The number of Armenian-speakers by country according to official government sources, including censuses and estimates:
Classification and origins
Irina, a speaker of the Artsakh dialect of Armenian
While Armenian constitutes the sole member of the Armenian branch of the Indo-European family, Aram Kossian has suggested that the hypothetical Mushki
language may have been a (now extinct) Armenic language.
W. M. Austin (1942) concluded
that there was early contact between Armenian and Anatolian languages
, based on what he considered common archaisms, such as the lack of a feminine gender and the absence of inherited long vowels. However, unlike shared innovations (or synapomorphies
), the common retention of archaisms (or symplesiomorphy
) is not considered conclusive evidence of a period of common isolated development. There are words used in Armenian that are generally believed to have been borrowed from Anatolian languages, particularly from Luwian
, although some researchers have identified possible Hittite
loanwords as well.
One notable loanword from Anatolian is Armenian xalam
, "skull", cognate to Hittite ḫalanta
In 1985, Soviet linguist Igor M. Diakonoff
noted the presence in Classical Armenian
of what he calls a "Caucasian substratum" identified by earlier scholars, consisting of loans from the Kartvelian
and Northeast Caucasian languages
Noting that Hurro-Urartian-speaking
peoples inhabited the Armenian homeland in the second millennium BC, Diakonoff identifies in Armenian a Hurro-Urartian substratum of social, cultural, and animal and plant terms such as ałaxin
"slave girl" ( ← Hurr. al(l)a(e)ḫḫenne
"sea" ( ← Urart. ṣûǝ
"(inland) sea"), ułt
"camel" ( ← Hurr. uḷtu
), and xnjor
"apple (tree)" ( ← Hurr. ḫinzuri
). Some of the terms he gives admittedly have an Akkadian
provenance, but he suggests they were borrowed through Hurrian or Urartian. Given that these borrowings do not undergo sound changes
characteristic of the development of Armenian from Proto-Indo-European
, he dates their borrowing to a time before the written record but after the Proto-Armenian language
Loan words from Iranian languages
, along with the other ancient accounts such as that of Xenophon above, initially led linguists to erroneously classify Armenian as an Iranian language. Scholars such as Paul de Lagarde
and F. Müller believed that the similarities between the two languages meant that Armenian belonged to the Iranian language family
The distinctness of Armenian was recognized when philologist Heinrich Hübschmann
used the comparative method
to distinguish two layers of Iranian words from the older Armenian vocabulary
. He showed that Armenian often had 2 morphemes for the one concept, and the non-Iranian components yielded a consistent PIE
pattern distinct from Iranian, and also demonstrated that the inflectional morphology was different from that in Iranian languages.
The hypothesis that Greek is Armenian's closest living relative originates with Holger Pedersen
(1924), who noted that the number of Greek-Armenian lexical cognates is greater than that of agreements between Armenian and any other Indo-European language. Antoine Meillet
(1925, 1927) further investigated morphological and phonological agreement, postulating that the parent languages of Greek and Armenian were dialects in immediate geographical proximity in the Proto-Indo-European period
. Meillet's hypothesis became popular in the wake of his book Esquisse d'une histoire de la langue latine
(1936). Georg Renatus Solta (1960) does not go as far as postulating a Proto-Graeco-Armenian stage, but he concludes that considering both the lexicon and morphology, Greek is clearly the dialect most closely related to Armenian. Eric P. Hamp
(1976, 91) supports the Graeco-Armenian thesis, anticipating even a time "when we should speak of Helleno-Armenian" (meaning the postulate of a Graeco-Armenian proto-language). Armenian shares the augment
, and a negator derived from the set phrase Proto-Indo-European language
*ne h₂oyu kʷid
("never anything" or "always nothing"), and the representation of word-initial laryngeals
by prothetic vowels, and other phonological and morphological peculiarities with Greek. Nevertheless, as Fortson (2004) comments, "by the time we reach our earliest Armenian records in the 5th century AD, the evidence of any such early kinship has been reduced to a few tantalizing pieces".
Used in tandem with the Graeco-Armenian hypothesis, the Armenian language would also be included under the label Aryano-Greco-Armenic
, splitting into proto-Greek/Phrygian and "Armeno-Aryan" (ancestor of Armenian and Indo-Iranian
Armenian manuscript, 5th–6th century.
), attested from the 5th century to the 19th century as the literary standard (up to the 11th century also as a spoken language with different varieties), was partially superseded by Middle Armenian
, attested from the 12th century to the 18th century. Specialized literature prefers "Old Armenian" for grabar
as a whole, and designates as "Classical" the language used in the 5th century literature, "Post-Classical" from the late 5th to 8th centuries, and "Late Grabar" that of the period covering the 8th to 11th centuries. Later, it was used mainly in religious and specialized literature, with the exception of a revival during the early modern period, when attempts were made to establish it as the language of a literary renaissance, with neoclassical inclinations, through the creation and dissemination of literature in varied genres, especially by the Mekhitarists
. The first Armenian periodical, Azdarar
, was published in grabar
The Book of Lamentations
by Gregory of Narek
(951–1003) is an example of the development of a literature and writing style of Old Armenian by the 10th century. In addition to elevating the literary style and vocabulary of the Armenian language by adding well above a thousand new words,
through his other hymns and poems Gregory paved the way for his successors to include secular themes and vernacular language in their writings. The thematic shift from mainly religious texts to writings with secular outlooks further enhanced and enriched the vocabulary. “A Word of Wisdom”, a poem by Hovhannes Sargavak devoted to a starling, legitimizes poetry devoted to nature, love, or female beauty. Gradually, the interests of the population at large were reflected in other literary works as well. Konsdantin Yerzinkatsi and several others even take the unusual step of criticizing the ecclesiastic establishment and addressing the social issues of the Armenian homeland. However, these changes represented the nature of the literary style and syntax, but they did not constitute immense changes to the fundamentals of the grammar or the morphology of the language. Often, when writers codify a spoken dialect, other language users are then encouraged to imitate that structure through the literary device known as parallelism
The Four Gospels, 1495, Portrait of St Mark Wellcome with Armenian inscriptions
First printed Armenian language Bible, 1666
In the 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland was once again divided. This time Eastern Armenia
was conquered from Qajar Iran
by the Russian Empire
, while Western Armenia
, containing two thirds of historical Armenia, remained under Ottoman
control. The antagonistic relationship between the Russian and Ottoman empires led to creation of two separate and different environments under which Armenians lived. Halfway through the 19th century, two important concentrations of Armenian communities were further consolidated.
Because of persecutions or the search for better economic opportunities, many Armenians living under Ottoman rule gradually moved to Istanbul
, whereas Tbilisi
became the center of Armenians living under Russian rule. These two cosmopolitan cities very soon became the primary poles of Armenian intellectual and cultural life.
The introduction of new literary forms and styles, as well as many new ideas sweeping Europe, reached Armenians living in both regions. This created an ever-growing need to elevate the vernacular, Ashkharhabar, to the dignity of a modern literary language, in contrast to the now-anachronistic Grabar. Numerous dialects existed in the traditional Armenian regions, which, different as they were, had certain morphological and phonetic features in common. On the basis of these features two major standards emerged:
- Western standard: The influx of immigrants from different parts of the traditional Armenian homeland to Istanbul crystallized the common elements of the regional dialects, paving the way for a style of writing that required a shorter and more flexible learning curve than Grabar.
- Eastern standard: The Yerevan dialect provided the primary elements of Eastern Armenian, centered in Tbilisi, Georgia. Similar to the Western Armenian variant, the Modern Eastern was in many ways more practical and accessible to the masses than Grabar.
Both centers vigorously pursued the promotion of Ashkharhabar. The proliferation of newspapers in both versions (Eastern & Western) and the development of a network of schools where modern Armenian was taught, dramatically increased the rate of literacy (in spite of the obstacles by the colonial administrators), even in remote rural areas. The emergence of literary works entirely written in the modern versions increasingly legitimized the language's existence. By the turn of the 20th century both varieties of the one modern Armenian language prevailed over Grabar and opened the path to a new and simplified grammatical structure of the language in the two different cultural spheres. Apart from several morphological, phonetic, and grammatical differences, the largely common vocabulary and generally analogous rules of grammatical fundamentals allows users of one variant to understand the other as long as they are fluent in one of the literary standards.
After World War I
, the existence of the two modern versions of the same language was sanctioned even more clearly. The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
(1920–1990) used Eastern Armenian as its official language, whereas the diaspora created after the Armenian Genocide
preserved the Western Armenian dialect.
Armenian language road sign.
The two modern literary dialects, Western (originally associated with writers in the Ottoman Empire) and Eastern (originally associated with writers in the Russian Empire), removed almost all of their Turkish lexical influences
in the 20th century, primarily following the Armenian Genocide
Spoken Eastern Armenian
In Armenian, the stress falls on the last syllable unless the last syllable contains the definite article [ə] or [n], and the possessive articles ս and դ, in which case it falls on the penultimate one. For instance, [ɑχɔɾˈʒɑk]
. Exceptions to this rule are some words with the final letter է (ե in the reformed orthography) (մի՛թէ, մի՛գուցե, ո՛րեւէ) and sometimes the ordinal numerals (վե՛ցերորդ, տա՛սներորդ, etc.), as well as նաեւ, նամանաւանդ, հիմա, այժմ, and a small number of other words.
Modern Armenian has six monophthongs. Each vowel phoneme in the table is represented by three symbols. The first is the sounds transcription in the International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA). After that appears the corresponding letter of the Armenian alphabet. The last symbol is its Latin transliteration.
Armenian vowel phonemes
The following table lists the Eastern Armenian consonantal system. The occlusives and affricates
have an aspirated series, commonly transcribed with a reversed apostrophe
after the letter. Each phoneme in the table is represented by IPA, Armenian script and romanization.
Eastern Armenian consonant phonemes
Sources differ on the place of articulation of these consonants.
The major phonetic difference between dialects is in the reflexes of Classical Armenian voice-onset time
. The seven dialect types have the following correspondences, illustrated with the t–d series:
Correspondence in initial position
Armenian corresponds with other Indo-European languages in its structure, but it shares distinctive sounds and features of its grammar with neighboring languages of the Caucasus region
. Armenian is rich in combinations of consonants.
Both classical Armenian and the modern spoken and literary dialects have a complicated system of noun declension, with six or seven noun cases but no gender. In modern Armenian, the use of auxiliary verbs to show tense (comparable to will in "he will go") has generally supplemented the inflected verbs of Classical Armenian
. Negative verbs are conjugated differently from positive ones (as in English "he goes" and "he does not go") in many tenses, otherwise adding only the negative չ to the positive conjugation. Grammatically, early forms of Armenian had much in common with classical Greek
, but the modern language, like modern Greek, has undergone many transformations, adding some analytic
Classical Armenian has no grammatical gender
, not even in the pronoun, but there is a feminine suffix (-ուհի "-uhi"). For example, ուսուցիչ (usuts'ich
, "teacher") becomes ուսուցչուհի (usuts'chuhi
, female teacher). This suffix, however, does not have a grammatical effect on the sentence. The nominal inflection, however, preserves several types of inherited stem classes. Nouns are declined for one of seven cases: nominative
), or instrumental
Examples of noun declension in Eastern Armenian
Հեռախոս Heṙaxos (telephone)
Մայր Mayr (mother)
Animate nouns do not decline for locative case.
Հանրապետություն Hanrapetut'yun (republic)
Examples of noun declension in Western Armenian
Verbs in Armenian have an expansive system of conjugation
with two main verb types in Eastern Armenian and three in Western Armenian changing form based on tense
Classical Armenian (Grabar), which remained the standard until the 18th century, was quite homogenous across the different regions that works in it were written; it may have been a cross-regional standard.
The Middle Armenian variety used in the court of Cilician Armenia (1080-1375) provides a window into the development of Western Armenian, which came to be based on what became the dialect of Istanbul, while the standard for Eastern Armenian was based on the dialect around Mount Ararat and Yerevan.
Although the Armenian language is often divided into "east" and "west", the two standards are actually relatively close to each other in light of wealth of the diversity present among regional non-standard Armenian dialects. The different dialects have experienced different degrees of language contact
effects, often with Turkic and Caucasian languages; for some, the result has been significant phonological and syntactic changes.
Fortson notes that the modern standard as well has now attained a subordinate clausal structure that greatly resembles a Turkic language.
Eastern Armenian speakers pronounce (թ) as [tʰ], (դ) as [d], and (տ) as a tenuis
occlusive [t˭]. Western Armenian has simplified the occlusive system into a simple division between voiced occlusives and aspirated ones; the first series corresponds to the tenuis series of Eastern Armenian, and the second corresponds to the Eastern voiced and aspirated series. Thus, the Western dialect pronounces both (թ) and (դ) as [tʰ], and the (տ) letter as [d].
There is no precise linguistic border between one dialect and another because there is nearly always a dialect transition zone of some size between pairs of geographically identified dialects.
Armenian can be divided into two major dialectal blocks and those blocks into individual dialects, though many of the Western Armenian dialects have become extinct due to the effects of the Armenian Genocide. In addition, neither dialect is completely homogeneous: any dialect can be subdivided into several subdialects. Although Western and Eastern Armenian are often described as different dialects of the same language, many subdialects are not readily mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, a fluent speaker of one of two greatly varying dialects who is also literate in one of the standards, when exposed to the other dialect for a period of time will be able to understand the other with relative ease.
Western Armenian dialects are currently spoken also in Gavar
(formerly Nor Bayazet and Kamo, on the west of Lake Sevan
, and Talin
in Armenia (Mush dialect
), and by the large Armenian population residing in Abkhazia
, where they are considered to be the first or second ethnic minority, or even equal in number to the local Abkhaz population
Some general examples of differences in phonology
The Armenian alphabet
(Armenian: Հայոց գրեր, romanized
: Hayots grer
or Armenian: Հայոց այբուբեն, romanized
: Hayots aybuben
) is a graphically unique alphabetical
writing system that is used to write the Armenian language. It was introduced around AD 405 by Mesrop Mashtots
, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, and originally contained 36 letters. Two more letters, օ (o) and ֆ (f), were added in the Middle Ages.
During the 1920s orthography reform
in Soviet Armenia, a new letter և (capital ԵՎ) was added, which was a ligature before ե+ւ, whereas the letter Ւ ւ was discarded and reintroduced as part of a new letter ՈՒ ու (which was a digraph before). This alphabet and associated orthography is used by most Armenian speakers of the Republic of Armenia and the countries of the former Soviet Union. Neither the alphabet nor the orthography has been adopted by Diaspora Armenians, including Eastern Armenian speakers of Iran and all Western Armenian speakers, who keep using the traditional alphabet and spelling.
However, due to extensive loaning, only around 450 words are known to have been inherited from Indo-European by the Classical Armenian stage; the rest were lost, a fact that presents a major challenge to endeavors to better understand Proto-Armenian and its place within the family, especially as many of the sound changes along the way from Indo-European to Armenian remain quite difficult to analyze.
This table lists only some of the more recognizable cognates that Armenian shares with English (more specifically, with English words descended from Old English
). (Source: Online Etymology Dictionary.
- ^ Though Russian is the working language of the Union according to the Treaty on Eurasian Economic Union, Armenian and the languages of other member states are officially recognized. The websites of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Eurasian Economic Commission are available, among other languages, in Armenian.
- ^ Armenian has no legal status in Samtske-Javakheti, but it is widely spoken by its Armenian population, which is concentrated in Ninotsminda and Akhalkalaki districts (over 90% of the total population in these two districts). There were 144 state-funded schools in the region as of 2010 where Armenian is the main language of instruction.
- ^ The Lebanese government recognizes Armenian as a minority language, particularly for educational purposes.
- ^ In education, according to the Treaty of Lausanne
- ^ Various state government agencies in California provide Armenian translations of their documents, namely the California Department of Social Services, California Department of Motor Vehicles, California superior courts. In the city of Glendale, there are street signs in Armenian.
- ^ Non-UN member states are indicated in italics.
- ^ Artsakh/Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is a disputed area. It is de facto independent, but is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan.
- ^ Eastern Armenian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Western Armenian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Classical Armenian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Middle Armenian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- ^ "Treaty on Eurasian Economic Union" (PDF). eaeunion.org. Eurasian Economic Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2021. Article 110 Working Language of the Bodies of the Union. Language of International Treaties within the Union and Decisions of the Commission: 2. International treaties within the Union and decisions of the Commission that are binding on the Member States shall be adopted in Russian with subsequent translation into the official languages of the Member States, if it is provided for by their legislation, in the procedure determined by the Commission.
- ^ "Եվրասիական տնտեսական միություն". eaeunion.org (in Armenian). Eurasian Economic Union. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- ^ "Եվրասիական Տնտեսական Հանձնաժողով". eurasiancommission.org (in Armenian). Eurasian Economic Commission. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- ^ "Western Armenian – Cypriot Arabic: new century, new speakers?". ec.europa.eu. European Commission. 21 February 2017. Dedicated to the two officially recognized minority languages of Cyprus, the event will focus on the teaching aspect of Western Armenian and Cypriot Arabic as mother tongues.
- ^ Hadjilyra, Alexander - Michael. "The Armenians of Cyprus" (PDF). publications.gov.cy. Press and Information Office, Republic of Cyprus. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2019. According to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages of the Council of Europe, Armenian was recognised as a minority language of Cyprus as of 1 December 2002.
- ^ Kenesei, István (2009). "Minority languages in Hungary" (PDF). efnil.org. European Federation of National Institutions for Language. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2019. As far as indigenous (autochthonous) minority languages are concerned, Hungarian legislation acknowledges the languages in the following list [...]: Armenian, Boyash, Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Polish, Romani, Romanian, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Ukrainian, and Hungarian Sign Language (HSL).
- ^ "Iraqi Constitution: Article 4" (PDF). The Republic of Iraq Ministry of Interior General Directorate for Nationality. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2014. The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Syriac, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions.
- ^ Zych, Maciej. "New Polish legislation regarding national, ethnic and linguistic minorities" (PDF). gugik.gov.pl. Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography of Poland. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2019. There are 9 national minorities: Belorussian, Czech, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, Ukrainian and Jewish; and 4 ethnic minorities - Karait, Lemko, Roma and Tartar.
- ^ Pisarek, Walery (2009). "The relationship between official and minority languages in Poland" (PDF). efnil.org. European Federation of National Institutions for Language. p. 118. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2019. In a Statement made by the Republic of Poland with relation to the ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Belarusian, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Karaim, Kashubian, Lithuanian, Lemkian, German, Armenian, Romani, Russian, Slovak, Tatar and Ukrainian were recognized as minority languages.
- ^ Saramandu, Nicolae; Nevaci, Manuela (2009). "MULTILINGVISM ŞI LIMBI MINORITARE ÎN ROMÂNIA [MULTILINGUALISM AND MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ROMANIA]" (PDF) (in Romanian). Institute of Linguistics "Iorgu Iordan - Alexandru Rosetti", Romanian Academy. p. 25. În cazul României, 10 limbi beneficiază de protecţie generală (albaneză, armeană, greacă, italiană, idiş, macedoneană, poloneză, romani, ruteană, tătară) şi 10 limbi beneficiază de protecţie sporită (bulgară, cehă, croată, germană, maghiară, rusă, sârbă, slovacă, turcă, ucraineană).
- ^ "Law of Ukraine "On Principles of State Language Policy" (Current version – Revision from 01.02.2014)". Document 5029-17, Article 7: Regional or minority languages Ukraine, Paragraph 2 (in Ukrainian). rada.gov.ua. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014. Стаття 7. Регіональні мови або мови меншин України [...] 2. У контексті Європейської хартії регіональних мов або мов меншин до регіональних мов або мов меншин України, до яких застосовуються заходи, спрямовані на використання регіональних мов або мов меншин, що передбачені у цьому Законі, віднесені мови: російська, білоруська, болгарська, вірменська, гагаузька, ідиш, кримськотатарська, молдавська, німецька, новогрецька, польська, ромська, румунська, словацька, угорська, русинська, караїмська, кримчацька.
- ^ Hille, Charlotte (2010). State Building and Conflict Resolution in the Caucasus. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 241. ISBN 9789004179011.
- ^ "Javakhk Armenians Looks Ahead to Local Elections". Asbarez. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2014. Javakheti for use in the region's 144 Armenian schools ...
- ^ Mezhdoyan, Slava (28 November 2012). "Challenges and problems of the Armenian community of Georgia" (PDF). Tbilisi: European Armenian Federation for Justice and Democracy. Retrieved 26 May 2014. Armenian schools in Georgia are fully funded by the government ...
- ^ "About Lebanon". Central Administration of Statistics of the Republic of Lebanon. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Other Languages: French, English and Armenian
- ^ "Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention. Third periodic reports of states parties due in 2003: Lebanon" (PDF). Committee on the Rights of the Child. 25 October 2005. p. 108. Retrieved 26 May 2014. Right of minorities to learn their language. The Lebanese curriculum allows Armenian schools to teach the Armenian language as a basic language.
- ^ Sanjian, Ara. "Armenians and the 2000 Parliamentary Elections in Lebanon". Armenian News Network / Groong. University of Southern California. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Moreover, the Lebanese government approved a plan whereby the Armenian language was to be considered from now on as one of the few 'second foreign languages' that students can take as part of the official Lebanese secondary school certificate (Baccalaureate) exams.
- ^ Saib, Jilali (2001). "Languages in Turkey". In Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (eds.). The Other Languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. p. 423. ISBN 9781853595097. No other language can be taught as a mother language other than Armenian, Greek and Hebrew, as agreed in the Lausanne Treaty ...
- ^ Okçabol, Rıfat (2008). "Secondary Education in Turkey". In Nohl, Arnd-Michael; Akkoyunlu-Wigley, Arzu; Wigley, Simon (eds.). Education in Turkey. Berlin: Waxmann Verlag. p. 65. ISBN 9783830970699. Private Minority Schools are the school established by Greek, Armenian and Hebrew minorities during the era of the Ottoman Empire and covered by Lausanne Treaty.
- ^ "Armenian Translations". California Department of Social Services. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014.
- ^ "Վարորդների ձեռնարկ [Driver's Manual]"(PDF). California Department of Motor Vehicles. 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- ^ "English/Armenian Legal Glossary" (PDF). Superior Court of California, County of Sacramento. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- ^ Rocha, Veronica (11 January 2011). "New Glendale traffic safety warnings in English, Armenian, Spanish". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- ^ Aghajanian, Liana (4 September 2012). "Intersections: Bad driving signals a need for reflection". Glendale News-Press. Retrieved 26 May 2014. ...trilingual street signs in English, Armenian, and Spanish at intersections...
- ^ "H. Acharian Institute of Language". sci.am. Archived from the original on 5 October 2014. Main Fields of Activity: investigation of the structure and functioning, history and comparative grammar of the Armenian language, exploration of the literary Eastern and Western Armenian Language, dialectology, regulation of literary language, development of terminology
- ^ Borjian, Maryam (2017). Language and Globalization: An Autoethnographic Approach. Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 9781315394619. At the forefront of the development of Western Armenian in everyday life as well as in arts and technology is the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
- ^ Yesayan, Catherine (June 19, 2019). "Unraveling the Life of Calouste Gulbenkian". Asbarez. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. The “core” activity of the Armenian Department is the preservation, advancement and revitalization of Western Armenian.
- ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (March 2, 2020). "All You Need to Know about Armenian Language". aspirantum.com. ASPIRANTUM: Armenian School of Languages and Cultures. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. The total number of Armenians in the world is roughly estimated as 7-11 million, of which ca. 5-5,5 million speak Armenian.
- ^ "Language Monday: Armenian". World Book Encyclopedia. April 23, 2018. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. About 7 million people speak the Armenian language worldwide.
- ^ "Population Census 2011: Table 5.2-1 Population (urban, rural) by Ethnicity, Sex and Mother Tongue" (PDF). armstat.am. Statistical Committee of Armenia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2021.
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- ^ "Население наиболее многочисленных национальностей по родному языку [Population of the most numerous nationalities by native language]" (PDF). gks.ru (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April 2021.
- ^ "LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER Universe: Population 5 years and over more information 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020.
- ^ "Population by region, by native languages and fluently speak Georgian language". census.ge. National Statistics Office of Georgia. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021.
- ^ "Population Census 2015: Table 5.2-1 Population (urban, rural) by Ethnicity, Sex and Mother Tongue" (PDF). stat-nkr.am. National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2021.
- ^ Bespyatov, Tim. "Linguistic composition of Ukraine 2001". pop-stat.mashke.org. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020.
"National composition of population". ukrcensus.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019.
- ^ "Language Spoken Most Often at Home (269), Other Language(s) Spoken Regularly at Home (270) and Age (15A) for the Population Excluding Institutional Residents of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019.
- ^ "Proportion of mother tongue responses for various regions in Canada, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019.
- ^ "Australia: Language spoken at home". profile.id.com.au. Archived from the original on 24 April 2021.
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- ^ a b c d The letter ⟨c⟩ represents /ts/. In the Armenian words cunk, gorc, mec, and ancanotʿ, it corresponds to PIE *ǵ-.
- ^ a b c d The prefix for "not" in English is "un-", "i(n)-" in Latin, "a(n)- or nē-" in Greek and "a(n)-" in Sanskrit, which correspond to the PIE *n-.
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