The Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography by Samuel Butler and Ernest Rhys, showing Ariana in the east (yellow) based on Eratosthenes descriptions.
), a term found in Iranian Avestan Airiiana-
(especially in Airyanem Vaejah
, the name of the Iranian peoples
' mother country).
The modern name Iran
represents a different form of the ancient name Ariana
, which was derived from "Airyanem Vaejah" and implies that Iran is the Ariana itself, a word that is found in Old Persian
a view supported by the traditions of the country preserved in the Muslim writers in the 9th and the 10th centuries.
The Greeks also referred to Haroyum/Haraiva (Herat
) as ':Aria, which is one of the many provinces found in Ariana.
The names Ariana
and many other ancient titles, of which Aria
is a component element, are connected with the Avestan term Airya-
, and the Old Persian
, a self-designation of the peoples of Ancient Iran
and Ancient India
, meaning "noble", "excellent" and "honourable".
The exact limits of Ariana are laid down with little accuracy in classical sources. It seems to have been often confused (as in Pliny
, Naturalis Historia
, book vi, chapter 23
) with the small province of Aria
As a geographical term, Ariana was introduced by the Greek
(c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC) and was fully described by the Greek geographer Strabo
(64/63 BC – ca. AD 24).
Per Eratosthenes' definition, the borders of Ariana were defined by the Indus River
in the east, the sea in the south, a line from Carmania
to the Caspian Gates
(apparently referring to the pass near the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea
) in the west, and the so-called Taurus Mountains
in the north. This large region included almost all of the countries east of Media
and ancient Persia
, including south of the great mountain ranges up to the deserts of Gedrosia
i.e. the provinces of Carmania, Gedrosia, Drangiana
, the Paropamisadae
; also Bactria
was reckoned to Ariana and was called "the ornament of Ariana as a whole" by Apollodorus of Artemita
Inhabitants of Ariana
The peoples by whom Ariana was inhabited, as enumerated by Strabo
- the inhabitants of Daritis;
Pliny (vi. 23
) says that some add to India
four satrapies to the west of the river, – the Gedrosii, Arachosii, Arii, and Paropamisadae, as far as the river Cophes (the river Kabul
). Pliny therefore agrees on the whole with Strabo. Dionysius Periegetes
(1097) agrees with Strabo in extending the northern boundary of the Ariani to the Paropamisus
, and (714) speaks of them as inhabiting the shores of the Erythraean Sea
. It is probable, from Strabo (xv. p.724
), that the term was extended to include the east Persians, Bactrians, and Sogdians, with the people of Ariana below the mountains, because they were for the most part of one speech.
Eratosthenes’ use of this term (followed by Diodorus 2.37.6) is obviously due to a mistake, since, firstly, not all inhabitants of these lands belonged to the same tribe and, secondly, the term "Aryan" originally was an ethnical one and only later a political one as the name of the Iranian empire (for all North Indians and Iranians designated themselves as "Aryan"; See Aryan), thus comprising still other Iranian tribes outside of Ariana proper, like Medes, Persians or Sogdians (so possibly in Diodorus 1.94.2, where Zarathushtra is said to have preached Ahura Mazdā's laws "among the Arianoi").
- ^ Pliny, Naturalis Historia, book vi, page 23
- ^ a b c d e Smith, William (1980). "Ariana". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. pp. 210–211. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- ^ a b c Schmitt, R. (1986). "Aria". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles. "Ărĭāna". A Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
- ^ Sagar, Krishna Chandra (1 January 1992). Foreign Influence on Ancient India. Northern Book Centre. p. 91. ISBN 9788172110284. According to Strabo (c. 54 B.C., A.D. 24), who refers to the authority of Apollodorus of Artemia, the Greeks of Bactria became masters of Ariana, a vague term roughly indicating the eastern districts of the Persian empire, and of India.
- ^ Gnoli, G. (2006). "Iranian identity ii. Pre-Islamic Period". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- ^ Ashraf, A. (2006). "Iranian identity iii. Medieval Islamic Period". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- ^ Ed Eduljee. "Haroyu, Aria / Airan, Herat & Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
- ^ Ed Eduljee. "Aryan Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, Location. Aryans and Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
- ^ Ed Eduljee. "Aryan Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, in the Avesta. Aryan lands and Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
- ^ Schmitt, R. (1987). "Aryans". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- ^ Strabo 2.1.22f
- ^ Strabo 2.5.32
- ^ Strabo 11.11.1
- ^ Gnoli, Gherardo (2002). The "Aryan" Language. Roma: Instituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente. p. 86.
- ^ "Strabo Geography, Book XV, Chapter 2". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Horace Hayman Wilson, Charles Masson, Ariana Antiqua: a Descriptive Account of the Antiquities and Coins of Afghanistan, 1841
- Henry Walter Bellew, An inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891
- Tomaschek in Pauly-Wissowa, II/1, cols. 619f., and 813f.
- G. Gnoli, Postilla ad Ariyō šayana, RSO 41, 1966, pp. 329–34.
- P. Calmeyer, AMI 15, 1982, pp. 135ff.
- The Online Etymology Dictionary: Aryana
- 'Ărĭāna', Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Perseus Digital Library.
- 'Ariana', Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography, William Smith, 1870
- 'Stabo GeographyY', Book XV, Chapter 2.
- Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap. 23. (20.)—The Indus, Perseus Digital Library.
- Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap. 25.—The Ariani and the adjoining nations, Perseus Digital Library.
- Pomponius Mela: De Chorographia Liber Primus
- Ariana antiqua: a descriptive account of the antiquities and coins of Afghanistan By Horace Hayman Wilson, Charles Masson
- Eratosthenes, Duane W. Roller, Strabo, 2010, 'Eratosthenes' Geography'
Last edited on 5 March 2021, at 19:18
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