), officially the Argentine Republic[A]
(Spanish: República Argentina
), is a country in the southern half of South America
. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone
to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia
to the north, Brazil
to the northeast, Uruguay
and the South Atlantic Ocean
to the east, and the Drake Passage
to the south. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2
(1,073,500 sq mi),[B]
and is the largest Spanish-speaking
nation in the world. It is the second-largest country in South America
, the fourth-largest country in the Americas
, and the eighth-largest country
in the world. Argentina is subdivided into twenty-three provinces
, and one autonomous city
, which is the federal capital
of the nation, Buenos Aires
. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system
. Argentina claims sovereignty over a part of Antarctica
, the Falkland Islands
and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh-wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century.
According to the Maddison Historical Statistics Project
, Argentina had the world's highest real GDP
per capita during 1895 and 1896, and was consistently in the top ten before at least 1920.
Currently, it is ranked 71st in the world
. Following the Great Depression
in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment,
although it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades.
Following the death of President Juan Perón
in 1974, his widow and vice president, Isabel Martínez de Perón
, ascended to the presidency. She was overthrown in 1976 by a military dictatorship
. The military government persecuted and murdered thousands of political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War
, a period of state terrorism
and civil unrest that lasted over until the election of Raúl Alfonsín
as president in 1983
Name and etymology
The description of the region by the word Argentina
has been found on a Venetian
map in 1536.
In English, the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language
; however, the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian
) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French
"(made) of silver" > "silver coloured" already mentioned in the 12th century.
The French word argentine
is the feminine
form of argentin
and derives from argent
"silver" with the suffix -in
(same construction as Old French acerin
"(made) of steel", from acier
"steel" + -in
, or sapin
"(made) of fir wood", from OF sap
"fir" + -in
). The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina
"land of silver" or Costa Argentina
"coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun
is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina
The name Argentina
was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto
. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively plata
and "(made) of silver" is plateado
was first associated with the silver mountains legend
, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin
The 1826 constitution
included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.
The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853
In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic",
and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.[D]
In English, the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina
and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'. 'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina".
In Spanish, "Argentina" is feminine
("La [República] Argentina
"), taking the feminine article
"la", as the initial syllable of "Argentina" is unstressed
The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic
period, with further traces in the Mesolithic
Until the period of European colonization, Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide number of diverse cultures with different social organizations,
which can be divided into three main groups.
The first group are basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery
, such as the Selknam
in the extreme south. The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche
and Serranos in the centre-east; and the Tehuelche
in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche
spreading from Chile
—and the Kom
in the north. The last group are farmers with pottery, like the Charrúa
in the northeast, with slash and burn
the advanced Diaguita
sedentary trading culture
in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca Empire
around 1480; the Toconoté
and Hênîa and Kâmîare
in the country's centre, and the Huarpe
in the centre-west, a culture that raised llama
cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.
Independence and civil wars
Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty,
the 1810 May Revolution
replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
with the First Junta
, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals.
In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Córdoba
but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental
, Upper Peru
, which later became independent states.
The French-Argentine Hippolyte Bouchard
then brought his fleet to wage war against Spain overseas and attacked Spanish California, Spanish Chile, Spanish Peru and Spanish Philippines. He secured the allegiance of escaped Filipinos in San Blas who defected from the Spanish to join the Argentine navy, due to common Argentine and Philippine greivances against Spanish colonization.
At a later date, the Argentine Sun of May
was adopted as a symbol by the Filipinos in the Philippine Revolution
against Spain. He also secured the diplomatic recognition of Argentina from King Kamehameha I
of the Kingdom of Hawaii
. Historian Pacho O'Donnell affirms that Hawaii was the first state that recognized Argentina's independence.
The 1820 Battle of Cepeda
, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule
. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution
, with Bernardino Rivadavia
being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution.
Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation
in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas
During his regime he faced a French blockade
(1838–1840), the War of the Confederation
(1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade
(1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory.
His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza
, another powerful caudillo
, beat him out of power
. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal
and federal 1853 Constitution. Buenos Aires seceded
but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda
Rise of the modern nation
Starting with Julio Argentino Roca
in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies
. The massive wave of European immigration
they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest
in the world. Driven by this immigration
wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold:
from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat
exports went from 100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons) per year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to 365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per year,
placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters.
Its railway mileage rose from 503 to 31,104 km (313 to 19,327 mi).
Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education
quickly increased from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin American
nations would reach even fifty years later.
Furthermore, real GDP
grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income
between 1862 and 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%:
In 1865, Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income. By 1908, it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and the Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil
Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization:
after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labour-intensive in the 1930s.
Between 1878 and 1884 the so-called Conquest of the Desert
occurred, with the purpose of giving by means of the constant confrontations between natives and Criollos in the border,
and the appropriation of the indigenous territories, tripling the Argentine territory. The first conquest, consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampa and Patagonian territories dominated by the indigenous peoples,
distributing them among the members of the Sociedad Rural Argentina
, financiers of the expeditions.
The conquest of Chaco lasted up to the end of the century,
since its full ownership of the national economic system only took place when the mere extraction of wood and tannin
was replaced by the production of cotton
The Argentine government considered indigenous people
as inferior beings, without the same rights as Criollos and Europeans.
In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power
by the military led by José Félix Uriburu
. Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century,
this coup d'état
marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back into underdevelopment.
During Rawson dictatorship a relatively unknown military colonel named Juan Domingo Perón
was named head of the Labour Department. Perón quickly managed climb the political ladder, being named Ministry of Defence by 1944. Being perceived as a political threat by rivals faction in the military and the conservative camp he was forced to resign in 1945 and was arrested days later. He was later released under mounting pressure from both his base and several allied unions.
He would later become president after a landslide victory over the UCR
in the 1946 general election
as the laborioust
The Labour Party
later renamed Justicialist Party
, the most powerful and influential party in Argentine history, came into power with the rise of Juan Domingo Perón to the presidency in 1946. He nationalized
strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt
and claimed he achieved nearly full employment
. He pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage
and developed a system of social assistance for the most vulnerable sectors of society.
The economy began to decline in 1950 due in part to government expenditures and the protectionist
He also engaged in a campaign of political suppression. Anyone who was perceived to be a political dissident or potential rival were subject to threats, physical violence and harassment. The Argentine intelligentsia
, the middle-class, university students, and professors were seen as particularly troublesome. Perón fired over 2,000 university professors and faculty members from all major public education institutions.
Perón tried to bring under his thumb most trade and labour unions, regularly resorting to violence when needed. For instance, the meat-packers union leader, Cipriano Reyes
, organised strikes in protest against the government after elected labour movement officials were forcefully replaced by Peronist puppets from the Peronist Party
. Reyes was soon arrested on charges of terrorism, though the allegations were never substantiated. Reyes was tortured in prison for five years and was only released after the regime's downfall in 1955 without any formal charges.
The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu
Peronism and banned the party from any future elections. Arturo Frondizi
from the UCR
won the 1958 general election
He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit
and lifted the ban on Peronism; yet his efforts to stay on good terms with both the Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out.
Amidst the political turmoil, Senate leader José María Guido
reacted swiftly and applied anti-power vacuum
legislation, ascending to the presidency himself; elections were repealed and Peronism was prohibited once again. Arturo Illia
was elected in 1963
and led an increase in prosperity across the board; however he was overthrown in 1966 by another military coup d'état
led by General Juan Carlos Onganía
in the self-proclaimed Argentine Revolution
, creating a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.
Following several years of military rule, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
was appointed president by the military junta in 1971. Under increasing political pressure for the return of democracy, Lanusse called for elections in 1973. Perón was banned from running but the Peronist party was allowed to participate. The presidential elections were won by Hector Cámpora
, Perón's surrogate candidate. Dr. Héctor Cámpora, a left-wing Peronist, took office on 25 May 1973, and a month later in June, Perón had returned from Spain. One of Cámpora's first presidential actions was the granting of amnesty to members of terrorist organizations who had carried out political assassinations and terrorist attacks, and who had been tried and sentenced to prison by judges. Cámpora's months-long tenure in government was beset by political and social unrest. Over 600 social conflicts, strikes
, and factory occupations
took place within a single month.
Even though far-left terrorist organisations had suspended their armed struggle, their joining with the participatory democracy
process was interpreted as a direct threat by the Peronist right-wing faction.
In a state of political, social, and economic upheaval, Cámpora and Vice President Vicente Solano Lima resigned in July 1973, calling for new elections, but this time with Perón as the Justicialist Party nominee. Perón won the election with his wife Isabel Perón
as vice president. Perón's third term was marked by the escalating conflict between left and right-wing factions within the Peronist party, as well as the return of armed terror guerrilla groups like the Guevarist ERP
, leftist Peronist Montoneros
, and the state-backed far-right Triple A
. After a series of heart attacks and with signs of pneumonia in 1974, Perón's health deteriorated quickly. Perón suffered a final heart attack on Monday, 1 July 1974, and died at 13:15. He was 78 years old. After his death, Isabel Perón
, his wife and Vice President, came into office.
Isabel, born María Estela Martínez Cartas, a grade school drop-out
and a former nightclub dancer
, proved to be a thoroughly incompetent and weak president. During her presidency, a military junta along with the Peronists' far-right fascist faction became once again the de factohead of state
. She served as President of Argentina from 1974 until 1976 when she was ousted by the military. Her short presidency was marked by the collapse of Argentine political and social systems and led to a constitutional crisis paving the way for a decade of instability, left-wing terrorist guerrilla attacks, and state-sponsored terrorism.
National Reorganization Process
The "Dirty War" (Spanish: Guerra Sucia
) was part of Operation Condor
, which included the participation of other right-wing dictatorships in the Southern Cone. The Dirty War involved state terrorism
in Argentina and elsewhere in the Southern Cone
against political dissidents, with military and security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism or somehow contrary to the neoliberal
economic policies of the regime.
Victims of the violence in Argentina alone included an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 left-wing activists and militants, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists
, Peronist guerrillas
and alleged sympathizers. Most of the victims were casualties of state terrorism
. The opposing guerrillas' victims numbered nearly 500–540 military and police officials
and up to 230 civilians.
Argentina received technical support and military aid from the United States government during the Johnson
, and Reagan
Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties, and dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the Cordobazo
and the Rosariazo
. The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros
kidnapped and executed Aramburu.
The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, allowed Héctor José Cámpora
to become the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora won the March 1973 election
, issued pardons
for condemned guerrilla members, and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain.
shut down Congress, removed the judges on the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to employing the forced disappearance
of suspected guerrilla members including individuals suspected to be associated with the left-wing. By the end of 1976, the Montoneros had lost nearly 2,000 members and by 1977, the ERP was completely subdued. Nevertheless, the severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly put down, effectively ending the guerrilla threat and securing the junta's position in power.
In 1982, the head of state, General Leopoldo Galtieri
, authorised the invasion of the British-claimed territories of South Georgia and, on 2 April, of the Falkland Islands
. The occupation provoked a military response from the United Kingdom leading to the Falklands War
. Argentine forces were defeated and formally surrendered to British troops on 14 June. Street riots in Buenos Aires followed the defeat and the military leadership responsible for the humiliation withdrew. Reynaldo Bignone
replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic governance.
Return to democracy
De la Rúa left in effect Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent.
Massive capital flight
from the country was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts
, generating further turmoil. The December 2001 riots
forced him to resign.
Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde
as acting president, who revoked the fixed exchange rate established by Menem,
causing many working- and middle-class Argentines to lose a significant portion of their savings. By late 2002, the economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two piqueteros
by the police caused political unrest, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward. Néstor Kirchner
was elected as the new president
Boosting the neo-Keynesian
laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and rapid GDP
Under his administration, Argentina restructured its defaulted debt
with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund
purged the military of officers with dubious human rights records, nullified and voided
the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,[F]
ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Junta's crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
, who was elected in 2007
and subsequently reelected in 2011
. Fernández de Kirchner's administration established positive foreign relations with countries with questionable human rights records, including Venezuela, Iran, and Cuba, while at the same time relations with the United States and United Kingdom became increasingly strained. By 2015, the Argentine GDP grew by 2.7%
and real incomes had risen over 50% since the post-Menem era.
Despite these economic gains and increased renewable energy production and subsidies, the overall economy had been sluggish since 2011.
On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of presidential elections on 25 October
, center-right coalition
candidate Mauricio Macri
won the first ballotage
in Argentina's history, beating Front for Victory
candidate Daniel Scioli
and becoming president-elect. Macri was the first democratically elected non-peronist
president since 1916 that managed to complete his term in office without being overthrown.
He took office on 10 December 2015 and inherited an economy with a high inflation rate and in a poor shape. In April 2016, the Macri Government
introduced neoliberal austerity measures intended to tackle inflation
and overblown public deficits.
Under Macri's administration, economic recovery remained elusive with GDP shrinking 3.4%, inflation totaling 240%, billions of US dollars issued in sovereign debt, and mass poverty increasing by the end of his term.
He ran for re-election in 2019 but lost by nearly eight percentage points to Alberto Fernández
, the Justicialist Party candidate.
With a mainland surface area of 2,780,400 km2
(1,073,518 sq mi),[B]
Argentina is located in southern South America
, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes
to the west;
Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay
and the South Atlantic Ocean
to the east;
and the Drake Passage
to the south;
for an overall land border length of 9,376 km (5,826 mi). Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata
and South Atlantic Ocean
is 5,117 km (3,180 mi) long.
Argentina is one of the most biodiverse
countries in the world
hosting one of the greatest ecosystem
varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 2 marine zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory.
This huge ecosystem variety has led to a biological diversity that is among the world's largest:
- 9,372 cataloged vascular plant species (ranked 24th)[G]
- 1,038 cataloged bird species (ranked 14th)[H]
- 375 cataloged mammal species (ranked 12th)[I]
- 338 cataloged reptilian species (ranked 16th)
- 162 cataloged amphibian species (ranked 19th)
The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore
are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias
). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú
. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols
, known commonly as humus
. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa
is a plain of short grasses or steppe
In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold, all determined by the expanse across latitude, range in altitude, and relief features.
Although the most populated areas are generally temperate
, Argentina has an exceptional amount of climate diversity,
ranging from subtropical
in the north to polar
in the far south.
Consequently, there is a wide variety of biomes
in the country, including subtropical rain forests, semi-arid and arid
regions, temperate plains in the Pampas, and cold subantarctic in the south.
The average annual precipitation ranges from 150 millimetres (6 in) in the driest parts of Patagonia
to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) in the westernmost parts of Patagonia and the northeastern parts of the country.
Mean annual temperatures range from 5 °C (41 °F) in the far south to 25 °C (77 °F) in the north.
Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds
blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions.
usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding
. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary.
, a hot dry wind
, affects Cuyo and the central Pampas. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000 m (19,685 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; between June and November, when the Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard
) conditions usually affect higher elevations.
Climate change in Argentina
is predicted to have significant effects on the living conditions in Argentina.:30
The climate of Argentina
is changing with regards to precipitation patterns and temperatures. The highest increases in the precipitation (from the period 1960–2010) have occurred in the eastern parts of the country. The increase in precipitation has led to more variability in precipitation from year to year in the northern parts of the country, with a higher risk of prolonged droughts
, disfavoring agriculture in these regions
In the 20th century, Argentina experienced significant political turmoil and democratic reversals.
Between 1930 and 1976, the armed forces
overthrew six governments in Argentina;
and the country alternated periods of democracy (1912–1930, 1946–1955, and 1973–1976) with periods of restricted democracy and military rule
Following a transition
that began in 1983,
full-scale democracy in Argentina was reestablished.
Argentina's democracy endured through the 2001–02 crisis
and to the present day; it is regarded as more robust than both its pre-1983 predecessors and other democracies in Latin America
The federal government is composed of three branches:
branch consists of the bicameral
Congress, made up of the Senate
and the Chamber of Deputies
. The Congress makes federal law
, declares war
, approves treaties
and has the power of the purse
and of impeachment
, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.
The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year.
As of 2014 ten provinces have just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province
, being the most populous one, has 70. The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large
to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.
At least one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.
branch includes the Supreme Court
and lower federal courts
interpret laws and overturn those
they find unconstitutional
The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistracy
(a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval.
Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city
, Buenos Aires. Provinces are divided for administration purposes into departments
, except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos
. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes
Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the federal government;
they must be representative republics and must not contradict the Constitution.
Beyond this they are fully autonomous: they enact their own constitutions,
freely organize their local governments,
and own and manage their natural and financial resources.
Some provinces have bicameral legislatures, while others have unicameral
During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their cabildos
. The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping the original thirteen provinces. Jujuy seceded from Salta
in 1834, and the thirteen provinces became fourteen. After seceding for a decade, Buenos Aires accepted the 1853 Constitution of Argentina in 1861, and was made a federal territory in 1880.
An 1862 law designated as national territories
those under federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. In 1884 they served as bases for the establishment of the governorates
of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego.
The agreement about a frontier dispute with Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes
; its lands were incorporated into Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca
in 1943. La Pampa
and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Misiones did so in 1953, and Formosa
, Río Negro
and Santa Cruz, in 1955. The last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province
It has three components, although two are nominal because they are not under Argentine sovereignty. The first is the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego; the second is an area of Antarctica claimed by Argentina that overlaps with similar areas claimed by the UK and Chile; the third comprises the two disputed British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands
and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
A prominent Latin American
and Southern Cone regional power
, Argentina co-founded OEI
. It is also a founding member of the Mercosur
block, having Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela
as partners. Since 2002 the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration
, and the block—which has some supranational legislative functions—is its first international priority.
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Argentine Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that imposes a strict separation between national defense and internal security systems:
The National Defense System
, an exclusive responsibility of the federal government,
coordinated by the Ministry of Defense
, and comprising the Army
, the Navy
and the Air Force
Ruled and monitored by Congress
through the Houses' Defense Committees,
it is organized on the essential principle of legitimate self-defense: the repelling of any external military aggression in order to guarantee freedom of the people, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity.
Its secondary missions include committing to multinational operations within the framework of the United Nations, participating in internal support missions, assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defense system.
is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24 years old and no conscription
Argentina's defense has historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even managing its own weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank and plane factories
However, real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and the defense budget in 2011 was about 0.74% of GDP, a historical minimum,
below the Latin American average. Within the defence budget itself funding for training and even basic maintenance has been significantly cut, a factor contributing to the accidental loss of the Argentine submarine San Juan
in 2017. With the United Kingdom also actively acting to restrict even modest Argentinian military modernization efforts,
the result has been a steady erosion of Argentine military capabilities, with some arguing that Argentina had, by the end of the 2010s, ceased to be a capable military power.
In 2007, an Argentine contingent including helicopters, boats and water purification plants was sent to help Bolivia
against their worst floods in decades.
In 2010 the Armed Forces were also involved in Haiti
humanitarian responses after their respective earthquakes.
Access to biocapacity
in Argentina is much higher than world average. In 2016, Argentina had 6.8 global hectares
of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person.
In 2016 Argentina used 3.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint
of consumption. This means they use half as much biocapacity as Argentina contains. As a result, Argentina is running a biocapacity reserve.
The Catalinas Norte
is an important business complex composed of nineteen commercial office buildings and occupied by numerous leading Argentine companies.
A middle emerging economy
and one of the world's top developing nations,[L]
Argentina is a member of the G-20 major economies
. Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty. Early in the 20th century Argentina achieved development,
and became the world's seventh richest country.
Although managing to keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century,
it suffered a long and steady decline, but it is still a high income country.
—a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades—has become a trouble once again,
with an annual rate of 24.8% in 2017.
To deter it and support the peso, the government imposed foreign currency control. Income distribution
, having improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", although it is still considerably unequal.
The government of Argentina defaulted on 22 May 2020 by failing to pay a $500 million due date to its creditors. Negotiations for the restructuring of $66 billion of its debt continue.
In 2012 manufacturing
accounted for 20.3% of GDP—the largest sector in the nation's economy.
Well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, half of the industrial exports have rural origin.
With a 6.5% production growth rate in 2011,
the diversified manufacturing sector rests on a steadily growing network of industrial parks
(314 as of 2013)
Córdoba is Argentina's major industrial centre, hosting metalworking, motor vehicle and auto parts manufactures. Next in importance are the Greater Buenos Aires
area (food processing, metallurgy, motor vehicles and auto parts, chemicals and petrochemicals, consumer durables, textiles and printing); Rosario
(food processing, metallurgy, farm machinery, oil refining, chemicals, and tanning); San Miguel de Tucumán (sugar refining); San Lorenzo
(chemicals and pharmaceuticals); San Nicolás de los Arroyos
(steel milling and metallurgy); and Ushuaia
and Bahía Blanca
(oil refining).[unreliable source?]
Other manufacturing enterprises are located in the provinces of Santa Fe
(zinc and copper smelting, and flour milling); Mendoza and Neuquén (wineries and fruit processing); Chaco (textiles and sawmills); and Santa Cruz, Salta and Chubut (oil refining).[unreliable source?]
The electric output of Argentina in 2009 totaled over 122 TWh
), of which about 37% was consumed by industrial activities.
Argentina has the largest railway system
in Latin America, with 36,966 km (22,970 mi) of operating lines in 2008, out of a full network of almost 48,000 km (29,826 mi).
This system links all 23 provinces plus Buenos Aires City, and connects with all neighbouring countries.
There are four incompatible gauges
in use; this forces virtually all interregional freight traffic to pass through Buenos Aires.
The system has been in decline since the 1940s: regularly running up large budgetary deficits, by 1991 it was transporting 1,400 times less goods than it did in 1973.
However, in recent years the system has experienced a greater degree of investment
from the state, in both commuter rail lines and long-distance lines, renewing rolling stock and infrastructure.
In April 2015, by overwhelming majority the Argentine Senate
passed a law which re-created Ferrocarriles Argentinos
(2015), effectively re-nationalising the country's railways, a move which saw support from all major political parties on both sides of the political spectrum.
By 2004 Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia, and all medium-sized towns were interconnected by 69,412 km (43,131 mi) of paved roads, out of a total road network of 231,374 km (143,769 mi).
Most important cities are linked by a growing number of expressways
, including Buenos Aires–La Plata
, Córdoba–Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Mercedes–Mendoza, National Route 14General José Gervasio Artigas
and Provincial Route 2 Juan Manuel Fangio
, among others. Nevertheless, this road infrastructure is still inadequate and cannot handle the sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway system.
In 2012 there were about 11,000 km (6,835 mi) of waterways
mostly comprising the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zárate
, Rosario, San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, Barranqueras
and San Nicolas de los Arroyos as the main fluvial ports
. Some of the largest sea ports
are La Plata
, Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata
, Comodoro Rivadavia
, Puerto Deseado
, Puerto Madryn
, Ushuaia and San Antonio Oeste
. Buenos Aires has historically been the most important port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has become dominant: stretching along 67 km (42 mi) of the Paraná river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports and in 2013 accounted for 50% of all exports.
Media and communications
"Estudio País 24, the Program of the Argentines
" in Channel 7
, the first television station in the country
Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national ones include Clarín
(centrist, Latin America's best-seller and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world), La Nación
(centre-right, published since 1870), Página/12
(leftist, founded in 1987), the Buenos Aires Herald
(Latin America's most prestigious English language daily, liberal, dating back to 1876), La Voz del Interior
(centre, founded in 1904),
and the Argentinisches Tageblatt
(German weekly, liberal, published since 1878)
The Argentine television
industry is large, diverse and popular across Latin America, with many productions and TV formats
having been exported abroad. Since 1999 Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America,
as of 2014 totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate similar to those in the United States, Canada and Europe.
By 2011 Argentina also had the highest coverage of networked telecommunications among Latin American powers: about 67% of its population had internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone subscriptions.
Science and technology
Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957 Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a research reactor
with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi
. This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies, instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy Commission
(CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium
, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons
; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.
As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency
, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts
and is highly committed to global nuclear security.
In 1974 it was the first country in Latin America to put in-line a commercial nuclear power plant, Atucha I
. Although the Argentine built parts for that station amounted to 10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since entirely built in the country. Later nuclear power stations employed a higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse
, finished in 1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II
reactor a 40%.
Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the turn of the 1900s, when Luis Agote
devised the first safe and effective means of blood transfusion
as well as René Favaloro
, who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass surgery
. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology
, computer sciences
, molecular biology, oncology, ecology and cardiology. Juan Maldacena
, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory
Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007),
and those developed by CONAE
, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series.
Argentina has its own satellite programme, nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP
, which provides several countries with nuclear reactors.
Established in 1991, the CONAE
has since launched two satellites successfully and,
in June 2009, secured an agreement with the European Space Agency
for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory
, the world's foremost cosmic ray
The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock
The cacique Qom Félix Díaz
meets with then president Mauricio Macri.
The 2010 census
counted 40,117,096 inhabitants, up from 36,260,130 in 2001.
Argentina ranks third in South America in total population, fourth in Latin America and 33rd globally. Its population density of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area is well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. Since 2010, the crude net migration rate
has ranged from below zero to up to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year.
Argentina is in the midst of a demographic transition
to an older and slower-growing population. The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only to Uruguay
and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates
as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate
. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is considerably below the high of 7.0 children born per woman in 1895,
though still nearly twice as high as in Spain or Italy, which are culturally and demographically similar.
The median age is 31.9 years and life expectancy
at birth is 77.14 years.
In 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America, the second in the Americas, and the tenth worldwide to legalize same-sex marriage.
Argentina is considered a country of immigrants.
Argentines usually refer to the country as a crisol de razas
(crucible of races, or melting pot
In colonial times, the ethnic composition of Argentina was the result of the interaction of the pre-Columbian indigenous population with a colonizing population of Spanish origin and with sub-Saharan African slaves. Before the middle 19th century, the ethnic make up of Argentina was very similar to that of other countries of Hispanic America
Between 1857 and 1950 Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, at 6.6 million, second only to the United States in the numbers of immigrants received (27 million) and ahead of other areas of new settlement like Canada, Brazil and Australia.
However, mass European immigration did not have the same impact in the whole country. According to the 1914 national census, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, including 50% of the people in the city of Buenos Aires, but foreigners were only 2% in the provinces of Catamarca
and La Rioja
(North West region).
Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. This belief is endured in the popular saying "los argentinos descienden de los barcos"
(Argentines descend from the ships). Therefore, most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina
with a great majority of these immigrants coming from diverse European countries, particularly Italy and Spain.
The majority of Argentines descend from multiple European ethnic groups, primarily of Italian
descent, with over 25 million Argentines (almost 60% of the population) having some partial Italian origins.
Argentina is home to a significant Arab
population; including those with partial descent, Arab Argentines
number 1.3 to 3.5 million, mostly of Syrian
origin. As in the United States, they are considered white
. The majority of Arab Argentines are Christians
belonging to the Catholic Church (the Latin Rite church and Eastern Rite churches), and Eastern Orthodox churches. A minority are Muslims
, albeit the largest Muslim community in the Americas. The Asian
population in the country numbers around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese
descent, although an older Japanese
community originating from the early 20th century still exists.
A 2010 study conducted on 218 individuals by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach
established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed of 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Italian and Spanish), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups; 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous
From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia
, with smaller numbers from the Dominican Republic
, Ecuador and Romania
The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program
to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas—so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.
- Homburguer et al., 2015, PLOS One Genetics: 67% European, 28% Amerindian, 4% African and 1,4% Asian.
- Avena et al., 2012, PLOS One Genetics: 65% European, 31% Amerindian, and 4% African.
- Buenos Aires Province: 76% European and 24% others.
- South Zone (Chubut Province): 54% European and 46% others.
- Northeast Zone (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco & Formosa provinces): 54% European and 46% others.
- Northwest Zone (Salta Province): 33% European and 67% others.
- Oliveira, 2008, on Universidade de Brasília: 60% European, 31% Amerindian and 9% African.
- National Geographic: 52% European, 27% Amerindian ancestry, 9% African and 9% others.
The de facto[M]
official language is Spanish
, spoken by almost all Argentines.
The country is the largest Spanish-speaking society
that universally employs voseo
, the use of the pronoun vos
instead of tú
("you"), which imposes the use of alternative verb forms as well. Due to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish has a strong variation among regions, although the prevalent dialect is Rioplatense
, primarily spoken in the Pampean and Patagonian regions and accented similarly to the Neapolitan language
Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo
—the regional slang—permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other Latin American countries as well.
There are several second-languages in widespread use among the Argentine population:
- English,[N] taught since elementary school. 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to have a high level of language comprehension.
- Italian, by 1.5 million people.[O]
- Arabic, specially its Northern Levantine dialect, by one million people.
- Standard German, by 400,000 people.[P]
- Yiddish, by 200,000 people, the largest Jewish population in Latin America and 7th in the world.
- Guaraní, by 200,000 people, mostly in Corrientes (where it is official de jure) and Misiones.
- Catalan, by 174,000 people.
- Quechua, by 65,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.
- Wichí, by 53,700 people, mainly in Chaco where, along with Kom and Moqoit, it is official de jure.
- Vlax Romani, by 52,000 people.
- Albanian, by 40,000 people.
- Japanese, by 32,000 people.
- Aymara, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.
- Ukrainian, by 27,000 people.
- Welsh, 5,000 people in Patagonia. Some districts have incorporated it as an educational language.
, the first pope from the New World, was born and raised in Argentina.
According to a 2008 CONICET poll, Argentines were 76.5% Catholic
, 11.3% Agnostics
, 9% Evangelical Protestants
, 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses
, and 0.9% Mormons
, while 1.2% followed other religions, including Islam
These figures appear to have changed quite significantly in recent years: data recorded in 2017 indicated that Catholics made up 66% of the population, indicating a drop of 10.5% in nine years, and the nonreligious in the country standing at 21% of the population, indicating an almost doubling over the same period.
Argentines show high individualization and de-institutionalization of religious beliefs;
23.8% claim to always attend religious services; 49.1% seldom do and 26.8% never do.
Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in cities:
the ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population. About 3 million people live in the city of Buenos Aires, and including the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area it totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.
The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each.
Mendoza, San Miguel de Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people each.
The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampas region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires province. The provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. With 64.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (167/sq mi), Tucumán is the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average; by contrast, the southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1.1/km2
The Argentine education system consists of four levels:
The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels.[S]
Responsibility for educational supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial states. In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational stages.
The University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, alma mater to many of the country's 3,000 medical graduates, annually
Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labour union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales
), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labour unions
) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens.
There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations
The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease
increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors
from 14% to 20%, respiratory
problems from 7% to 14%, digestive
maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious
diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility
led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.
The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality
from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948
to 12.1 in 2009
and raised life expectancy
at birth from 60 years to 76.
Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.
Argentina is a multicultural country
with significant European influences. Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by Italian
and other European immigration from France, United Kingdom
, and Germany among others. Its cities are largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of American and European styles in fashion, architecture and design.
Museums, cinemas, and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centres, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music
of a variety of genres although there are lesser elements of Amerindian
influences, particularly in the fields of music and art.
The other big influence is the gauchos
and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance.
Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu. Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato
has reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows:
With the primitive Hispanic American reality fractured in La Plata Basin due to immigration, its inhabitants have come to be somewhat dual with all the dangers but also with all the advantages of that condition: because of our European roots, we deeply link the nation with the enduring values of the Old World; because of our condition of Americans we link ourselves to the rest of the continent, through the folklore of the interior and the old Castilian that unifies us, feeling somehow the vocation of the Patria Grande San Martín and Bolívar once imagined.
Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550,
it reached full independence with Esteban Echeverría
's El Matadero
, a romantic
landmark that played a significant role in the development of 19th century's Argentine narrative,
split by the ideological divide between the popular, federalist epic of José Hernández
' Martín Fierro
and the elitist and cultured discourse of Sarmiento
's masterpiece, Facundo
Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essayists
include Estanislao del Campo
, Eugenio Cambaceres
, Pedro Bonifacio Palacios
, Hugo Wast
, Benito Lynch
, Enrique Banchs
, Oliverio Girondo
, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada
, Victoria Ocampo
, Leopoldo Marechal
, Silvina Ocampo
, Roberto Arlt
, Eduardo Mallea
, Manuel Mujica Láinez
, Ernesto Sábato
, Silvina Bullrich
, Rodolfo Walsh
, María Elena Walsh
, Tomás Eloy Martínez
, Manuel Puig
, Alejandra Pizarnik
, and Osvaldo Soriano
, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the second half of the 20th century
Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave rise to renowned artists such as Alberto Ginastera
, composer; Alberto Lysy
, violinist; Martha Argerich
and Eduardo Delgado
, pianists; Daniel Barenboim
, pianist and symphonic orchestra
director; José Cura
and Marcelo Álvarez
, tenors; and to ballet dancersJorge Donn
, José Neglia
, Norma Fontenla
, Maximiliano Guerra
, Paloma Herrera
, Marianela Núñez
, Iñaki Urlezaga
and Julio Bocca
developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of aspiring musicians. Founding bands like Los Gatos
, Sui Generis
were followed by Seru Giran
, Los Abuelos de la Nada
, Soda Stereo
and Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota
, with prominent artists including Gustavo Cerati
, Litto Nebbia
, Andrés Calamaro
, Luis Alberto Spinetta
, Charly García
, Fito Páez
and León Gieco
Another popular musical genre at present is Cumbia villera
is a subgenre of cumbia
music originated in the slums of Argentina and popularized all over Latin America
and the Latin communities abroad.
Buenos Aires is one of the great theatre capitals of the world,
with a scene of international caliber centered on Corrientes Avenue
, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred to as an intellectual Broadway
in Buenos Aires.Teatro Colón
is a global landmark for opera
and classical performances; its acoustics are considered among the world's top five.[T]
Other important theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martín
, both in Buenos Aires City; Argentino
in La Plata, El Círculo
in Rosario, Independencia
in Mendoza, and Libertador
in Córdoba. Griselda Gambaro
, Roberto Cossa
, Marco Denevi
, Carlos Gorostiza
, and Alberto Vaccarezza
are a few of the most prominent Argentine playwrights.
Argentine theatre traces its origins to Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo
's creation of the colony's first theatre, La Ranchería
, in 1783. In this stage, in 1786, a tragedy entitled Siripo
had its premiere. Siripo
is now a lost work (only the second act is conserved), and can be considered the first Argentine stage play, because it was written by Buenos Aires poet Manuel José de Lavardén, it was premiered in Buenos Aires, and its plot was inspired by an historical episode of the early colonization of the Río de la Plata Basin
: the destruction of Sancti Spiritu
colony by aboriginals in 1529. La Ranchería
theatre operated until its destruction in a fire in 1792. The second theatre stage in Buenos Aires was Teatro Coliseo
, opened in 1804 during the term of Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte
. It was the nation's longest-continuously operating stage. The musical creator of the Argentine National Anthem, Blas Parera
, earned fame as a theatre score writer during the early 19th century. The genre suffered during the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas
, though it flourished alongside the economy later in the century. The national government gave Argentine theatre its initial impulse with the establishment of the Colón Theatre
, in 1857, which hosted classical and operatic, as well as stage performances. Antonio Petalardo's successful 1871 gambit on the opening of the Teatro Opera
, inspired others to fund the growing art in Argentina.
The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three most developed in Latin American cinema
, along with those produced in Mexico
Started in 1896; by the early 1930s it had already become Latin America's leading film producer, a place it kept until the early 1950s.
The world's first animated feature films
were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani
, in 1917 and 1918.
Argentina also has won seventeen Goya Awards for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film
with A King and His Movie
(1986), A Place in the World
(1992), Gatica, el mono
(1993), Autumn Sun
(1996), Ashes of Paradise
(1997), The Lighthouse
(1998), Burnt Money
(2000), The Escape
(2001), Intimate Stories
(2003), Blessed by Fire
(2005), The Hands
(2007), The Secret in Their Eyes
(2009), Chinese Take-Away
(2011), Wild Tales
(2014), The Clan
(2015) and The Distinguished Citizen
(2016), being by far the most awarded country in Latin America
with twenty-four nominations.
Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international critique: Camila
(1984), Man Facing Southeast
(1986), A Place in the World
(1992), Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes
(1997), Nine Queens
(2000), A Red Bear
(2002), The Motorcycle Diaries
(2004), The Aura
(2005), Chinese Take-Away
(2011) and Wild Tales
(2014) being some of them.
In 2013 about 100 full-length motion pictures were being created annually.
In 1946 Gyula Košice and others created The Madí Movement
in Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United States, where it had a significant impact.
Tomás Maldonado was one of the main theorists of the Ulm Model
of design education, still highly influential globally.
is a very popular sport. The men's national team
is the only one in the FIBA Americas
zone that has won the quintuplet crown: World Championship
, Olympic Gold Medal
, Diamond Ball
, Americas Championship
, and Pan American Gold Medal
. It has also conquered 13 South American Championships
, and many other tournaments. Emanuel Ginóbili
, Luis Scola
, Andrés Nocioni
, Fabricio Oberto
, Pablo Prigioni
, Carlos Delfino
and Juan Ignacio Sánchez
are a few of the country's most acclaimed players, all of them part of the NBA
Argentina hosted the Basketball World Cup
in 1950 and 1990.
Argentina reigns undisputed in Polo
, having won more international championships than any other country and been seldom beaten since the 1930s.
The Argentine Polo Championship
is the sport's most important international team trophy. The country is home to most of the world's top players, among them Adolfo Cambiaso
, the best in Polo history.
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo
creations, including empanadas
(a small stuffed pastry), locro
(a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humita
- ^ a b Article 35 of the Argentine Constitution gives equal recognition to the names "United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" and using "Argentine Nation" in the making and enactment of laws.
- ^ a b c Area does not include territorial claims in Antarctica (965,597 km2, including the South Orkney Islands), the Falkland Islands (11,410 km2), the South Georgia (3,560 km2) and the South Sandwich Islands (307 km2).
- ^ The poem's full name is La Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata, con otros acaecimientos de los reinos del Perú, Tucumán y estado del Brasil.
- ^ Also stated in article 35 of all subsequent amendments: 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, 1972 and 1994 (current)
- ^ San Martín's military campaigns, together with those of Simón Bolívar in Gran Colombia are collectively known as the Spanish American wars of independence.
- ^ The Full Stop and Due Obedience laws had been abrogated by Congress in 1998.
- ^ Includes higher plants only: ferns and fern allies, conifers and cycads, and flowering plants.
- ^ Includes only birds that breed in Argentina, not those that migrate or winter there.
- ^ Excludes marine mammals.
- ^ Since 2012 suffrage is optional for ages 16 and 17.
- ^ Although not a province, the City of Buenos Aires is a federally autonomous city, and as such its local organization has similarities with provinces: it has its own constitution, an elected mayor and representatives to the Senate and Deputy chambers. As federal capital of the nation it holds the status of federal district.
- ^ The other top developing nations being Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey.
- ^ Though not declared official de jure, the Spanish language is the only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official documents and public acts.
- ^ English is also the primary language of the disputed Falkland Islands.
- ^ Many elder people also speak a macaronic language of Italian and Spanish called cocoliche, which was originated by the Italian immigrants in the late 19th century.
- ^ It gave origin to a mixture of Spanish and German called Belgranodeutsch.
- ^ In practice this privileged status amounts to tax-exempt school subsidies and licensing preferences for radio broadcasting frequencies.
- ^ a b Level duration depends on jurisdiction.
- ^ The post-graduate sub-level of higher education is usually paid.
- ^ The other top venues being Berlin's Konzerthaus, Vienna's Musikverein, Amsterdam's Concertgebouw and Boston's Symphony Hall.
- ^ a b Ley No. 5598 de la Provincia de Corrientes, 22 October 2004 (in Spanish)
- ^ La educación intercultural bilingüe en Santiago del Estero, ¿mito o realidad? [La cámara de diputados de la provincia sanciona con fuerza de ley.] (in Spanish). Cámara de Diputados de la Nación. p. 1. Declárase de interés oficial la preservación, difusión, estímulo, estudio y práctica de la lengua Quíchua en todo el territorio de la provincia [..]
- ^ a b Ley No. 6604 de la Provincia de Chaco, 28 July 2010, B.O., (9092)
- ^ Enseñanza y desarrollo continuo del idioma galés en la provincia del Chubut. Expresión de beneplácito. Menna, Quetglas y Austin [Teaching and continuous development of the Welsh language in the province of Chubut. Expression of approval. Menna, Quetglas and Austin.] (PDF) (in Spanish). Cámara de Diputados de la Nación. p. 1. Archived from the original(PDF) on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2019. Declarar de interés de la Honorable Cámara de Diputados de la Nación la enseñanza y desarrollo continuo del idioma galés en la provincia del Chubut [..]
- ^ Argentina: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
- ^ "Argentina inicia una nueva etapa en su relación con Japón". www.telam.com.ar. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- ^ Clarín.com (27 September 2010). "La comunidad china en el país se duplicó en los últimos 5 años". Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- ^ "국가지표체계". www.index.go.kr. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- ^ "WebINDEC – Poblaci Censo 2010". www.indec.gov.ar. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
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