Early life and family
Dulles was born on April 7, 1893, in Watertown, New York
one of five children of Presbyterian
minister Allen Macy Dulles, and his wife, Edith F. (Foster). He was five years younger than his brother John Foster Dulles
, Dwight D. Eisenhower
's Secretary of State
and chairman and senior partner of Sullivan & Cromwell
, and two years older than his sister, diplomat Eleanor Lansing Dulles
. His maternal grandfather, John W. Foster
, was Secretary of State under Benjamin Harrison
, while his uncle by marriage, Robert Lansing
was Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson
Dulles was uncle to Avery Dulles
, a Jesuit
priest and cardinal
of the Catholic Church
, who taught theology
at Fordham University
from 1988 to 2008.
Dulles graduated from Princeton University
, where he participated in the American Whig–Cliosophic Society
and entered the diplomatic service in 1916. In 1920, he married Clover Todd (March 5, 1894 – April 15, 1974). They had three children; two daughters: Clover D. Jebsen, ("Toddy"), and Joan Buresch Dulles Molden, ("Joan Buresch"); and one son, Allen Macy Dulles Jr. (1930 - 2020), who was wounded and permanently disabled in the Korean War
and spent the rest of his life in and out of medical care.
According to his sister, Eleanor, Dulles had "at least a hundred" extramarital affairs, including some during his tenure with the CIA.
Initially assigned to Vienna
, he was transferred to Bern, Switzerland along with the rest of the embassy personnel shortly before the U.S. entered the First World War.
Later in life Dulles claimed to have been telephoned by Vladimir Lenin
, seeking a meeting with the American embassy on April 8, 1917,
the day before Lenin left Switzerland to travel to Saint Petersburg
aboard a German
train. After recovering from the 1918 flu pandemic
he was assigned to the American delegation at the Paris Peace Conference
, along with his older brother Foster.
From 1922 to 1926, he served five years as chief of the Near East
division of the Department of State
During the late 1920s and early 1930s, he served as legal adviser to the delegations on arms limitation at the League of Nations
. There he had the opportunity to meet with Adolf Hitler
, Benito Mussolini
, Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov
, and the leaders of Britain
In 1935 Dulles returned from a business trip to Germany
appalled by the Nazi
treatment of German Jews
and, despite his brother's objections, led a movement within the law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell to close their Berlin office.
As a result of Dulles' efforts, the Berlin office was closed and the firm ceased to conduct business in Nazi Germany.
As the Republican Party
began to divide into isolationist
factions, Dulles became an outspoken interventionist, running unsuccessfully in 1938 for the Republican nomination in New York's Sixteenth Congressional District
on a platform calling for the strengthening of U.S. defenses.
Dulles collaborated with Hamilton Fish Armstrong
, the editor of Foreign Affairs
magazine, on two books, Can We Be Neutral?
(1936), and Can America Stay Neutral?
(1939). They concluded that diplomatic, military, and economic isolation, in a traditional sense, were no longer possible in an increasingly interdependent international system.[page needed]
Dulles helped some German Jews, such as the banker Paul Kemper, escape to the United States from Nazi Germany.
OSS posting to Bern, Switzerland in World War II
Dulles was recruited into the Office of Strategic Services
by William J. Donovan
in October 1941, after the outbreak of the Second World War in Europe, and on Nov. 12, 1942 he moved to Bern
, Switzerland, where he lived at Herrengasse 23
for the duration of World War II.
As Swiss Director of the OSS
Dulles worked on intelligence about German plans and activities, and established wide contacts with German émigrés, resistance figures, and anti-Nazi intelligence officers. He was assisted in intelligence-gathering activities by Gero von Schulze-Gaevernitz
, a German emigrant. Dulles also received valuable information from Fritz Kolbe
, a German diplomat, one whom he described as the best spy of the war. Kolbe supplied secret documents about active German spies and plans for the Messerschmitt Me 262
Dulles was in contact with the Austrian resistance group around the priest Heinrich Maier
, who collected information through many different contacts with scientists and the military. From 1943 onwards, he received very important information from this resistance group about V-1
, V-2 rockets
, Tiger tanks
, Messerschmitt Bf 109
, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet
and other aircraft and the related factories. Allied bombers were thus able to target war-decisive armaments factories. In particular, Dulles then had crucial information for Operation Crossbow
and Operation Hydra
. The group reported to him about the mass murder in Auschwitz. Through the Maier Group and Kurt Grimm, Dulles also received information about the economic situation in the Nazi sphere of influence. After the resistance group was uncovered by the Gestapo, Dulles sent American agents to Austria to contact any surviving members.
Although Washington barred Dulles from making firm commitments to the plotters of the 20 July 1944 attempt to assassinate Hitler
, the conspirators nonetheless gave him reports on developments in Germany, including sketchy but accurate warnings of plans for Hitler's V-1
Dulles was involved in Operation Sunrise
, secret negotiations in March 1945 to arrange a local surrender of German forces in northern Italy. His actions in Operation Sunrise have been criticized by historians for offering German SS General Karl Wolff protection from prosecution at the Nuremberg trial, and creating a diplomatic rift between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. After the war in Europe, Dulles served for six months as the OSS
Berlin station chief and later as station chief in Bern.
The Office of Strategic Services was dissolved in October 1945 and its functions transferred to the State and War Departments.
DCI Smith recruited Dulles to oversee the agency's covert operations as Deputy Director for Plans, a position he held from January 4, 1951. On August 23, 1951, Dulles was promoted to Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, second in the intelligence hierarchy. In this capacity, in 1952–53 he was one of five members of the State Department Panel of Consultants on Disarmament
during the last year of the Truman administration
After the election of Dwight Eisenhower in 1952, Bedell Smith shifted to the Department of State and Dulles became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence. Dulles played a role in convincing Eisenhower to follow one of the conclusions of the State Department Panel report, that the American public deserved to be informed of the perils of possible nuclear war with the Soviet Union, because even though America held numerical nuclear superiority, the Soviets would still have enough nuclear weapons to severely damage American society regardless of how many more such bombs the United States might possess or how badly those U.S. weapons could destroy the Soviets.
At Dulles' request, President Eisenhower demanded that Senator Joseph McCarthy
discontinue issuing subpoenas
against the CIA. In March 1950, McCarthy had initiated a series of investigations into potential communist
subversion of the Agency. Although none of the investigations revealed any wrongdoing, the hearings were potentially damaging, not only to the CIA's reputation but also to the security of sensitive information. Documents made public in 2004 revealed that the CIA, under Dulles' orders, had broken into McCarthy's Senate office and fed disinformation to him in order to discredit him, in order to stop his investigation of communist infiltration of the CIA.
CIA ID Card of Allen Dulles
In the early 1950s, the United States Air Force
conducted a competition for a new photo reconnaissance aircraft. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation
's Skunk Works
submitted a design number called the CL-282, which married sailplane-like wings to the body of a supersonic interceptor. This aircraft was rejected by the Air Force, but several of the civilians on the review board took notice, and Edwin Land
presented a proposal for the aircraft to Dulles. The aircraft became what is known as the U-2
'spy plane', and it was initially operated by CIA pilots. Its introduction into operational service in 1957 greatly enhanced the CIA's ability to monitor Soviet
activity through overhead photo surveillance. The aircraft eventually entered service with the Air Force.
The Soviet Union shot down and captured a U-2
in 1960 during Dulles' term as CIA chief.
Dulles is considered one of the essential creators of the modern United States intelligence system and was an indispensable guide to clandestine operations during the Cold War. He established intelligence networks worldwide to check and counter Soviet and eastern European communist advances as well as international communist movements.[page needed]
Coup in Iran
Coup in Guatemala
described Dulles as a former member of the United Fruit Company
's Board of Directors.
However, in a detailed examination of the connections between the United Fruit Company and the Eisenhower Administration, Immerman makes no mention of Dulles being part of the United Fruit Company's Board, although he does note that Sullivan & Cromwell had represented the company.
Bay of Pigs
Several failed assassination plots utilizing CIA-recruited operatives and anti-Castro Cubans directly against Castro undermined the CIA's credibility. The reputation of the agency and its director declined drastically after the Bay of Pigs Invasion
fiasco of 1961. President Kennedy reportedly said he wanted to "splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter it into the winds." However, following a "rigorous inquiry into the agency's affairs, methods, and problems ... [Kennedy] did not 'splinter' it after all and did not recommend Congressional supervision."
Kennedy presents the National Security Medal to Dulles, November 28, 1961.
During the Kennedy
Administration, Dulles faced increasing criticism.
In autumn 1961, following the Bay of Pigs incident
and Algiers putsch
against Charles de Gaulle
, Dulles and his entourage, including Deputy Director for PlansRichard M. Bissell Jr.
and Deputy Director Charles Cabell
, were forced to resign. On November 28, 1961, Kennedy presented Dulles with the National Security Medal
at the CIA Headquarters in Langley, Virginia
The next day, November 29, the White House released a resignation letter signed by Dulles.
He was replaced by John McCone
On November 29, 1963, President Lyndon Baines Johnson
appointed Dulles as one of seven commissioners of the Warren Commission
to investigate the assassination of the U.S. President John F. Kennedy
. The appointment was later criticized by some historians, who have noted that Kennedy had fired him, and he was therefore unlikely to be impartial in passing the judgments charged to the Warren Commission. In the view of journalist and author Stephen Kinzer
, Johnson appointed Dulles primarily so that Dulles could "coach" the Commission on how to interview CIA witnesses and what questions to ask, because Johnson and Dulles were both anxious to ensure that the Commission did not discover Kennedy's secret involvement in the administration's illegal plans to assassinate Castro and other foreign leaders.
Dulles published the book The Craft of Intelligence
and edited Great True Spy Stories
- Seventeen Moments of Spring (1973), a Soviet television miniseries in which Vyacheslav Salevich depicts Dulles' role in Operation Sunrise during World War II.
- The Good Shepherd (2006), a fictional film in which William Hurt portrays the fictional head of the CIA, Phillip Allen, who appears to be based on Dulles.
- JFK (1991), a film that depicts Jim Garrison, a New Orleans District Attorney, as suspecting Dulles as a participant in the cover-up surrounding Kennedy's assassination and attempts to subpoena him.
- Nick and Jake (2012), a fictional novel co-written by Tad Richards and Jonathan Richards and published by Arcade Publishing. Allen Dulles is depicted as plotting a coup to overthrow the government of France.
- Liberation (1970–71), a multinational fictional film series that shows Dulles in a photograph torn apart by Joseph Stalin in Film IV: The Battle of Berlin.
- The Honor of Spies (2009) in the Honor Bound series and also the Men At War series, a fictional novel series written by W.E.B. Griffin and his son. Dulles is portrayed as part of the European Head of the OSS and the Swiss Agent in Charge respectively.
- The Commission (2003), a fictional film that depicts Dulles, played by Jack Betts, as a participant in the Warren Commission and investigator into the Kennedy assassination.
- The Company (2007), an American miniseries based on the novel The Company: A Novel of the CIA (2002) by American novelist Robert Littell.
- The FX cartoon comedy Archer mentions Dulles in a 2012 episode while discussing Operation Gladio, as well as in a 2016 episode centered around Project MKUltra.
- Bridge of Spies (2015), a movie about the exchange of Rudolf Abel and Francis Gary Powers, depicts a conversation between James B. Donovan (portrayed by Tom Hanks) and Dulles (portrayed by Peter McRobbie).
- "The Power of the President Over Foreign Affairs". Michigan Law Review, Vol. 14, April 1916. pp. 470–478. JSTOR 1275947doi:10.2307/1275947
- “Some Misconceptions About Disarmament”. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 3, April 1927. pp. 413–424. JSTOR 20028543doi:10.2307/20028543
- “Progress Toward Disarmament”. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 11, No. 1, October 1932. pp. 54–65. JSTOR 20030483doi:10.2307/20030483
- “Alternatives for Germany”. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 25, No. 3, April 1947. pp. 421–432. JSTOR 20030052 doi:10.2307/20030052
- “That Was Then: Allen W. Dulles on the Occupation of Germany”. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 82, No. 6, November/December 2003. pp. 2–8. JSTOR 20033751 doi:10.2307/20033751
- Can We Be Neutral? Co-authored with Hamilton Fish Armstrong. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1936. OCLC 513361
- Can America Stay Neutral? Co-authored with Hamilton Fish Armstrong. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939. OCLC 256170
- Germany's Underground. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947. LCCN 47-2566
- The Marshall Plan. Co-authored by Michael Wala. Providence, RI: Berg, 1993. ISBN 978-0854963508
- From Hitler's Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942–1945. Co-authored with Neal H. Peterson. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999. ISBN 0271014857
- The Secret Surrender: The Classic Insider's Account of the Secret Plot to Surrender Northern Italy During WWII. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2004. ISBN 1592283683
- The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 1963. ISBN 1592282970
- ^ a b "Allen W. Dulles, C.I.A. Director From 1953 to 1961, Dies at 75. Allen W. Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence From 1953 to 1961, Is Dead at 75". The New York Times. January 31, 1969.
- ^ a b c d e "Obituaries 1969", Britannica Book of the Year 1970, Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1970, p. 580, ISBN 0-85229-144-2
- ^ "Allen Welsh Dulles – CIA director". CNN. Archived from the original on 2008-01-07. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ "Twelve Freshman Debates Chosen From Whig Hall". The Daily Princetonian. 36 (29). 31 March 1911. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- ^ "When a C.I.A. Director Had Scores of Affairs". The New York Times. 2012-11-10. Retrieved 5 November 2014..
- ^ Richard Breitman et al. (2005). OSS Knowledge of the Holocaust. In: U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis. pp. 11-44. [Online]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available from: Cambridge Books Online doi:10.1017/CBO9780511618178.006 [Accessed 20 April 2016]. page 25
- ^ Grose 1994, pp. 65, 80–81.
- ^ "History of CFR: Appendix: Historical Roster of Directors and Officers". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ Mosley 1978, pp. 91–92.
- ^ Grose 1994, pp. 121–122.
- ^ a b Srodes 1999, pp. 189–190.
- ^ Edited by Neal H. Petersen, From Hitler's Doorstep: The wartime intelligence reports of Allen Dulles 1942-1945, 
- ^ Hansjakob Stehle "Die Spione aus dem Pfarrhaus (German: The spy from the rectory)" In: Die Zeit, 5 January 1996.
- ^ Fritz Molden "Fires In The Night: The Sacrifices And Significance Of The Austrian Resistance" ((2019).
- ^ Helga Thoma "Mahner-Helfer-Patrioten: Porträts aus dem österreichischen Widerstand" (2004), pp 150.
- ^ Elisabeth Boeckl-Klamper, Thomas Mang, Wolfgang Neugebauer: Gestapo-Leitstelle Wien 1938–1945. Vienna 2018, ISBN 978-3902494832, pp. 299–305.
- ^ Christoph Thurner "The CASSIA Spy Ring in World War II Austria: A History of the OSS's Maier-Messner Group" (2017), pp 187.
- ^ Talbot, David (2015). The Devil's Chessboard: Allen Dulles, the CIA, and the Rise of America's Secret Government. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0062276216
- ^ "Final Report on Foreign Aid of the House Select Committee on Foreign Aid" (PDF). Marshall Foundation. May 1, 1948. pp. 1, 52. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- ^ a b Bernstein, Barton J. (Fall 1987). "Crossing the Rubicon: A Missed Opportunity to Stop the H-Bomb?". International Security. 14 (2): 141, 155–156.
- ^ Weiner 2007, pp. 105–106.
- ^ Powers, Francis (2004). Operation Overflight: A Memoir of the U-2 Incident. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 324. ISBN 9781574884227.
- ^ Loretta Capeheart and Dragan Milovanovic, Social Justice: Theories, Issues, and Movements (Rutgers University Press, 2007; ISBN 0813540380), p. 186.
- ^ "With Sten guns and sovereigns Britain and US saved Iran's throne for the Shah"
- ^ Galeano, Eduardo (1991). Open Veins of Latin America. NYU Press. p. 113. ISBN 1583673113. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- ^ "CIA: Maker of Policy, or Tool?". The New York Times. April 25, 1966. p. 20, column 3. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ John F. Kennedy. Remarks Upon Presenting an Award to Allen W. Dulles, November 28, 1961 (Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project).
- ^ "Dulles, Allen W., June 1959-November 1962". Jfklibrary.org. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- ^ "The Dulles brothers and their secret wars". Radio National. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- ^ Lim, Xiuhui (1 November 2002). "Letter from Xiuhui Lim to Kofi Annan" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 26, 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- ^ "Dignitaries Attend Funeral For Dulles". The New York Times. February 2, 1969.
- ^ "Arcade Publishing". Arcadepub.com. 2012-09-01. Archived from the original on 2013-11-10. Retrieved 2014-06-22.
- ^ Emily VanDerWerff (2012-02-16). "AV Club". AV Club. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
- Dulles, Allen; Armstrong, Hamilton Fish (1936). Can We Be Neutral?. New York: Harper & Brothers. OCLC 513361.
- Dulles, Allen; Armstrong, Hamilton Fish (1939). Can America Stay Neutral?. New York: Harper & Brothers. OCLC 256170.
- Dulles, Allen (1947). Germany's Underground. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 207. LCCN 47002566.
- Dulles, Allen; Wala, Michael (1993). The Marshall Plan. Providence, RI: Berg. ISBN 978-0-85496-350-8.
- Dulles, Allen; Petersen, Neal H. (1999). From Hitler's Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942–1945. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01485-7.
- Dulles, Allen (2000). Germany's Underground; with a new introduction by Peter Hoffmann. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80928-1.
- Dulles, Allen (2004). The Secret Surrender: The Classic Insider's Account of the Secret Plot to Surrender Northern Italy During WWII. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-59228-368-3.
- Dulles, Allen (1963). The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World (PDF). Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-59228-297-0.
- Grose, Peter. Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. ISBN 978-0395516072
- Immerman, Richard H. (1982). The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71083-2.
- Kinzer, Stephen. The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War. New York: Times Books, 2013. ISBN 978-0805094978
- Lisagor, Nancy; Lipsius, Frank (1988). A Law Unto Itself: The Untold Story of the Law Firm Sullivan and Cromwell. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04888-9.
- Loftus, John; Aarons, Mark (1994). The Secret war against the Jews: How Western Espionage Betrayed the Jewish People. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-15648-0.
- Mosley, Leonard (1978). Dulles: A Biography of Eleanor, Allen, and John Foster Dulles and their Family Network. New York: Dial Press.
- Srodes, James (1999). Allen Dulles: Master of Spies. Washington, D.C.: Regnery. ISBN 0-89526-314-9.
- Trento, Joseph John (2001). The Secret History of the CIA. Roseville, CA: Prima. ISBN 978-0-7615-2562-2.
- Weiner, Tim (2007). Legacy of Ashes: The History of the Central Intelligence Agency. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-51445-3.
- Hastings, Max (2015). The Secret War: Spies, Codes and Guerrillas, 1939-1945. London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0007503742
- Peyrefitte, Alain (2011). C'etait de Gaulle. Distribooks. ISBN 978-2253151852
- Sharp, Tony (2014). Stalin's American Spy: Noel Field, Allen Dulles and the East European Show-Trials. Hurst. ISBN 978-1849044967
- Talbot, David (2015). The Devil's Chessboard: Allen Dulles, the CIA, and the Rise of America's Secret Government. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0062276216
- von Lingen, Kerstin (2013). Allen Dulles, the OSS, and Nazi War Criminals: The Dynamics of Selective Prosecution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107025936
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