Arpad, Syria - Wikipedia
Arpad, Syria
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Arpad (probably modern Tell Rifaat, Syria) was an ancient Aramaean Syro-Hittite city located in north-western Syria, north of Aleppo. It became the capital of the Aramaean state of Bit Agusi established by Gusi of Yakhan in the 9th century BC.[1] Bit Agusi stretched from the A'zaz area in the north to Hamath in the south.[2]
Arpad

Shown within Syria
LocationSyria
RegionAleppo Governorate
Coordinates36.47°N 37.10°E
Arpad later became a major vassal city of the Kingdom of Urartu. In 743 BC, during the Urartu-Assyria War, the Neo-Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III laid siege to Arpad following the defeat of the Urartuan army of Sarduri II at Samsat. But the city of Arpad did not surrender easily. It took Tiglath-Pileser three years of siege to conquer Arpad, whereupon he massacred its inhabitants and destroyed the city.[3] Afterward Arpad served as a provincial capital.[4] Tell Rifaat, which is probably the remains of Arpad, has walls still preserved to a height of eight meters.[5]
Biblical references
The city is mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible:
The Assyrian vizier, Rabshakeh, lists the god(s) of Arpad among those who he alleges have been unable to save their cities from Assyrian assault.[7]
Etymology
The word Arpad in Hebrew means 'the light of redemption',[8] or 'I shall be spread out (or: supported)'[9]
Archaeology
Tel Rifaat is an oval 250 by 233 meters. Within this, the main citadel is 142 by 142 meters with a maximum height of 30 meters. The defensive wall surrounding the site is about two miles long.
The site has been worked by a team from the Institute of Archaeology or the University of London. After a preliminary examination in 1956, Tell Rifa'at was excavated for two seasons in 1961 and 1964. The team was led by M. V. Seton Williams.[10][11]
In 1977, an archaeological survey was conducted of the area around Tell Rifa'at, also by the Institute of Archaeology.[12]
See also
Cities of the ancient Near East
Notes
  1. ^ Lipinsky, Edward (2000). The Aramaeans: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion. Peeters Publishers. p. 195. ISBN 9789042908598.
  2. ^ Lipinsky, 2000, p. 99.
  3. ^ Healy, Mark (1992). The Ancient Assyrians. Osprey. p. 25. ISBN 9781855321632.
  4. ^ Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 626. ISBN 9780306461583.
  5. ^ Lipinsky, 2000, p. 529.
  6. ^ Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann; Perkins, Pheme (2007). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version, Issue 48. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288810.
  7. ^ 2 Kings 18:34
  8. ^ "Arpad Definition and Meaning - Bible Dictionary". Bible Study Tools.
  9. ^ "NETBible: Arpad". classic.net.bible.org.
  10. ^ M. V. Seton Williams, Preliminary Report on the Excavations at Tell Rifa'at, Iraq, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 68-87, 1961
  11. ^ M. V. Seton Williams, The Excavations at Tell Rifa'at: 1964 Preliminary Report on, Iraq, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 16-33, 1967
  12. ^ John Matthers, Tell Rifa'at 1977: Preliminary Report of an Archaeological Survey, Iraq, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 119-162, 1978
References
Last edited on 24 October 2020, at 23:31
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