For the Arabic script as it is used by all languages, see Arabic script
The Arabic alphabet
: الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة
, al-abjadīyah l-ʿarabīyah
or الْحُرُوف الْعَرَبِيَّة
, al-ḥurūf l-ʿarabīyah
, IPA: [ʔalʔabd͡ʒadiːjaʰ lʕarabiːjaʰ]
), or Arabic abjad
, is the Arabic script
as it is codified for writing Arabic
. It is written from right to left in a cursive
style and includes 28 letters. Most letters have contextual letterforms. The Arabic script is also a religious text
, it is used mainly in Islamic countries, namely in Arabia, North Africa, Persia/Iran, Central Asia and the Northwestern Indian Subcontinent.
Countries that use the Arabic script:
Many letters look similar but are distinguished from one another by dots (ʾiʿjām
) above or below their central part (rasm
). These dots are an integral part of a letter, since they distinguish between letters that represent different sounds. For example, the Arabic letters ب (b), ت (t) and ث (th) have the same basic shape, but have one dot below, two dots above and three dots above, respectively. The letter ن (n) also has the same form in initial and medial forms, with one dot above, though it is somewhat different in isolated and final form.
Both printed and written Arabic are cursive
, with most of the letters within a word directly connected to the adjacent letters.
The hijā’ī (هِجَائِي) or alifbāʾī (أَلِفْبَائِي) order, used where lists of names and words are sorted, as in phonebooks, classroom lists, and dictionaries, groups letters by similarity of shape.
order is not a simple historical continuation of the earlier north Semitic alphabetic order, since it has a position corresponding to the Aramaic letter samekh/semkat ס
, yet no letter of the Arabic alphabet historically derives from that letter. Loss of sameḵ
was compensated for by the split of shin ש
into two independent Arabic letters, ش
) and ﺱ
) which moved up to take the place of sameḵ
. The six other letters that do not correspond to any north Semitic letter are placed at the end.
Common abjadī sequence
This is commonly vocalized as follows:
ʾabjad hawwaz ḥuṭṭī kalaman saʿfaṣ qarashat thakhadh ḍaẓagh.
Another vocalization is:
ʾabujadin hawazin ḥuṭiya kalman saʿfaṣ qurishat thakhudh ḍaẓugh
This can be vocalized as:
ʾabujadin hawazin ḥuṭiya kalman ṣaʿfaḍ qurisat thakhudh ẓaghush
Modern dictionaries and other reference books do not use the abjadī order to sort alphabetically; instead, the newer hijāʾī order is used wherein letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape. The hijāʾī order is never used as numerals.
Common hijāʾī order
Another kind of hijāʾī
order was used widely in the Maghreb
when it was replaced by the Mashriqi
Maghrebian hijāʾī order
The Arabic alphabet is always cursive and letters vary in shape depending on their position within a word. Letters can exhibit up to four distinct forms corresponding to an initial, medial (middle), final, or isolated position (IMFI
). While some letters show considerable variations, others remain almost identical across all four positions. Generally, letters in the same word are linked together on both sides by short horizontal lines, but six letters (و ,ز ,ر ,ذ ,د ,ا
) can only be linked to their preceding letter. For example, أرارات
) has only isolated forms because each letter cannot be connected to its following one. In addition, some letter combinations are written as ligatures
(special shapes), notably lām-alif لا
which is the only mandatory ligature (the un-ligated combination لا
is considered difficult to read).
Table of basic letters
Arabic letters usage in Literary Arabic
- ^ Alif can represent many phonemes. See the section on ʾalif.
- ^ a b c d e f g h See the section on non-native letters and sounds; the letters ⟨ك⟩ ,⟨ق⟩ ,⟨غ⟩ ,⟨ج⟩ are sometimes used to transcribe the phoneme /g/ in loanwords, ⟨ب⟩ to transcribe /p/ and ⟨ف⟩ to transcribe /v/. Likewise the letters ⟨و⟩ and ⟨ي⟩ are used to transcribe the vowels /oː/ and /eː/ respectively in loanwords and dialects.
- ^ ج is pronounced differently depending on the region. See Arabic phonology#Consonants.
- ^ a b c See the section on regional variations in letter form.
- ^ (not counted as a letter in the alphabet but plays an important role in Arabic spelling) [denoting most irregular female nouns]
- ^ (not counted as a letter in the alphabet but plays an important role in Arabic grammar and lexicon, including indication [denoting most female nouns] and spelling) An alternative form of ت ("bound tāʼ " / تاء مربوطة) is used at the end of words to mark feminine gender for nouns and adjectives. It denotes the final sound /-h/ or /-t/. Standard tāʼ, to distinguish it from tāʼ marbūṭah, is referred to as tāʼ maftūḥah (تاء مفتوحة, "open tāʼ ").
- ^ (not counted as a letter in the alphabet but plays an important role in Arabic grammar and lexicon, including indication [denotes verbs] and spelling). It is used at the end of words with the sound of /aː/ in Modern Standard Arabic that are not categorized in the use of tāʼ marbūṭah (ة) [mainly some verbs tenses and Arabic masculine names].
- See the article Romanization of Arabic for details on various transliteration schemes; however, Arabic language speakers may usually not follow a standardized scheme when transcribing names. Also names are regularly transcribed as pronounced locally, not as pronounced in Literary Arabic (if they were of Arabic origin).
- Regarding pronunciation, the phonemic values given are those of Modern Standard Arabic, which is taught in schools and universities. In practice, pronunciation may vary considerably from region to region. For more details concerning the pronunciation of Arabic, consult the articles Arabic phonology and varieties of Arabic.
- The names of the Arabic letters can be thought of as abstractions of an older version where they were meaningful words in the Proto-Semitic language. Names of Arabic letters may have quite different names popularly.
- Six letters (و ز ر ذ د ا) do not have a distinct medial form and have to be written with their final form without being connected to the next letter. Their initial form matches the isolated form. The following letter is written in its initial form, or isolated form if it is the final letter in the word.
- The letter alif originated in the Phoenician alphabet as a consonant-sign indicating a glottal stop. Today it has lost its function as a consonant, and, together with ya’ and wāw, is a mater lectionis, a consonant sign standing in for a long vowel (see below), or as support for certain diacritics (maddah and hamzah).
- Arabic currently uses a diacritic sign, ء, called hamzah, to denote the glottal stop [ʔ], written alone or with a carrier:
- alone: ء
- with a carrier: إ أ (above or under an alif), ؤ (above a wāw), ئ (above a dotless yā’ or yā’ hamzah).
The hamzah has a single form, since it is never linked to a preceding or following letter. However, it is sometimes combined with a wāw, yā’, or alif, and in that case the carrier behaves like an ordinary wāw, yā’, or alif.
The modern hijā’ī sequence and abjadī sequence in 15 fonts:
The following are not individual letters, but rather different contextual variants of some of the Arabic letters.
The use of ligature in Arabic
is common. There is one compulsory ligature, that for lām ل +
ا, which exists in two forms. All other ligatures, of which there are many,
A more complex ligature that combines as many as seven distinct components is commonly used to represent the word Allāh
The only ligature within the primary range of Arabic script in Unicode
(U+06xx) is lām
. This is the only one compulsory for fonts and word-processing. Other ranges are for compatibility to older standards and contain other ligatures, which are optional.
lām + alif
also has in its Presentation Form B FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one, U+FEFB
ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF ISOLATED FORM:
U+0640 ARABIC TATWEEL + lām + alif
also has in its Presentation Form B U+FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one:
U+FEFC ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF FINAL FORM
Another ligature in the Unicode
Presentation Form A range U+FB50 to U+FDxx is the special code for glyph for the ligature Allāh
ARABIC LIGATURE ALLAH ISOLATED FORM:
This is a work-around for the shortcomings of most text processors, which are incapable of displaying the correct vowel marks
for the word Allāh
. Because Arabic script is used to write other texts rather than Koran only, rendering lām
as the previous ligature is considered faulty:
If one of a number of fonts (Noto Naskh Arabic, mry_KacstQurn, KacstOne, DejaVu Sans, Harmattan, Scheherazade, Lateef, Iranian Sans) is installed on a computer (Iranian Sans is supported by Wikimedia web-fonts), the word will appear without diacritics.
An attempt to show them on the faulty fonts without automatically adding the gemination mark and the superscript alif, although may not display as desired on all browsers, is by adding the U+200d (Zero width joiner) after the first or second lām
(alif +) lām + lām + U+200d ZERO WIDTH JOINER + hā’
is the doubling of a consonant. Instead of writing the letter twice, Arabic places a W
-shaped sign called shaddah
, above it. Note that if a vowel occurs between the two consonants the letter will simply be written twice. The diacritic
only appears where the consonant at the end of one syllable is identical to the initial consonant of the following syllable. (The generic term for such diacritical
signs is ḥarakāt
) is the addition of a final -n
to a noun
. The vowel before it indicates grammatical case
. In written Arabic nunation is indicated by doubling the vowel diacritic
at the end of the word.
Users of Arabic usually write long vowels
but omit short ones, so readers must utilize their knowledge of the language in order to supply the missing vowels. However, in the education system and particularly in classes on Arabic grammar these vowels are used since they are crucial to the grammar. An Arabic sentence can have a completely different meaning by a subtle change of the vowels. This is why in an important text such as the Qur’ān
the three basic vowel signs (see below) are mandated, like the ḥarakāt
and all the other diacritics or other types of marks, for example the cantillation signs
In the Arabic handwriting of everyday use, in general publications, and on street signs, short vowels are typically not written. On the other hand, copies of the Qur’ān
cannot be endorsed by the religious institutes that review them unless the diacritics are included. Children's books, elementary school texts, and Arabic-language grammars in general will include diacritics to some degree. These are known as "vocalized
Short vowels may be written with diacritics
placed above or below the consonant that precedes them in the syllable, called ḥarakāt
. All Arabic vowels, long and short, follow a consonant; in Arabic, words like "Ali" or "alif", for example, start with a consonant: ‘Aliyy
In the fully vocalized
Arabic text found in texts such as Quran
, a long ā
following a consonant other than a hamzah
is written with a short a
) on the consonant plus an ʾalif
after it; long ī
is written as a sign for short i
) plus a yāʾ
; and long ū
as a sign for short u
) plus a wāw
. Briefly, ᵃa
; and ᵘw
. Long ā
following a hamzah
may be represented by an ʾalif maddah
or by a free hamzah
followed by an ʾalif
(two consecutive ʾalif
s are never allowed in Arabic).
The table below shows vowels placed above or below a dotted circle replacing a primary consonant letter or a shaddah
sign. For clarity in the table, the primary letters on the left used to mark these long vowels are shown only in their isolated form. Please note that most consonants do connect to the left with ʾalif
written then with their medial or final form. Additionally, the letter yāʾ
in the last row may connect to the letter on its left, and then will use a medial or initial form. Use the table of primary letters to look at their actual glyph and joining types.
Long vowels (fully vocalized text)
In unvocalized text (one in which the short vowels are not marked), the long vowels are represented by the vowel in question: ʾalif ṭawīlah/maqṣūrah, wāw, or yāʾ. Long vowels written in the middle of a word of unvocalized text are treated like consonants with a sukūn (see below) in a text that has full diacritics. Here also, the table shows long vowel letters only in isolated form for clarity.
Combinations وا and يا are always pronounced wā and yāʾ respectively. The exception is the suffix ـوا۟ in verb endings where ʾalif is silent, resulting in ū or aw.
In addition, when transliterating names and loanwords, Arabic language speakers write out most or all the vowels as long (ā
with ا ʾalif
with ي yaʾ
, and ō
with و wāw
), meaning it approaches a true alphabet.
/aj/ and /aw/ are represented in vocalized text as follows:
An Arabic syllable
can be open (ending with a vowel) or closed (ending with a consonant):
- open: CV [consonant-vowel] (long or short vowel)
- closed: CVC (short vowel only)
A normal text is composed only of a series of consonants plus vowel-lengthening letters; thus, the word qalb, "heart", is written qlb, and the word qalaba "he turned around", is also written qlb.
To write qalaba without this ambiguity, we could indicate that the l is followed by a short a by writing a fatḥah above it.
To write qalb
, we would instead indicate that the l
is followed by no vowel by marking it with a diacritic
), like this: قلْب
This is one step down from full vocalization, where the vowel after the q would also be indicated by a fatḥah: قَلْب.
is traditionally written in full vocalization.
The long i
sound in some editions of the Qur’ān
is written with a kasrah
followed by a diacritic-less y
, and long u
by a ḍammah
followed by a bare w
. In others, these y
carry a sukūn
. Outside of the Qur’ān
, the latter convention is extremely rare, to the point that y
will be unambiguously read as the diphthong
/aj/, and w
will be read /aw/.
For example, the letters m-y-l can be read like English meel or mail, or (theoretically) also like mayyal or mayil. But if a sukūn is added on the y then the m cannot have a sukūn (because two letters in a row cannot be sukūnated), cannot have a ḍammah (because there is never an uy sound in Arabic unless there is another vowel after the y), and cannot have a kasrah (because kasrah before sukūnated y is never found outside the Qur’ān), so it must have a fatḥah and the only possible pronunciation is /majl/ (meaning mile, or even e-mail). By the same token, m-y-t with a sukūn over the y can be mayt but not mayyit or meet, and m-w-t with a sukūn on the w can only be mawt, not moot (iw is impossible when the w closes the syllable).
Vowel marks are always written as if the i‘rāb
vowels were in fact pronounced, even when they must be skipped in actual pronunciation. So, when writing the name Aḥmad
, it is optional to place a sukūn
on the ḥ
, but a sukūn
is forbidden on the d
, because it would carry a ḍammah
if any other word followed, as in Aḥmadu zawjī
"Ahmad is my husband".
Another example: the sentence that in correct literary Arabic must be pronounced Aḥmadu zawjun shirrīr "Ahmad is a wicked husband", is usually mispronounced (due to influence from vernacular Arabic varieties) as Aḥmad zawj shirrīr. Yet, for the purposes of Arabic grammar and orthography, is treated as if it were not mispronounced and as if yet another word followed it, i.e., if adding any vowel marks, they must be added as if the pronunciation were Aḥmadu zawjun sharrīrun with a tanwīn 'un' at the end. So, it is correct to add an un tanwīn sign on the final r, but actually pronouncing it would be a hypercorrection. Also, it is never correct to write a sukūn on that r, even though in actual pronunciation it is (and in correct Arabic MUST be) sukūned.
Of course, if the correct i‘rāb is a sukūn, it may be optionally written.
ٰٰ The sukūn is also used for transliterating words into the Arabic script. The Persian word ماسک (mâsk, from the English word "mask"), for example, might be written with a sukūn above the ﺱ to signify that there is no vowel sound between that letter and the ک.
Some letters take a traditionally different form in specific regions:
Non-native letters to Standard Arabic
Some modified letters are used to represent non-native sounds of Modern Standard Arabic. These letters are used in transliterated names, loanwords and dialectal words.
- /t͡ʃ/ is considered a native phoneme/allophone in some dialects, e.g. Kuwaiti and Iraqi dialects.
- /ʒ/ is considered a native phoneme in Levantine and North African dialects and as an allophone in others.
- /ɡ/ is considered a native phoneme/allophone in most modern Arabic dialects.
Used in languages other than Arabic
There are two main kinds of numerals used along with Arabic text; Western Arabic numerals
and Eastern Arabic numerals
. In most of present-day North Africa, the usual Western Arabic numerals are used. Like Western Arabic numerals, in Eastern Arabic numerals, the units are always right-most, and the highest value left-most.
Letters as numerals
In addition, the Arabic alphabet can be used to represent numbers (Abjad numerals
). This usage is based on the ʾabjadī
order of the alphabet. أ
is 1, ب
is 2, ج
is 3, and so on until ي
= 10, ك
= 20, ل
= 30, ..., ر
= 200, ..., غ
= 1000. This is sometimes used to produce chronograms
Evolution of early Arabic calligraphy
(9th–11th century). The Basmala
is taken as an example, from Kufic Qur’ān
manuscripts. (1) Early 9th century script used no dots or diacritic
(2) and (3) in the 9th–10th century during the Abbasid dynasty, Abu al-Aswad
's system used red dots with each arrangement or position indicating a different short vowel. Later, a second system of black dots was used to differentiate between letters like fā’
(4) in the 11th century (al-Farāhīdī
's system) dots were changed into shapes resembling the letters to transcribe the corresponding long vowels. This system is the one used today.
The Arabic alphabet can be traced back to the Nabataean alphabet
used to write Nabataean
. The first known text in the Arabic alphabet is a late 4th-century inscription from Jabal Ramm
(50 km east of ‘Aqabah
) in Jordan
, but the first dated one is a trilingual inscription at Zebed
from 512.
However, the epigraphic
record is extremely sparse, with only five certainly pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions
surviving, though some others may be pre-Islamic. Later, dots were added above and below the letters to differentiate them. (The Aramaic language had fewer phonemes than the Arabic, and some originally distinct Aramaic letters had become indistinguishable in shape, so that in the early writings 15 distinct letter-shapes had to do duty for 28 sounds; cf. the similarly ambiguous Pahlavi
alphabet.) The first surviving document that definitely uses these dots is also the first surviving Arabic papyrus
), dated April 643, although they did not become obligatory until much later. Important texts were and still are frequently memorized, especially in Qurʾan memorization
Later still, vowel marks and the hamzah
were introduced, beginning some time in the latter half of the 7th century, preceding the first invention of Syriac
and Hebrew vocalization
. Initially, this was done by a system of red dots, said to have been commissioned in the Umayyad
era by Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali
a dot above = a
, a dot below = i
, a dot on the line = u
, and doubled dots indicated nunation
. However, this was cumbersome and easily confusable with the letter-distinguishing dots, so about 100 years later, the modern system was adopted. The system was finalized around 786 by al-Farāhīdī
Arabic printing presses
Although Napoleon Bonaparte
generally receives credit for introducing the printing press to Egypt
during his invasion of that country in 1798, and though he did indeed bring printing presses and Arabic script
presses to print the French occupation's official newspaper Al-Tanbiyyah
("The Courier"), printing in the Arabic language started several centuries earlier.
In 1514, following Gutenberg
's invention of the printing press in 1450, Gregorio de Gregorii, a Venetian, published an entire prayer-book in Arabic script; it was entitled Kitab Salat al-Sawa'i
and was intended for eastern Christian communities.
monks at the Maar Quzhayy Monastery in Mount Lebanon
published the first Arabic books to use movable type in the Middle East. The monks transliterated the Arabic language using Syriac
A goldsmith (like Gutenberg) designed and implemented an Arabic-script movable-type printing-press in the Middle East. The Greek Orthodox
monk Abd Allah Zakhir
set up an Arabicprinting press
using movable type
at the monastery of Saint John at the town of Dhour El Shuwayr
in Mount Lebanon, the first homemade press in Lebanon using Arabic script. He personally cut the type molds and did the founding of the typeface. The first book came off his press in 1734; this press continued in use until 1899.
The Arabic alphabet can be encoded using several character sets
, including ISO-8859-6
(see links in Infobox above), latter thanks to the "Arabic segment", entries U+0600 to U+06FF. However, none of the sets indicates the form that each character should take in context. It is left to the rendering engine
to select the proper glyph
to display for each character.
Each letter has a position-independent encoding in Unicode
, and the rendering software can infer the correct glyph form (initial, medial, final or isolated) from its joining context. That is the current recommendation. However, for compatibility with previous standards, the initial, medial, final and isolated forms can also be encoded separately.
The basic Arabic range encodes the standard letters and diacritics but does not encode contextual forms (U+0621-U+0652 being directly based on ISO 8859-6
). It also includes the most common diacritics and Arabic-Indic digits
. U+06D6 to U+06ED encode Qur'anic annotation signs such as "end of ayah
" ۖ and "start of rub el hizb
" ۞. The Arabic supplement range encodes letter variants mostly used for writing African (non-Arabic) languages. The Arabic Extended-A range encodes additional Qur'anic annotations and letter variants used for various non-Arabic languages.
The Arabic Presentation Forms-A range encodes contextual forms and ligatures of letter variants needed for Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Central Asian languages. The Arabic Presentation Forms-B range encodes spacing forms of Arabic diacritics, and more contextual letter forms. The Arabic Mathematical Alphabetical Symbols block encodes characters used in Arabic mathematical expressions.
Arabic Mac keyboard layout
Arabic PC keyboard layout
imposed on a QWERTY keyboard layout.
Keyboards designed for different nations have different layouts so proficiency in one style of keyboard, such as Iraq's, does not transfer to proficiency in another, such as Saudi Arabia's. Differences can include the location of non-alphabetic characters.
All Arabic keyboards allow typing Roman characters, e.g., for the URL in a web browser
. Thus, each Arabic keyboard has both Arabic and Roman characters marked on the keys. Usually the Roman characters of an Arabic keyboard conform to the QWERTY
layout, but in North Africa
, where French
is the most common language typed using the Roman characters, the Arabic keyboards are AZERTY
To encode a particular written form of a character, there are extra code points provided in Unicode which can be used to express the exact written form desired. The range Arabic presentation forms A
(U+FB50 to U+FDFF) contain ligatures while the range Arabic presentation forms B
(U+FE70 to U+FEFF) contains the positional variants. These effects are better achieved in Unicode by using the zero-width joiner
, as these presentation forms are deprecated in Unicode, and should generally only be used within the internals of text-rendering software, when using Unicode as an intermediate form for conversion between character encodings, or for backwards compatibility with implementations that rely on the hard-coding of glyph forms.
Finally, the Unicode encoding of Arabic is in logical order
, that is, the characters are entered, and stored in computer memory, in the order that they are written and pronounced without worrying about the direction in which they will be displayed on paper or on the screen. Again, it is left to the rendering engine to present the characters in the correct direction, using Unicode's bi-directional text
features. In this regard, if the Arabic words on this page are written left to right, it is an indication that the Unicode rendering engine used to display them is out of date.
There are competing online tools, e.g. Yamli editor
, which allow entry of Arabic letters without having Arabic support installed on a PC, and without knowledge of the layout of the Arabic keyboard.
The first software program of its kind in the world that identifies Arabic handwriting in real time was developed by researchers at Ben-Gurion University
The prototype enables the user to write Arabic words by hand on an electronic screen, which then analyzes the text and translates it into printed Arabic letters in a thousandth of a second. The error rate is less than three percent, according to Dr. Jihad El-Sana, from BGU's department of computer sciences, who developed the system along with master's degree student Fadi Biadsy.
- ^ Zitouni, Imed (2014). Natural Language Processing of Semitic Languages. Springer Science & Business. p. 15. ISBN 978-3642453588.
- ^ a b (in Arabic) Alyaseer.net ترتيب المداخل والبطاقات في القوائم والفهارس الموضوعية Ordering entries and cards in subject indexes Archived 23 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Discussion thread (Accessed 2009-October–06)
- ^ Rogers, Henry (2005). Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. Blackwell Publishing. p. 135.
- ^ A list of Arabic ligature forms in Unicode.
- ^ Depending on fonts used for rendering, the form shown on-screen may or may not be the ligature form.
- ^ SIL International: This simplified style is often preferred for clarity, especially in non-Arabic languages
- ^ Notice sur les divers genres d'écriture ancienne et moderne des arabes, des persans et des turcs / par A.-P. Pihan. 1856.
- ^ "Arabic Dialect Tutorial" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
- ^ File:Basmala kufi.svg - Wikimedia Commons
- ^ File:Kufi.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
- ^ File:Qur'an folio 11th century kufic.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
- ^ "294° anniversario della Biblioteca Federiciana: ricerche e curiosità sul Kitab Salat al-Sawai". Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- ^ Naghashian, Naghi (21 January 2013). Design and Structure of Arabic Script. epubli. ISBN 9783844245059.
- ^ Arabic and the Art of Printing – A Special Section Archived 29 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine, by Paul Lunde
- ^ "UAX #24: Script data file". Unicode Character Database. The Unicode Consortium.
- ^ For more information about encoding Arabic, consult the Unicode manual available at The Unicode website
- ^ See also Multilingual Computing with Arabic and Arabic Transliteration: Arabicizing Windows Applications to Read and Write Arabic & Solutions for the Transliteration Quagmire Faced by Arabic-Script Languages and A PowerPoint Tutorial (with screen shots and an English voice-over) on how to add Arabic to the Windows Operating System. Archived 11 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yamli in the News
- ^ Israel 21c
This article contains major sections of text from the very detailed article Arabic alphabet from the French Wikipedia, which has been partially translated into English. Further translation of that page, and its incorporation into the text here, are welcomed.
Last edited on 16 May 2021, at 16:18
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