Amman Message - Wikipedia
Amman Message
The Amman Message (Arabic: رسالة عمان‎‎) is a statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan 1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan.[1] Subsequently, a three-point ruling was issued by 200 Islamic scholars from over 50 countries, focusing on issues of defining who is a Muslim, excommunication from Islam (takfir), and principles related to delivering religious opinions (fatāwa).[2]
Content
The Amman Message was delivered in Amman, Jordan, as a Ramadan sermon by Chief Justice Sheikh Iz-al-Din al-Tamimi in the presence of King Abdullah II and a number of Muslim scholars.[3] According to a report issued by the International Crisis Group, "The sermon stressed the need to re-emphasise Islam's core values of compassion, mutual respect, tolerance, acceptance and freedom of religion."[1] The next year, in July 2005, an Islamic convention brought together 200 Muslim scholars from over 50 countries who issued a three-point declaration (later known as 'Three Points of the Amman Message').[2] This declaration focused on:[4]
  1. The recognition of eight legal schools of sharia/fiqh (madhāhib) and the varying schools of Islamic theology viz.[5][6]
    1. Sunni Hanafi
    2. Sunni Maliki
    3. Sunni Shafi'i
    4. Sunni Hanbali
    5. Shia Jaʿfari
    6. Shia Zaydi
    7. Ẓāhirī
    8. Ibadi
    Forbade declaring an apostate anyone who is a follower of:[5]
    1. the Ashʿari/Maturidi creed
    2. real Tasawwuf (Sufism)
    3. true Salafi thought
  2. The forbiddance from pronouncing disbelief (takfir) upon (or excommunicating) others recognized as Muslims
  3. The stipulations placed as preconditions to the issuing of religious edicts, intended to prevent the circulation of illegitimate edicts
Explaining why the message was issued, King Abdullah stated: "[W]e felt that the Islamic message of tolerance was being subjected to a fierce and unjust attack from some in the West who do not understand Islam's essence, and others who claim to be associated with Islam and hide behind Islam to commit irresponsible deeds."[7]
Conference and declarations
Following are conferences and declarations:[8]
Fatwas and endorsements
Following is the list of some of the many individuals and organizations who have issued fatwas and endorsements in relation to the Amman Message (as per official website listing):[9]
Sr NoNameTitleCountrySectFiqhEndorsing FatwaWebsiteImage
1Muhammad Sayyid TantawyGrand Imam of Al-Azhar University
Egypt
SunniShafiʿiFatwaOfficial Website
2Ali GomaaGrand Mufti of Egypt
Egypt
SunniShafiʿiFatwa[1]
3Ali BardakoğluPresident of The Grand Council for Religious Affairs, Turkey
Turkey
SunniHanafiFatwaOfficial Website
4Ahmed KuftaroGrand Mufti of Syria
Syria
SunniShafiʿiFatwaOfficial Website
5Said Abd Al-Hafiz Al-HijjawiGrand Mufti of JordanJordanSunniShafiʿiFatwa-
6Nuh Ha Mim KellerIslamic Scholar of JordanJordanSunniShafiʿiFatwa-
7Yusuf al-QaradawiDirector of the Sunna and Sira Council
Egypt
Qatar
SunniHanafiFatwaOfficial Website
8Abdullah bin BayyahVice President of the International Union of Muslim Scholars
Mauritania
SunniMalikiFatwaOfficial Website
9Muhammad Taqi UsmaniVice President of the Islamic Fiqh Academy
Pakistan
SunniHanafiFatwa-
10Sayyid Shaykh Nazim Al-HaqqaniDeceased leader of the Naqshbandi Haqqani Sufi Order
Northern Cyprus
SunniHanafi-Official Website
11Abdullah al-HarariFounder of the Al-AhbashEthiopiaSunniShafiʿiFatwaOfficial Website
12Muhammad Tahir ul-QadriFounding Leader of Minhaj-ul-Quran International, Chief Executive of Minhaj International University
Pakistan
SunniHanafi-Official Website
13Habib Ali al-JifriFounding Leader of Tabah Foundation in Abu Dhabi, Member of Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought in Amman
Yemen
SunniShafiʿi-Official Website
14Habib Umar bin HafizFounding Leader and the dean of Dar al-Mustafa in Tarim, Yemen
Yemen
SunniShafiʿi-Official Website
15Ali Hosseini KhameneiGrand Ayatollah, Supreme Leader of IranIranShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
16Muhammad Saeed al-HakimGrand Ayatollah
Iraq
ShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
17Mohammad Ishaq Al-FayyadGrand Ayatollah
Iraq
ShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
18Basheer Hussain NajafiGrand Ayatollah
Iraq
ShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
19Hussein Esmaeel al-SadrGrand Ayatollah
Iraq
ShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
20Fazel LankaraniGrand AyatollahIranShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
21Muhammad Ali Al-TaskhiriGrand Ayatollah
General Secretary of Forum for Proximity of the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence
IranShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
22Mohammad Hussein FadlallahGrand Ayatollah
Lebanon
ShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
23Muhammad bin Muhammad Ismail Al-Mansur
and
Humud bin Abbas Al-Mu'ayyad
Shaykh
Yemen
ShiaZaidiyyahFatwaOfficial Website
24Ibrahim bin Muhammad Al-WazirGeneral Secretary, The Islamic Unification and Works Movement, Yemen
Yemen
ShiaZaidiyyahFatwaOfficial Website
25Ahmad bin Hamad Al-KhaliliMufti of the Sultanate of OmanOmanIbadi-FatwaOfficial website
26Ali Hosseini SistaniGrand Ayatollah
Iraq
ShiaJafariFatwaOfficial Website
27Karīm al-HussaynīThe Āgā Khān IV, Imam of the Shia ImamiNizari Ismailis
Portugal
ShiaJafari (Nizari Ismaili branch)FatwaOfficial Website
Reception
Tony Blair, while Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, gave a speech in which he praised the Amman message and the gathering of numerous scholars, commenting, "This was a clear message that Islam is not a monolithic faith, but one made up of a rich pattern of diversity, albeit all flowing from the same fount."[2]
Despite the ecumenical nature of the Amman Message, since it was issued there has been a marked decline in Shia-Sunni relations as a result of increased sectarian conflict in such countries as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Bahrain and Yemen.[10]
Criticism
Suhail Nakhouda, writing in the Amman-based Islamica, stated that the Amman message did little to effectively address ongoing problems: "There is no water, no pavements; the economy is bad, and many young people are out of work. Peoples' lives, as well as the images they see, stay the same." Nakhouda stated that King Abdullah's message was likely to be dampened by his lifestyle, which he claims is the subject of criticism.[1]
See also
References
  1. ^ a b c "Jordan's 9/11: Dealing With Jihadi Islamism", Crisis Group Middle East Report N°47, 23 November 2005
  2. ^ a b c "SPEECH BY THE PRIME MINISTER THE RT HON TONY BLAIR MP Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine" (04/06/07), British Embassy in Bahrain
  3. ^ "Jordan issues the 'Amman Message' on Islam". Embassy of Jordan - Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
  4. ^ The Amman Message summary - Official website
  5. ^ a b The Three Points of The Amman Message V.1 Archived February 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Petra News Agency. Summary of the Amman Message (In Arabic) Archived 2016-04-09 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "King Abdullah calls to end extremism". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
  8. ^ "AmmanMessage.com – The Official Site". ammanmessage.com.
  9. ^ "AmmanMessage.com – The Official Site". ammanmessage.com. Retrieved 2009-11-17.
  10. ^ Volpi, Frederic, ed. (11 Jun 2014). Political Civility in the Middle East. Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 9781317977810.
External links
Last edited on 15 April 2021, at 14:39
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