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The Aramaic alphabet
is historically significant since virtually all modern Middle Eastern
writing systems can be traced back to it as well as numerous non-Chinese
writing systems of Central and East Asia.
That is primarily from the widespread usage of the Aramaic language as both a lingua franca
and the official language of the Neo-Assyrian
Empires, and their successor, the Achaemenid Empire
. Among the scripts in modern use, the Hebrew alphabet
bears the closest relation to the Imperial Aramaic script of the 5th century BC, with an identical letter inventory and, for the most part, nearly identical letter shapes. The Aramaic alphabet was an ancestor to the Nabataean alphabet and the later Arabic alphabet.
Writing systems (like the Aramaic one) that indicate consonants but do not indicate most vowels other than by means of matres lectionis
or added diacritical signs, have been called abjads
by Peter T. Daniels
to distinguish them from alphabets, such as the Greek alphabet
, which represent vowels more systematically. The term was coined to avoid the notion that a writing system that represents sounds must be either a syllabary
or an alphabet, which would imply that a system like Aramaic must be either a syllabary (as argued by Ignace Gelb
) or an incomplete or deficient alphabet
(as most other writers have said). Rather, it is a different type.
The earliest inscriptions in the Aramaic language
use the Phoenician alphabet
Over time, the alphabet developed into the form shown below. Aramaic gradually became the lingua franca
throughout the Middle East, with the script at first complementing and then displacing Assyrian cuneiform
, as the predominant writing system.
Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire)
Around 500 BC, following the Achaemenid
conquest of Mesopotamia
under Darius I
, Old Aramaic
was adopted by the Persians as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast Persian empire with its different peoples and languages. The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed as Official Aramaic, Imperial Aramaic or Achaemenid Aramaic, can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenid Persians in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did."
Imperial Aramaic was highly standardised; its orthography was based more on historical roots than any spoken dialect and was inevitably influenced by Old Persian
. The Aramaic glyph forms of the period are often divided into two main styles, the "lapidary" form, usually inscribed on hard surfaces like stone monuments, and a cursive form whose lapidary form tended to be more conservative by remaining more visually similar to Phoenician and early Aramaic. Both were in use through the Achaemenid Persian period, but the cursive form steadily gained ground over the lapidary, which had largely disappeared by the 3rd century BC.
One of the Tayma stones
: a stele with dedicatory lapidary Aramaic inscription to the god Salm. Sandstone, 5th century BC. Found in Tayma
, Saudi Arabia
by Charles Huber in 1884 and now in the Louvre
For centuries after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BC, Imperial Aramaic, or something near enough to it to be recognisable, would remain an influence on the various native Iranian languages
. The Aramaic script would survive as the essential characteristics of the Iranian Pahlavi writing system
30 Aramaic documents from Bactria
have been recently discovered, an analysis of which was published in November 2006. The texts, which were rendered on leather, reflect the use of Aramaic in the 4th century BC in the Persian Achaemenid administration of Bactria
The widespread usage of Achaemenid Aramaic in the Middle East led to the gradual adoption of the Aramaic alphabet for writing Hebrew
. Formerly, Hebrew had been written using an alphabet closer in form to that of Phoenician, the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Since the evolution of the Aramaic alphabet out of the Phoenician one was a gradual process, the division of the world's alphabets into the ones derived from the Phoenician one directly and the ones derived from Phoenician via Aramaic is somewhat artificial. In general, the alphabets of the Mediterranean region (Anatolia, Greece, Italy) are classified as Phoenician-derived, adapted from around the 8th century BC, and those of the East (the Levant, Persia, Central Asia and India) are considered Aramaic-derived, adapted from around the 6th century BC from the Imperial Aramaic script of the Achaemenid Empire.
After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the unity of the Imperial Aramaic script was lost, diversifying into a number of descendant cursives.
The Hebrew and Nabataean alphabets
, as they stood by the Roman era
, were little changed in style from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet. Ibn Khaldun
(1332–1406) alleges that not only the old Nabataean writing was influenced by the "Syrian script" (i.e. Aramaic), but also the old Chaldean script.
A cursive Hebrew
variant developed from the early centuries AD, but it remained restricted to the status of a variant used alongside the noncursive. By contrast, the cursive developed out of the Nabataean alphabet in the same period soon became the standard for writing Arabic, evolving into the Arabic alphabet
as it stood by the time of the early spread of Islam
Languages using the alphabet
Today, Biblical Aramaic
, Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects and the Aramaic language of the Talmud
are written in the modern-Hebrew alphabet (distinguished from the Old Hebrew
script). In classical Jewish literature
, the name given to the modern-Hebrew script was "Ashurit" (the ancient Assyrian script),
a script now known widely as the Aramaic script.
It is believed that during the period of Assyrian dominion that Aramaic script and language received official status.Syriac
and Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects are today written in the Syriac alphabet
, which script has superseded the more ancient Assyrian script and now bears its name. Mandaic
is written in the Mandaic alphabet
. The near-identity of the Aramaic and the classical Hebrew alphabets caused Aramaic text to be typeset mostly in the standard Hebrew script in scholarly literature.
, one of few surviving communities in which a Western Aramaic
dialect is still spoken, an Aramaic institute was established in 2007 by Damascus University
that teaches courses to keep the language alive. The institute's activities were suspended in 2010 amidst fears that the square Aramaic alphabet used in the program too closely resembled the square script of the Hebrew alphabet
and all the signs with the square Aramaic script were taken down. The program stated that they would instead use the more distinct Syriac alphabet
, although use of the Aramaic alphabet has continued to some degree.
Al Jazeera Arabic also broadcast a program about Western Neo-Aramaic and the villages in which it is spoken with the square script still in use.
In Aramaic writing, Waw and Yodh serve a double function. Originally, they represented only the consonants w and y, but they were later adopted to indicate the long vowels ū and ī respectively as well (often also ō and ē respectively). In the latter role, they are known as matres lectionis or "mothers of reading".
Ālap, likewise, has some of the characteristics of a mater lectionis
because in initial positions, it indicates a glottal stop
(followed by a vowel), but otherwise, it often also stands for the long vowels ā
. Among Jews, the influence of Hebrew often led to the use of Hē instead, at the end of a word.
The practice of using certain letters to hold vowel values spread to Aramaic-derived writing systems, such as in Arabic and Hebrew, which still follow the practice.
The Syriac Aramaic alphabet was added to the Unicode
Standard in September 1999, with the release of version 3.0.
The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline
) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark
(U+070F). The Unicode block for Syriac Aramaic is U+0700–U+074F:
The Imperial Aramaic alphabet was added to the Unicode
Standard in October 2009, with the release of version 5.2.
The Unicode block for Imperial Aramaic is U+10840–U+1085F:
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- ^ Cook, Stanley A. (1915). "The Significance of the Elephantine Papyri for the History of Hebrew Religion". The American Journal of Theology. The University of Chicago Press. 19 (3): 348. doi:10.1086/479556. JSTOR 3155577.
- ^ Beach, Alastair (2 April 2010). "Easter Sunday: A Syrian bid to resurrect Aramaic, the language of Jesus Christ". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- ^ Al Jazeera Documentary الجزيرة الوثائقية (11 February 2016). "أرض تحكي لغة المسيح". Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via YouTube.
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- Rudder, Joshua. Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical & Modern Scripts. n.p.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2011. 220 pp. ISBN 978-1461021421. Includes a wide variety of Aramaic scripts.
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Last edited on 23 April 2021, at 18:04
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