (1998.10 – 2003.9)
- Wei Jianxing (1998.10 – 2002.12)
- Wang Zhaoguo (2002.12 – 2003.10)
- 14th (2003.10–2008.10)
- 15th (2008.10–2012.10)
- 16th (2013.10–)
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- ^ a b c Membership required:Trade unions in China Archived 7 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Economist, 31 July 2008
- ^ a b International Centre for Trade Union Rights (ICTUR), ed. (2005). Trade Unions of the World (6th ed.). London, UK: John Harper Publishing. ISBN 0-9543811-5-7.
- ^ Taylor, B.; Li, Q. (2007). "Is the ACFTU a Union and Does it Matter?". Journal of Industrial Relations. 49 (5): 701–715. doi:10.1177/0022185607082217. S2CID 154822045.
- ^ Lee, Lao To (1986): Trade Unions in China 1949 to the Present. Singapore University Press
- ^ Traub-Merz, Rudolf (2011): All China Federation of Trade Unions: Structure, Functions and the Challenge of Collective Bargaining. International Labor Office
- ^ "Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China (2009 Amendment)" (PDF). ilo.org. Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- ^ a b Bai, Ruixue (2011). "The Role of the All China Federation of Trade Unions: Implications for Chinese Workers Today". WorkingUSA: The Journal of Labor and Society. 14: 19–39. doi:10.1111/j.1743-4580.2010.00318.x.
- ^ Chenglong, Jiang. "National Congress of All-China Federation of Trade Unions opens". www.chinadaily.com.cn. China Daily. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- ^ "Why is the Communist Party telling the All-China Federation of Trade Unions to reform?". clb.org.hk. CLB. 10 October 2018. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- ^ "ICFTU China policy". ICFTU. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
- ^ All-China Federation of Trade Unions (26 October 2018). "Charter of China Trade Union". ACFTU. China. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- ^ Andrew G. Walder; Gong Xiaoxia (January 1993). "Workers in the Tiananmen Protests: The Politics of the Beijing Workers' Autonomous Federation". The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs. 29 (29): 1–29. doi:10.2307/2949950. JSTOR 2949950.
- ^ ZHANG, YUERAN. "The Forgotten Socialists of Tiananmen Square". www.jacobinmag.com. Jacobin Magazine. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- ^ Wrest, Samuel (21 April 2017). "Trade Union Law and Collective Bargaining in China". www.chinabusinessreview.com. China Business Review. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
Last edited on 22 April 2021, at 07:09
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