American Samoa has been a member of the Pacific Community
since 1983. American Samoa is noted for having the highest rate of military enlistment of any U.S. state or territory. As of September 9, 2014, the local U.S. Army
recruiting station in Pago Pago
was ranked first in production out of the 885 Army recruiting stations and centers under the United States Army Recruiting Command
Traditional oral literature
of Samoa and Manuʻa talks of a widespread Polynesian
network or confederacy
(or "empire") that was prehistorically ruled by the successive Tui Manuʻa dynasties. Manuan genealogies and religious oral literature also suggest that the Tui Manuʻa had long been one of the most prestigious and powerful paramounts of Samoa. Oral history suggests that the Tui Manuʻa kings governed a confederacy of far-flung islands which included Fiji
as well as smaller western Pacific chiefdoms
and Polynesian outliers
such as Uvea
, and Tuvalu
. Commerce and exchange routes between the western Polynesian societies is well documented and it is speculated that the Tui Manuʻa dynasty grew through its success in obtaining control over the oceanic trade of currency goods such as finely woven ceremonial mats, whale ivory
tools, chiefly red feathers, and seashells reserved for royalty (such as polished nautilus
and the egg cowry
18th century: First Western contact
Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen
was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands
in 1722, calling them the "Baumann Islands" after one of his captains. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville
who named them the "Îles des Navigateurs" in 1768. British explorer James Cook
recorded the island names in 1773, but never visited.
The 1789 visit by La Perouse
ended in an attack
and resulted in the death of his second in command Capt. de Langle
and several of his crew on a Tutuila
water collection expedition. La Perouse named the island "Massacre Island", and the bay near Aasu
is still called "Massacre Bay".
German, British and American warships in Apia Harbor, Samoa, 1899
1896 map of the Samoa Islands
In March 1889, an Imperial German
naval force entered a village on Samoa, and in doing so destroyed some American property. Three American warships then entered the Apia
harbor and prepared to engage the three German warships found there.
Before any shots were fired, a typhoon
wrecked both the American and German ships. A compulsory armistice
was then called because of the lack of any warships.
Early 20th century
Tuimanuʻa Elisala Alalamua, the last official titleholder of Tui Manuʻa
At the turn of the twentieth century, international rivalries in the latter half of the century were settled by the 1899 Tripartite Convention
in which Germany and the United States partitioned the Samoan Islands
the eastern island group became a territory of the United States (Tutuila in 1900 and officially Manuʻa in 1904)
and is today known as American Samoa; the western islands, by far the greater landmass, became known as German Samoa
, after Britain gave up all claims to Samoa and in return accepted the termination of German rights in Tonga
and certain areas in the Solomon Islands
and West Africa
Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention
of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889
and the Anglo-German Agreement on Samoa of 1899.
The following year, the U.S. formally annexed
its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago
After the United States Navy
took possession of eastern Samoa for the United States government
, the existing coaling station
at Pago Pago Bay was expanded into a full naval station
, known as United States Naval Station Tutuila
and commanded by a commandant. The Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila
in 1900 and a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa
in 1904 on behalf of the U.S. government. The last sovereign of Manuʻa, the Tui Manuʻa Elisala
, signed a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa following a series of U.S. naval trials, known as the "Trial of the Ipu", in Pago Pago, Taʻu, and aboard a Pacific Squadron
The territory became known as the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila
On July 17, 1911, the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila, which was composed of Tutuila, Aunuʻu
and Manuʻa, was officially renamed American Samoa.
People of Manuʻa
had been unhappy since they were left out of the name "Naval Station Tutuila". In May 1911, Governor William Michael Crose
authored a letter to the Secretary of the Navy conveying the sentiments of Manuʻa. The department responded that the people should choose a name for their new territory. The traditional leaders chose “American Samoa”, and, on July 7, 1911, the solicitor general of the Navy
authorized the governor to proclaim it as the name for the new territory.:209
World War I and the 1918 flu pandemic
In 1918, during the final stages of World War I
, the flu pandemic
had taken its toll, spreading rapidly from country to country. American Samoa became one of the only places in the world (the others being New Caledonia
and Marajó island
in Brazil) to have proactively prevented any deaths during the pandemic through the quick response from Governor John Martin Poyer
after hearing news reports of the outbreak on the radio and requesting quarantine ships
from the U.S. mainland. The result of Poyer's quick actions earned him the Navy Cross
from the U.S. Navy
. With this distinction, American Samoans regarded Poyer as their hero for what he had done to prevent the deadly disease. The neighboring New Zealand territory at the time, Western Samoa
, suffered the most of all Pacific islands
, with 90% of the population infected; 30% of adult men, 22% of adult women and 10% of children died.
Poyer offered assistance to help his New Zealand counterparts, but was refused by the administrator of Western Samoa, Robert Logan
, who became outraged after witnessing the number of quarantine ships surrounding American Samoa. Angered by this, Logan cut off communications with his American counterparts.
American Samoa Mau movement
After World War I, during the time of the Mau movement
in Western Samoa (then a League of Nations
mandate governed by New Zealand), there was a corresponding American Samoa Mau movement led by Samuelu Ripley, a World War I veteran who was from Leone
village, Tutuila. After meetings in the United States mainland, he was prevented from disembarking from the ship that brought him home to American Samoa and was not allowed to return because the American Samoa Mau movement was suppressed by the U.S. Navy. In 1930 the U.S. Congress
sent a committee to investigate the status of American Samoa, led by Americans who had a part in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Annexation of Swains Island
World War II and aftermath
During World War II
, U.S. Marines
stationed in Samoa outnumbered the local population and had a huge cultural influence. Young Samoan men from age 14 and above were combat trained by U.S. military personnel
. Samoans served in various capacities during World War II, including as combatants, medical personnel, code personnel, and ship repairmen.
In 1949, Organic Act 4500, a U.S. Department of Interior
–sponsored attempt to incorporate American Samoa, was introduced in Congress. It was ultimately defeated, primarily through the efforts of Samoan chiefs, led by Tuiasosopo Mariota.
The efforts of these chiefs led to the creation of a territorial legislature, the American Samoa Fono
, which meets in the village of Fagatogo
. In 1950 the Department of the Interior began to administer the American Samoa.
By 1956, the U.S. Navy–appointed governor was replaced by Peter Tali Coleman
, who was locally elected. Although technically considered "unorganized" since the U.S. Congress has not passed an Organic Act
for the territory, American Samoa is self-governing under a constitution
that became effective on July 1, 1967. The U.S. Territory of American Samoa is on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
, a listing which is disputed by the territorial government officials, who do consider themselves to be self-governing.
While the two Samoas share language and ethnicity, their cultures have recently followed different paths, with American Samoans often emigrating to Hawaiʻi
and the U.S. mainland, and adopting many U.S. customs, such as the playing of American football
have tended to emigrate instead to New Zealand
, whose influence has made the sports of rugby
more popular in the western Samoan islands. Travel writer Paul Theroux
noted that there were marked differences between the societies in Samoa
and American Samoa.
American Samoans have a high rate of service in the U.S. Armed Forces
Because of economic hardship, military service has been seen as an opportunity in American Samoa and other U.S. Overseas territories
This has meant that there has been a disproportionate number of casualties per population compared to other parts of the United States. As of March 23, 2009, ten American Samoans had died in Iraq
, and two had died in Afghanistan
On December 13, 1784, French navigator Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse
landed two exploration parties on Tutuila's north shore: one from the ship La Boussole
at Fagasa, and the other from L'Astrolabe
. One of the cooks, David, died of "scorbutic dropsy". On December 11, twelve members of Lapérouse's crew (including First Officer Paul Antoine Fleuriot de Langle
) were killed by angry Samoans at Aʻasu Bay, Tutuila, thereafter known as "Massacre Bay", which Lapérouse described as "this den, more fearful from its treacherous situation and the cruelty of its inhabitants than the lair of a lion or a tiger". This incident gave Samoa a reputation for savagery that kept Europeans away until the arrival of the first Christian missionaries four decades later. On December 12, at Aʻasu Bay, Lapérouse ordered his gunners to fire one cannonball in the midst of the attackers who had killed his men the day before, and were now returning to launch another attack. He later wrote in his journal "I could have destroyed or sunk a hundred canoes, with more than 500 people in them: but I was afraid of striking the wrong victims; the call of my conscience saved their lives."
On December 19, 1912, English writer William Somerset Maugham
arrived in Pago Pago, allegedly accompanied by a missionary and Miss Sadie Thompson. His visit inspired his short story "Rain" which later became plays and three major Motion Pictures. The building still stands where Maugham stayed and has been renamed the Sadie Thompson Building
. Today it is a prominent restaurant and inn.
On November 2, 1921, American Samoa's 13th naval governor
, Commander Warren Jay Terhune
, died by suicide with a pistol in the bathroom of the government mansion, overlooking the entrance to Pago Pago Harbor. His body was discovered by Government House's cook, SDI[clarification needed]
First Class Felisiano Debid Ahchica, USN. His ghost is rumored to walk about the grounds at night.
Pago Pago Harbor today and inter-island dock area
On August 17, 1924, Margaret Mead
arrived in American Samoa aboard the SS Sonoma
to begin fieldwork for her doctoral dissertation in anthropology at Columbia University, where she was a student of Professor Franz Boas
. Her work Coming of Age in Samoa
was published in 1928, at the time becoming the most widely read book in the field of anthropology
. The book has sparked years of ongoing and intense debate and controversy. Mead returned to American Samoa in 1971 for the dedication of the Jean P. Haydon Museum
The Samoan Clipper
In 1938, the noted aviator Ed Musick
and his crew died on the Pan American World Airways
S-42 Samoan Clipper
over Pago Pago, while on a survey flight to Auckland
, New Zealand
. Sometime after takeoff, the aircraft experienced trouble, and Musick turned it back toward Pago Pago. While the crew dumped fuel in preparation for an emergency landing, an explosion occurred that tore the aircraft apart.
On November 21, 1939, American Samoa's last execution was carried out. Imoa was convicted of stabbing Sema to death and was hanged
in the Customs House
. The popular Samoan song "Faʻafofoga Samoa" is based on this, said to be the final words of Imoa.
On January 13, 1942, at 2:26 am, a Japanese submarine surfaced off Tutuila between Southworth Point and Fagasa
Bay and fired about 15 shells from its 5.5-inch deck gun at the U.S. Naval Station Tutuila over the next 10 minutes. The first shell struck the rear of Frank Shimasaki's store, ironically owned by one of Tutuila's few Japanese residents. The store was closed, as Mr. Shimasaki had been interned as an enemy alien. The next shell caused slight damage to the naval dispensary, the third landed on the lawn behind the naval quarters known as "Centipede Row," and the fourth struck the stone seawall outside the customs house. The other rounds fell harmlessly into the harbor. As one writer described it, "The fire was not returned, notwithstanding the eagerness of the Samoan Marines to test their skill against the enemy ... No American or Samoan Marines were wounded."
Commander Edwin B. Robinson was bicycling behind Centipede Row and was wounded in the knee by a piece of shrapnel
, and "a member of the colorful native Fita Fita Guard" received minor injuries; they were the only casualties. This was the only time the Japanese attacked Tutuila during World War II
, although "Japanese submarines had patrolled the waters around Samoa before the war, and continued to be active there throughout the war."
On August 24, 1943, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt
visited American Samoa and inspected the Fita Fita Guard and Band and the First Samoan Battalion of U.S. Marine Corps Reserve at the U.S. Naval Station American Samoa.:178
The fact that First Lady reviewed the troops led to further assurance that Tutuila Island was considered safe.
Her presence underscored that World War II had passed by American Samoa. While the Fita Fita band played, Eleanor Roosevelt inspected the guard.
On October 18, 1966, President Lyndon Baines Johnson
and First Lady Lady Bird Johnson
visited American Samoa. Mrs. Johnson dedicated the "Manulele Tausala" ("Lady Bird") Elementary School in Nuʻuuli
, which was named after her. Johnson is the only US president to have visited American Samoa, while Mrs. Johnson was the second First Lady, preceded by Eleanor Roosevelt in 1943.:192
The territory's only hospital was renamed the LBJ Tropical Medical Center
in honor of President Johnson.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, American Samoa played a pivotal role in five of the Apollo Program missions
. The astronauts landed several hundred miles from Pago and were transported to the islands en route back to the mainland. President Richard Nixon
gave three moon rocks to the American Samoan government, and these are on display in the Jean P. Haydon Museum, along with a flag carried to the moon on one of the missions.
In November 1970, Pope Paul VI
visited American Samoa in a brief but lavish greeting.:292
On January 30, 1974, Pan Am Flight 806
, New Zealand crashed at Pago Pago International Airport at 10:41 pm, with 91 passengers aboard. 86 people were killed, including Captain Leroy A. Petersen and the entire flight crew. Four of the five surviving passengers were seriously injured, with the other only slightly injured. The airliner was completely destroyed by the impact and succeeding fire. The crash was attributed to poor visibility, pilot error, or wind shear, since a violent storm was raging at the time.
In January 2014, filmmaker Paul Crompton visited the territory to interview local residents for a documentary film about the 1974 crash.
A U.S. Navy P-3 Orion
patrol plane from Patrol Squadron 50
(VP-50) had its vertical stabilizer shorn off by the Solo Ridge-Mount Alava aerial tramway
cable across Pago Pago harbor on April 17, 1980, during the Flag Day
celebrations, when carrying six skydivers from the U.S. Army's Hawaii-based Tropic Lightning Parachute Club. The plane crashed, demolishing a wing of the Rainmaker Hotel
and killing all six crew members and one civilian. The six skydivers had already left the aircraft during a demonstration jump. A memorial monument is erected on Mt. Mauga O Aliʻi to honor their memory.
On July 22, 2010, Detective Lieutenant Lusila Brown was fatally shot outside the temporary High Court building in Fagatogo. It was the first time in more than 15 years that a police officer was killed in the line of duty. The last was Sa Fuimaono, who drowned after saving a teenager from rough seas.
was the third sitting U.S. vice president to visit American Samoa (after Dan Quayle
and Joe Biden
when he made a stopover in Pago Pago in April 2017.
He addressed 200 soldiers here during his refueling stop.
U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson
visited town on June 3, 2017.
September 2009 earthquake and tsunami
On September 28, 2009, at 17:48:11 UTC, an 8.1 magnitude earthquake
struck 120 miles (190 km) off the coast of American Samoa, followed by smaller aftershocks.
It was the largest
earthquake of 2009. The quake occurred on the outer rise
of the Kermadec-Tonga Subduction Zone
. This is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire
, where tectonic plates
in the Earth's lithosphere
meet and earthquakes and volcanic activity are common. The quake struck 11.2 miles (18.0 km) below the ocean floor and generated an onsetting tsunami
that killed more than 170 people in the Samoa Islands and Tonga
Four waves with heights from 15 feet (4.6 m) to 20 feet (6.1 m) high were reported to have reached up to one mile (1.6 km) inland on the island of Tutuila.
Government and politics
The judiciary of American Samoa
is composed of the High Court of American Samoa
, a District Court, and village courts.
The High Court and District Court are located in Fagatogo, near the Fono.
The High Court is led by a Chief Justice and an Associate Justice, appointed by the Secretary of the Interior.
Other judges are appointed by the governor upon the recommendation of the Chief Justice and confirmed by the Senate.
There is also the traditional village politics of the Samoa Islands, the "faʻamatai
" and the "faʻa Sāmoa
", which continues in American Samoa and in independent Samoa, and which interacts across these current boundaries. The faʻa Sāmoa is the language and customs, and the faʻamatai the protocols of the "fono" (council) and the chief system. The faʻamatai and the fono take place at all levels of the Samoan body politic, from the family, to the village, to the region, to national matters.
is the family unit of Samoan society, which differs from the Western sense of a family
in that it consists of an 'extended family' based on the culture's communal socio-political
organization. The head of the ʻaiga is the matai. The matai (chiefs) are elected by consensus within the fono of the extended family and village(s) concerned. The matai and the fono, which is itself made of matai, decide on distribution of family exchanges and tenancy of communal lands. The majority of lands in American Samoa and independent Samoa are communal
. A matai can represent a small family group or a great extended family that reaches across islands, and to both American Samoa and independent Samoa.
In 2010, voters rejected a package of amendments
to the territorial constitution, which would have, among other things, allowed U.S. citizens to be legislators only if they had Samoan ancestry.
In 2012, both the Governor and American Samoa's delegate to the U.S. Congress Eni Faleomavaega
called for the populace to consider a move towards autonomy if not independence, to a mixed response.
According to the Immigration and Nationality Act
(INA), the people born in American Samoa—including those born on Swains Island
but not citizens of the United States
If a child is born on any of these islands to any U.S. citizen, then that child is considered a national and a citizen of the United States at birth.
In an amicus curiae
brief filed in federal court, American Samoan Congressman Faleomavaega supported the legal interpretation that the Citizenship Clause
of the Fourteenth Amendment
does not extend birthright citizenship
to United States nationals born in unincorporated territories.
All U.S. nationals have statutory rights to reside in all parts of the United States, and may apply for citizenship by naturalization
after three months of residency by paying a fee, passing a test in English and civics, and taking an oath of allegiance to the United States.
However, the INA makes clear that any "national but not a citizen of the United States" who at any time has been convicted of any aggravated felony
, whether the aggravated felony was committed inside or outside the United States, is "debarred
from becoming a citizen of the United States".
All U.S. nationals also have the right to work in the United States, except in certain government jobs that specifically require U.S. citizenship.
In December 2019, U.S. District Judge Clark Waddoups
struck down 8 U.S.C. § 1408(1)
as facially unconstitutional, holding that "Persons born in American Samoa are citizens of the United States by virtue of the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment",
his order pending appeal.
Therefore, most American Samoans continue to be treated as U.S. nationals but not U.S. citizens.
Unique among U.S. territories, American Samoa has its own immigration law, separate from the laws that apply
in other parts of the United States. While U.S. nationals can freely move to American Samoa, the American Samoan government, via its Immigration Office, controls the migration of aliens to the islands.
Special application forms exist for migration to American Samoa based on family or employment sponsorship.
Unlike all other permanently inhabited U.S. jurisdictions (states
, District of Columbia
, Puerto Rico
, U.S. Virgin Islands
and Northern Mariana Islands
), American Samoa is not considered a U.S. state for the purposes of the U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act.
As a result, there is no path for immigrants to American Samoa to apply for U.S. citizenship, or U.S. nationality at all, without permanent residence in another U.S. jurisdiction.
In addition, aliens who do have lawful permanent residence in the United States
may be considered to have abandoned it if they have moved to live in American Samoa, and time spent there does not count in the required period of U.S. presence for naturalization.
U.S. nationals without U.S. citizenship (the status of most American Samoans) have the right to reside in all parts of the United States without immigration restrictions. They also have the same rights as lawful permanent residents to sponsor foreign family members to immigrate to the United States (they may sponsor spouses and unmarried children), but not the same rights as U.S. citizens (who may also sponsor parents, married children and siblings).
About 90 percent of the land is communally owned by ʻaiga
It is illegal for any person whose blood is less than one-half Samoan to own land in American Samoa.
Official protest to naming of neighboring Samoa
The U.S. Embassy in Samoa notes that: "In July 1997 the Constitution was amended to change the country's name from Western Samoa to Samoa. Samoa had been known simply as Samoa in the United Nations since joining the organization in 1976. The neighboring U.S. territory of American Samoa protested the move, feeling that the change diminished its own Samoan identity. American Samoans still use the terms Western Samoa and Western Samoans."
and counties of American Samoa[b]
Map of American Samoa
Cockscomb Point on Pola Island
is seen jutting into the ocean.
The highest mountains are: Lata Mountain
), 3,170 ft (970 m); Matafao Peak
, 2,141 ft (653 m); Piumafua (Olosega
), 2,095 ft (639 m); and Tumutumu (Ofu
), 1,621 ft (494 m). Mount Pioa
, nicknamed the Rainmaker, is 1,718 ft (524 m).:3
American Samoa is also home to some of the world's highest sea cliffs at 3,000 ft (910 m).
Coastline of American Samoa (in Vatia
seamount, an active submerged volcano
, lies 28 miles (45 km) east of Taʻū
in American Samoa. It was discovered in 1975 and has since been studied by an international team of scientists, contributing towards understanding of the Earth's fundamental processes.
Growing inside the summit crater
of Vailuluʻu is an active underwater volcanic cone
, named after Samoa's goddess of war, Nafanua
American Samoa has a tropical climate
all year round with two distinct seasons
, the wet
and dry season
. The wet season is usually between December and March and the dry season from April through to September with the average daily temperature around 81–83 °F (27–28 °C) all year round.
The climate is warm, tropical, and humid, averaging around 80 °F or 26.7 °C, with a variation of about 15 °F or 8 °C during the year. The southern hemisphere winter, from June to September, is the coolest time of the year. The summer months of December to March bring hotter temperatures, while the months from April to November are considered the “dry” season. Throughout the year, however, rain follows clouds blown in by the trade winds that rise from the east almost daily. The mountains of the Pago Pago
area, standing protectively over Pago Pago Harbor
, catch these clouds, bringing an average of 200 inches or 5,100 millimeters of rainfall per year.:4
This article should be divided into sections by topic, to make it more accessible
. Please help by adding section headings in accordance with Wikipedia's Manual of Style
. (June 2021)
Locations of the Samoan Islands, including American Samoa
The American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency (ASEPA) notes that the territory "has a fragile ecosystem" which is "directly and immediately impacted by global climate change".
Due to the shoreline concentration of the population, rising sea levels
are likely to destroy property and displace residents.
"This increase in sea level means that anything that makes the ocean waves reach farther inland (such as a king tide
or a tropical cyclone
) will cause more flooding than when the sea level was lower. For example, a deadly tsunami struck American Samoa in 2009, and because of longterm sea level rise
over the past century, it caused more damage than it would have if sea level had not been rising".
Freshwater aquifers from which the local water supply is drawn are similarly threatened with seawater intrusion due to rising sea levels.
It has further been noted that climate change "warms nearshore waters causing the corals to bleach and/or die", with warm-water bleaching occurring annually by the mid-2010s, and with "significant bleaching events [having] occurred in 1994, 2002 and 2003".
ASEPA similarly notes that "[c]limate change endangers the survival of our coral reefs", which help protect the island from hurricanes and support local fishing.
In 2017, the NPS
predicted a possible increase in mosquito-borne diseases
such as dengue fever
in tropical regions, including American Samoa, due to global warming
, which "appears to be triggering a number of disease epidemics worldwide, involving a diversity of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites) and a wide range of hosts", according to the NPS.
The economic health of American Samoa reflects the trends in other populated U.S. territories, which are in turn dependent on federal appropriations. Federal dollars enter the economy through congressional appropriations, categorical grants, Social Security
payments, and payments to Samoans retired from the Military
. Tuna canning is the backbone of the American Samoa economy. Cannery employment and local auxiliary businesses provide additional revenues for the territorial government. In the mid-1960s, efforts began to develop a tourism industry in American Samoa. These efforts have been delayed due to issues such as inconsistent airlines services, insufficient high-quality accommodations, and the lack of well-trained workers in the hospitality and tourism industries. Agriculture and fishing still provide sustenance for local families.:8–9
Employment on the island falls into three relatively equal-sized categories of approximately 5,000 workers each: the public sector
, the single remaining tuna cannery
, and the rest of the private sector
There are only a few federal
employees in American Samoa and a few active duty
military personnel, except members of the U.S. Coast Guard
, military recruiters, and some Full Time Support staff at the Pele Army Reserve unit that maintains the facility and provides cadre, training, and logistics support. The Pele US Army Reserve Center is in Tafuna
and a U.S. Army
and United States Marine Corps
recruiting station is in Nuʻuuli
There are six Army Reserve units at Pele:
- Bravo Company, 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry
- Charlie Company, 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry
- 411th Forward Support Company (Engineer)
- USAR Theater Support Group Detachment American Samoa
- 1st Evacuation/Mortuary Platoon, 2nd Platoon, 962nd Quartermaster Company
- 127th Chaplain Detachment
The overwhelming majority of public sector employees work for the American Samoa territorial government. The one tuna cannery is StarKist
, which exports several hundred million dollars worth of canned tuna to the United States each year. In early 2007, the Samoan economy was highlighted in the Congress
at the request of Eni Faleomavaega
, the Samoan delegate to the United States House of Representatives
, as it was not mentioned in the minimum wage
bill. It was given no exemption from the coming increases, which he protested as unfair to the Samoan economy. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi
initially granted his request for an exemption, but backed down after being accused of serving special interests, since tuna packing company Chicken of the Sea
was based in her district.
Samoa Packing, a Chicken of the Sea subsidiary
closed in 2009, citing both minimum wage
increases and increasing foreign competition, with the latter as the "main reason".
Minimum wage in Samoa has been the topic of much debate, with the Samoan government and Chamber of Commerce strongly opposed, while businesses and workers hold nuanced views.
From 2002 to 2007, real GDP
of American Samoa increased at an average annual rate of 0.4 percent. The annual growth rates of real GDP ranged from −2.9 percent to +2.1 percent. The volatility in the growth rates of real GDP was primarily accounted for by changes in the exports of canned tuna. The tuna canning industry was the largest private employer in American Samoa during this period. In 2017, GDP in American Samoa decreased by 5.8%, but in 2018 it increased by 2.2%.
This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2020)
Summary statistics for American Samoa
- A Average annual growth rate.
- B In millions of dollars.
- C In millions of 2005 chained dollars.
- D Source: 2008 American Samoa Statistical Yearbook.
From 2002 to 2007, the population of American Samoa increased at an average annual rate of 2.3 percent, and real GDP per capita decreased at an average annual rate of 1.9 percent.
Agricultural production serves as a cover for domestic needs and only a small share of fruits and vegetables are exported. According to figures as of 2013, the ratio between import and export is almost balanced. Many residents rely on transfer payments from relatives living in the mainland or from federal subsidies.
Tisa's Barefoot Bar & Grill
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
has contained special provisions for American Samoa since its inception, citing its limited economy.
American Samoan wages are based on the recommendations of a Special Industry Committee meeting bi-annually.
Originally, the act contained provisions for other territories, provisions which were phased out as those territories developed more diverse economies.
In 2007, the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007
was passed, increasing minimum wage in American Samoa by 50¢ per hour in 2007 and another 50¢ per hour each year thereafter until the minimum wage in American Samoa equals the federal minimum wage
of $7.25 per hour in the United States.
In response to the minimum wage increase, the Chicken of the Sea
tuna canning plant was shut down in 2009 and 2,041 employees were laid off in the process.
The other major tuna canning plant in American Samoa is StarKist
, which began laying off workers in August 2010, with plans to lay off a total of 800 workers due to the minimum wage increases and other rising operation costs.
American Samoa Governor Togiola Tulafono
suggested that, rather than laying off minimum wage workers, the companies could reduce salaries and bonuses of top-tier employees.
The unemployment rate
was 29.8% in 2005, but has been improved to 23.8% as of 2010. In 2017, American Samoa's GDP was $634 million.
Its GDP per capita (PPP) was $11,200 as of 2016.
As in other U.S. territories, the U.S. federal government imposes payroll taxes
and the equivalent self-employment tax
on income from work in American Samoa, but not the federal income tax
on income generated in American Samoa by its residents (except from work as U.S. government employees).
Instead, the government of American Samoa itself taxes the worldwide income of its residents, as well as the income generated there by nonresidents, largely under the same rules and rates as the U.S. tax code in effect in 2000,
with certain modifications such as a minimum tax rate of 4%
and an additional wage tax of 2%.
A similar situation applies to corporations.
In 1983, the use of citizenship in taxation by American Samoa (due to its incorporation of the U.S. tax code) was ruled unconstitutional.
The U.S. federal government does not impose estate
or gift taxes
on property not located in the United States (states and District of Columbia
) owned by residents of a U.S. territory (including American Samoa) who are not U.S. citizens or who acquired U.S. citizenship by birth or naturalization in that same U.S. territory.
However, these taxes still apply to residents of a U.S. territory who acquired U.S. citizenship by birth or naturalization in a different part of the U.S. or by descent.
It has been argued that this distinction based on place of birth, and not only residence or citizenship, is a rare case of unconstitutional tax discrimination, but it has never been challenged in court.
The government of American Samoa itself does not impose estate or gift taxes.
Unlike U.S. citizens, U.S. nationals without U.S. citizenship (the status of most American Samoans) who do not reside in the United States or any U.S. territory enjoy the unique combination of maintaining a U.S. passport
and the right of return to the U.S. while not being subject to U.S. federal income tax on their non-U.S. income,
or to U.S. federal estate or gift taxes on their non-U.S. property.
It is not possible for U.S. citizens (or anyone) to acquire this status after birth.
American Samoa does not impose a sales tax, but it imposes a general import tax of 8%.
American Samoa is an independent customs territory
, whose importation rules and taxes differ from those applicable to other parts of the United States.
In 2012 Michael Calabrese, Daniel Calarco, and Colin Richardson stated that American Samoa had the most expensive internet of any U.S. territory, and that the speeds were only slightly superior to those of dial-up internet
in the U.S. Mainland in the 1990s. They also stated that many American Samoans are too poor to afford "high-speed internet".
American Samoa Route Marker – Main Road
On June 8, 1922, the first bus service on Tutuila began its operations.
There is currently a bus system in American Samoa called the ʻaiga
bus system—it consists of buses that travel across the island of Tutuila
As of 2021 the population of American Samoa is about 46,366 people,
97% of whom live on the largest island, Tutuila
About 65% of the population are U.S. nationals, of whom at least 10% are U.S. citizens.
Of the foreign-born population, 81% are from Samoa
, 9% are from other parts of Oceania
, and 9% are from Asia
Ethnicity and language
Of the population, 88.9% are native Samoans
, 3.7% are other Pacific Islanders
, 3.6% are Asian, 2.7% are mixed, and 1.2% are of other origins. Samoan
, a language closely related to Hawaiian
and other Polynesian languages
, is spoken natively
by 88.6% of the people and is the co-official language of the territory, while 3.9% speak only English
, 2.7% speak Tongan
, 3% speak other Pacific islander languages
, and 1.8% speak other languages.
Most people are bilingual,
and only 1.2% do not speak English.
At least some of the deaf
population use Samoan Sign Language
is also spoken in Swains Island
One of many churches in Samoa
American Samoa was home to one high school as of 1961, which existed due to the matai's pressure on the naval governor to transform the old Marine barracks at Utulei
into a school. The teenagers of well-off and more politically connected families attended the school, which would later be known as Samoana High School
. With a median age of 15, the demand for more high schools was increasing, and three new high schools were established by 1968. Another two soon followed, and by 1979, 2,800 high school students were attending six public and private high schools in American Samoa. Looking for a cost-effective way for educational reformation, Governor H. Rex Lee
introduced the public television system in 1964.
The Samoan culture has developed over 3,500 years and largely withstood interaction with European cultures. It was adapted well to the teachings of Christianity
. The Samoan language is still in use in daily exchange; however, English is widely used and also the legal official language. Besides Samoan language
classes and cultural courses, all instructions in public schools are in English. The basic unit of the American Samoa culture is the ʻaiga
(family). It consists of both immediate and extended family.
, or chief, is the head of the ʻaiga. The chief is the custodian of all ʻaiga properties. A village (nuʻu) is made up of several or many ʻaiga with a common or shared interest. Each ʻaiga is represented by their chief in the village councils.:5–6
log drums at Piula Theological College, distant ancestor of the Fijian Lali
Music in Samoa
is a complex mix of cultures and traditions, with pre- and post-European contact histories. Since American colonization, popular traditions such as rap and hip hop have been integrated into Samoan music.
Traditional Samoan musical instruments
includes several different distinctive instruments, including a fala
, which is a rolled-up mat beaten with sticks and several types of slit drum
The main sports played in American Samoa are football
, Samoan cricket
, table tennis
, and fishing tournaments. Some current and former sports clubs are the American Samoa Tennis Association, Rugby Unions, Lavalava Golf Club, and Gamefish Association. Leagues improved and organized better after the completion of the Veterans Memorial Stadium
The 1997 South Pacific Mini Games
were the biggest international event ever to take place in American Samoa. The bid to host the games for the 23 participating countries was approved in May 1993. In January 1994, Governor A. P. Lutali
appointed Fuga Teleso to head the task force charged with game preparations, including the construction of a stadium. Groundbreaking was in January 1994. The Governor later handed the task force on preparations to Lieutenant Governor Togiola. The task force merged with the American Samoa National Olympics Committee to better coordinate and facilitate preparations. V.P. Willis Construction built the 1,500 seat stands. The Department of Public Safety
trained its force for special games security. The opening ceremony became extravagant where the U.S. Army Reserve
carried the torch from Tula
About 2,000 athletes, coaches, and sponsors attended from 19 countries and competed in 11 sports at the game. American Samoa fielded a team of 248 athletes. The team won 48 medals, 22 of which were gold medals, and American Samoa came in fourth overall in the ratings. American Samoa Rotary Club
honored Fuga Tolani Teleso with the community's top award, the Paul Harris Fellowship Award, for his work on constructing the Veterans Memorial Stadium
In 1982, yachters competed in the Hobie World Championship held in Tahiti
. American Samoa beat the Apia
team by half a point and won the Samoa Cup. In 1983, a team coached by Dr. Adele Satele-Galeai brought home the winning trophy from the Regional Women's Volleyball Tournament in Hawaii
. Also in 1983, the South Pacific Games
were held in Apia. American Samoa received 13 medals: four gold, four silver, and five bronze. That same year, three junior golfers made the cut out of 1,000 players to attend the World Junior Golf Tournament in San Diego, California
After World War II
, a Welfare and Recreation Department was created. This department arranged bowling, softball, badminton tournaments, basketball, and volleyball at various Tutuila locations. Boxing matches and dancing also became popular activities.
High school football game
About 30 ethnic Samoans, all from American Samoa, currently play in the National Football League
, and more than 200 play NCAA Division Icollege football
In recent years, it has been estimated that a Samoan male (either an American Samoan, or a Samoan living in the mainland United States) is anywhere from 40
to 56 times
more likely to play in the NFL than a non-Samoan American, giving American Samoa the nickname "Football Islands".
Samoans are the most disproportionately overrepresented ethnic group in the National Football League.
Six-time All-Pro Junior Seau
was one of the most famous Americans of Samoan heritage ever to play in the NFL, having been elected to the NFL 1990s All-Decade Team
and Pro Football Hall of Fame
. Pittsburgh Steelers
safety Troy Polamalu
, though born and raised in the mainland United States, is another famous American of Samoan heritage to have played in the NFL, not having his hair cut since 2000 (and only because a USC
coach told him he had to) and wearing it down during games in honor of his heritage. The football culture was featured on 60 Minutes
on January 17, 2010.
The American Samoa national rugby league team
represents the country in international rugby league
. The team competed in the 1988, 1992, 1998 and 2004 Pacific Cup
competitions. The team has also competed in the 2003 and 2004 World Sevens
qualifiers in the 2005 World Sevens. America Samoa's first match in international Rugby League was in the 1988 Pacific Cup
won the match 38–14 which is still the biggest loss by an American Samoan side. American Samoa's biggest win was in 2004 against New Caledonia
with the final score 62–6.
There is also a new movement which aims to set up a four-team domestic competition in American Samoa.
is a growing sport in American Samoa. The first rugby game recorded in American Samoa was in 1924, since then the development of the game had been heavily overshadowed by the influence of American Football
during the 1970s. The highest governing body of rugby in American Samoa is the American Samoa Rugby Union
which was founded in 1990 and was not affiliated into the IRB
until 2012. Internationally, two American Samoans have played for the New Zealand
national rugby union team, known as the All Blacks
. Frank Solomon
(born in Pago Pago
) became the first American national of Samoan descent to play for a New Zealand team. Considered a pacific pioneer in New Zealand rugby,
Solomon scored a try against Australia
in the inaugural Bledisloe Cup
match in 1932, which New Zealand won 21–13.
The second American Samoan to play for the All Blacks is Jerome Kaino
(born in Fagaʻalu
). A native of Leone
, Kaino moved to New Zealand when he was four. In 2004, at age 21, he played his first match for New Zealand against the Barbarians
where he scored his first try, contributing to New Zealand's 47–19 victory that resulted in him becoming man of the match. He also played a crucial role in the Rugby World Cup 2011
playing every match in the tournament. He scored four tries in the event which led to New Zealand winning the final against France
8–7. Kaino was also a key member of the 2015 Rugby World Cup
squad, where he played every match including a try he scored in the quarterfinals against France
which New Zealand won 62–13. He scored again in the semifinals against South Africa
, which New Zealand won 20–18. He played in the World Cup final against Australia
where New Zealand won again 34–17 to become world champions for a record three times (1987, 2011 and 2015). Kaino is one of twenty New Zealand rugby players to have won the Rugby World Cup
twice, back to back in 2011 and 2015. In August 2015, the American Samoa Rugby Union Board selected Leota Toma Patu from the village of Leone as the coach for the Talavalu 15 men's team that represented American Samoa at the Ocean Cup 2015 in Papua New Guinea.
A team from the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation
conducted a parks survey on American Samoa in the 1960s. Their team recommended sites at Cape Taputapu
, Aʻoloau Fou
(the plateau), Matautuloa Point, Nuʻuuli
, Matafao Peak
, Pago Pago
, Vaiʻava Strait
, Anasosopo, ʻAoa
, Cape Matautuloa, and Aunuʻu Island
. After an initial objection, Secretary Leʻiato gave his support and was appointed Chairman of the Territorial Parks and Recreation Committee. The first field meeting for a parkland acquisition was held between Judge Morrow on behalf of the government and the village council of Vatia
to make the Pola Island
area a public park. The dredge Palolo
was hired from Upolu
in January 1966 in order to dredge sand for Utulei Beach
. A specialist in beach developments, Ala Varone of the Army, directed the project. The centerpiece of the park was to be at the head of Pago Pago Harbor
, where it proposed a 13-acre site created by the dredge. The park would have facilities for sports and recreation as well as facilities for boats and the growing number of Asian immigrants arriving from Korea, Japan and China.:285
The Department of Parks and Recreation was created by law in 1980 and the Parks Commission was also established.:315
In 1981, Governor Peter Tali Coleman
appointed Fuga Tolani Teleso as Director of Parks and Recreation. On May 25, 1984, a groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Onesosopo reclamation to initiate work on the first park in the Eastern District
At the urging of Dr. Paul Cox, High Chief Nafanua of Falealupo
, and the Bat Preservers Association, Congressman Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia
introduced a bill in 1984 which would enter American Samoa into the Federal Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act. The purpose of the bill was to protect the ancient paleotropical
rainforests and the Flying foxmegabat
. The signing marked the beginning of American Samoa's entry into the U.S. National Park System
. In July 1987, the National Park Service began establishing a federal park. An initial appropriation of $400,000 was made in 1989. It contains one of the world's most remarkable rain forest and coastal reef ecologies and spreads across three islands. One of the most popular sites on Tutuila Island
include Pola Rock, a rise of sheer rock formations that protrudes over 400 feet (120 m) above the ocean's surface. It is located off the shores of Vatia
On September 19, 1991, Governor Peter Tali Coleman
and Department of the Interior
secretary Manuel Lujan
signed leases formalizing the establishment of the fiftieth U.S. National Park.:335
National Natural Landmarks
The ASG Parks and Recreation oversees the maintenance of all public parks, including the Amanave
Mini Park, Lions Park in Tafuna
, Onesosopo Park in Aua
, Malaloa Mini Park, Fagaʻalu
Park, Tia Seu Lupe
historical site at Fatuoaiga
, Pago Pago Park, Pago Pago Tennis Courts, the Little League Softball Field, Tony Solaʻita Baseball Field, Solo Ridge at the Utulei Tramway, Utulei Beach Park and Suʻigaulaoleatuvasa in Utulei
American Samoa has seven areas designated as National Natural Landmarks on Tutuila Island. This program is administrated by the U.S. National Park Service and the areas contain unique ecological or geological features. With the exception of Vaiʻava Strait
, none of the areas are within the National Park of American Samoa.:281
American Samoa's seven National Natural Landmarks
(NNL) were designated in 1972:
Turtles include the threatened Green sea turtle
and the endangered Hawksbill sea turtle
. Hawksbill sea turtles tend to nest on Tutuila beaches, while the Green sea turtle is most common on Rose Atoll
Tutuila has the highest number of nesting turtles, consisting of around fifty nesting females per year.
American Samoa is home to one species of amphibian: the Cane toad
. Biologists estimate that there are over two million toads on Tutuila.:252
915 nearshore fish species have been recorded in American Samoa, compared to only 460 nearshore fish species in Hawaii
With over 950 species of native fish and 250 coral species, American Samoa has the greatest marine biodiversity
in the United States.
are the only native mammal in American Samoa. The islands are home to two species of fruit bats: Pacific flying fox
and Samoa flying fox
. The Sheath-tailed bat
is another species found here, which is a smaller insect-eating bat. In 1992, the American Samoa Government banned the hunting of fruit bats to help their populations recover.
The Samoa flying fox is only found in Fiji
and the Samoan Islands.:200
From 1995 to 2000, the population of Samoa flying fox remained stable at about 900 animals on Tutuila, and 100 in the Manuʻa Islands
As of the year 2000, scientists from the American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resource estimated that there are fewer than 5,500 Pacific flying foxes in American Samoa, and an estimated 900 or fewer Samoa flying foxes.:199
The best and biggest known roost
on Tutuila Island for the Sheath-tailed bat is in the Anapeʻape Cove near Āfono
on Tutuila's north coast offers great roadside views of many bird species and both species of fruit bat.:274
The valley has been called a prime bird- and bat-watching area.
The many-colored fruit dove is one of the rarest birds that nest on Tutuila. Studies in the 1980s estimated their population size at Tutuila to be only around 80 birds. Amalau Valley
has been described as the best place in American Samoa to observe the many-colored fruit dove.
- ^ a b c The constitution specifies the seat of government at Fagatogo, where the legislature, High Court and District Court are located. The executive office building is located in neighboring Utulei. These two villages are located along Pago Pago Harbor, whose largest village is Pago Pago. Many sources list Pago Pago as the capital, referring to the whole agglomeration around the harbor.
- ^ An American Samoan law of 1962 defined 14 counties. The constitution of 1967, signed by delegates from these 14 counties, established 15 counties from then on, separating Fofo from Lealataua. The election law was later revised accordingly. However, the U.S. Census Bureau continues to list 14 counties, treating Fofo as part of Lealataua.
- ^ a b c d e Revised Constitution of American Samoa, American Samoa Bar Association.
- ^ a b 3.0207 Divisions and sessions—Composition, Annotated Code of American Samoa, American Samoa Bar Association.
- ^ a b 3.0303 Sessions-Petit jury, Annotated Code of American Samoa, American Samoa Bar Association.
- ^ a b c American Samoa Observatory, Trip to Tula, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
- ^ a b American Samoa Representative and Liaison Offices, U.S. Department of the Interior.
- ^ a b c Tutuila Island Map, Service.
- ^ "Districts of American Samoa". Statoids. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
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- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2017. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
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- ^ a b c Keating, Barbara (1991). Keating, Barbara; Bolton, Barrie (eds.). The Geology of the Samoan Islands, in Geology and Offshore Mineral Resources of the Central Pacific Basin, Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources Earth Science Series, Vol. 14. Springer-Verlag. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0387977716.
- ^ Watson, R.M. (1919). History of Samoa: The Advent of the Missionary. (1830. 1839). Chapter III. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011.
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- ^ Ryden, George Herbert. The Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975. (Reprint by special arrangement with Yale University Press. Originally published at New Haven: Yale University Press, 1928), p. 574. The Tripartite Convention (United States, Germany, Great Britain) was signed at Washington on December 2, 1899, with ratifications exchanged on February 16, 1900.
- ^ a b "American Samoa Office of Insular Affairs". www.doi.gov. U.S. Department of the Interior. June 11, 2015. Archived from the original on March 9, 2018. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
- ^ Ryden, p. 571
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- ^ Joanne Barker (2005). "Passive Resistance of Samoans to US and Other Colonialisms". Sovereignty Matters: Locations of Contestation and Possibility in Indigenous Struggles for Self-determination. U of Nebraska Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-8032-5198-X.
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- ^ Life in Samoa from 1916 to 1919 (archived from the original on 2015-09-26).
- ^ Pub. Res. 68–75, 43 Stat. 1357, enacted March 4, 1925.
- ^ Story of the Legislature of American Samoa. 1988.
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- ^ a b Ruck, Rob (2018). Tropic of Football: The Long and Perilous Journey of Samoans to the NFL. The New Press. ISBN 978-1620973387.
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- ^ Joyce, Stacey (September 29, 2009). "8.0 magnitude quake generates tsunami off Samoa islands". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- ^ "This folder contains material collected by the office of President John F. Kennedy's secretary, Evelyn Lincoln, concerning American Samoa, and consists of a letter to the President from Secretary of Samoan Affairs Leʻiato Tuli". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on June 4, 2016.
- ^ 4.0105 Term of office, Annotated Code of American Samoa, American Samoa Bar Association.
- ^ 3.0101 Vesting of judicial power, Annotated Code of American Samoa, American Samoa Bar Association.
- ^ 3.1001 Chief and Associate Justices-Appointment, Annotated Code of American Samoa, American Samoa Bar Association.
- ^ 3.1010 District court judges-Term, Annotated Code of American Samoa, American Samoa Bar Association.
- ^ 3.1004 Associate judges-Appointment-Term, Annotated Code of American Samoa, American Samoa Bar Association.
- ^ a b  Archived December 1, 2017, at the Wayback Machine 42 Fun Facts About American Samoa. Tayja Kuligowski. Factretriever.com. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- ^ "American Samoa must consider independence – congressman". Radioaustralia.net.au. May 18, 2012. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
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- ^ 8 U.S.C. § 1408. Tuaua v. United States, 788 F.3d 300 (D.C. Cir. 2015).; Mohammadi v. Islamic Republic of Iran, 782 F.3d 9, 15 (D.C. Cir. 2015) ("The sole such statutory provision that presently confers United States nationality upon non-citizens is 8 U.S.C. § 1408."). Matter of Navas-Acosta, 23 I. & N. Dec. 586 (B.I.A. 2003). See also 8 U.S.C. § 1483 ("Restrictions on loss of nationality"); 8 U.S.C. §§ 1501–1503; 8 U.S.C. § 1252(b)(5) ("Treatment of nationality claims").
- ^ "Profile: The Samoas". BBC News. September 30, 2009. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
- ^ 8 U.S.C. § 1401 ("Nationals and citizens of United States at birth").
- ^ Amicus Curiae Brief of Eni F. H. Faleomavaega (PDF), November 7, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2015, retrieved April 26, 2014, More than a century ago, the Supreme Court held that the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment does not extend birthright citizenship to United States nationals who are born in unincorporated territories. See Downes v. Bidwell, 182 US 244, 251 (1901). The Court has reaffirmed this principle through the years, noting that individuals who are born in an unincorporated territory, though "subject to the jurisdiction of the United States," are "American nationals" who are not birthright citizens of the United States. Barber v. Gonzales, 347 U.S. 637, 639 n.1 (1954).
- ^  American Samoa and the Citizenship Clause: A Study in Insular Cases Revisionism. Chapter 3. Harvard Law Review. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- ^ "America Samoa: Performing a Risk Assessment Would Better Inform U.S. Agencies of the Risks Related to Acceptance of Certificates of Identity" (PDF). U.S. Government Accountability Office. June 2010. p. 11 (p. 15 of the pdf). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
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