Arab states of the Persian Gulf
The Sultanate of Oman also has an advisory council (Majlis ash-Shura
) that is popularly elected.
In the UAE, a federation of seven monarchical emirates, the Federal National Council
functions only as an advisory body, but some of its members are now chosen via a limited electoral college
nominated by the seven rulers.
Saudi Arabia remains a hereditary monarchy
with limited political representation. In Qatar, an elected national parliament has been mooted and is written into the new constitution, but elections are yet to be held.
Saudi Arabia and Qatar are the two Arab states and absolute monarchies
to have never held elections since their respective establishments as nations in 1932 and 1971.
Freedom of press
Press in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf have varying degrees of freedom with Kuwait topping the league with a lively press that enjoys considerably more freedom than its Persian Gulf counterparts according to Freedom House
and Reporters Without Borders
. Both organizations rank Kuwait's press as the most free of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf and, in fact, rank amongst the top three most free press in the Arab world.
Qatar and Oman come in second and third respectively within the regional ranks.
The six Arab states of the Persian Gulf lie in a volatile region and their six governments, with varying degrees of success and effort, try and advance peace in their own countries and other countries. However, Arab countries in the Persian Gulf region - specifically Saudi Arabia and Qatar - stand accused of funding Islamist militants such as Hamas
and the Muslim Brotherhood
According to the Institute of Economics and Peace (IEP)'s Global Peace Index of 2016, the six governments had varying degrees of success in maintaining peace amongst their respective borders with Qatar ranked number 1 amongst its regional peers as the most peaceful regional and Middle Eastern nation (and ranked 34 worldwide) while Kuwait ranks second in both the regional and the Middle East region (and 51 worldwide) followed by the UAE in the third spot (61 worldwide).
In addition, the small coastal states (especially Bahrain and Kuwait) were successful centers of trade and commerce prior to oil. Eastern Arabia also had significant pearl banks, but the pearling industry collapsed in the 1930s after the development of cultured pearl
methods by Japanese scientists.
According to the World Bank
, most of these Arab states have been the world's most generous donors of aid as a share of GDP.
- ^ Mary Ann Tétreault; Gwenn Okruhlik; Andrzej Kapiszewski (2011). Political Change in the Arab Gulf States: Stuck in Transition. The authors first focus on the politics of seven Gulf states: Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.
- ^ World Migration 2005 Costs and Benefits of International Migration. International Organization for Migration. 2005. p. 53. ISBN 9788171885503.
- ^ "U.S. Official to Tour Persian Gulf Arab Lands". The New York Times. 1987. A leading American diplomat will start a trip to Iraq and six other Arab countries of the Persian Gulf region this week to discuss the Iran-Iraq war, Administration officials said today.
- ^ "الأمانة العامة لمجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية". www.gcc-sg.org.
- ^ Henderson, Simon (Spring 2004). "Understanding the Gulf States". The Washington Institute. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- ^ Whitaker, Brian (27 October 2010). "Persian Gulf? Arabian Gulf? One big gulf in understanding". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
- ^ Gerd Nonneman, "Political Reform in the Gulf Monarchies: From Liberalisation to Democratisation? A Comparative Perspective", in Anoushiravan Ehteshami and Steven Wright (eds.)(2007), Reform in the Middle East Oil Monarchies, ISBN 978-0-86372-323-0, pp. 3-45.
- ^ Robbers, Gerhard (2007). Encyclopedia of world constitutions, Volume 1. p. 791. ISBN 978-0-8160-6078-8.
- ^ "Freedom of the Press 2016". freedomhouse.org. April 26, 2016.
- ^ "2016 World Press Freedom Index". Archived from the original on 2017-02-14.
- ^ "Four huge Middle Eastern powers just cut ties with Qatar over 'terrorism' links". The Independent. June 5, 2017.
- ^ "Global Peace Index 2016" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-06-15.
- ^ "Diversification raises non-oil share of UAE's GDP to 71%". gulfnews.com.
- ^ "Oil Makes Up 2% of Dubai GDP Post-Diversification - Gulf Jobs News".
- ^ "Bahrain: Reform-Promise and Reality" (PDF). J.E. Peterson. p. 157.
- ^ "Bahrain's economy praised for diversity and sustainability". Bahrain Economic Development Board. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- ^ "The haves and the have-nots". The Economist. 11 July 2013.
Last edited on 30 April 2021, at 11:54
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