Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory
), known as the Federal Capital Territory
) until 1938, is a federal territory
containing the Australian capital city of Canberra
and some surrounding townships
. It is located in the south-east of the country and is an enclave
within the state of New South Wales
. Founded after Federation
as the seat of government for the new nation, all important institutions of the Australian Government
are headquartered in the territory.
On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies
of Australia was achieved. Section 125 of the new Australian Constitution
provided that land, situated in New South Wales and at least 100 miles (160 km) from Sydney
, would be ceded to the new federal government
. Following discussion and exploration of various areas within New South Wales, the Seat of Government Act 1908
was passed in 1908 which specified a capital in the Yass-Canberra region. The territory was transferred to the federal government by New South Wales
in 1911, two years prior to the capital city being founded and formally named as Canberra in 1913.
While the overwhelming majority of the population reside in the city of Canberra
in the ACT's north-east, the territory also includes some surrounding townships such as Williamsdale
. The ACT also includes the Namadgi National Park
which comprises the majority of land area of the territory. Despite a common misconception, the Jervis Bay Territory
is not part of the ACT although the laws of the Australian Capital Territory apply as if Jervis Bay did form part of the ACT.
The territory has a relatively dry, continental climate experiencing warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters.
With 431,215 residents, the Australian Capital Territory is the third smallest mainland state or territory by population. At the 2016 census
, the median weekly income for people in the territory aged over 15 was $998 and higher than the national average of $662.
The average level of degree qualification in the ACT is also higher than the national average. Within the ACT, 37.1% of the population hold a bachelor's degree level or above education compared to the national figure of 20%.
Indigenous Australian peoples have long inhabited the area.
Evidence indicates habitation dating back at least 25,000 years.
It is possible that the area was inhabited for considerably longer, with evidence of an Aboriginal presence at Lake Mungo
in south-western New South Wales dating back around 40,000 years.
The principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal
Following European settlement, the growth of the new colony of New South Wales led to an increasing demand for arable land
Governor Lachlan Macquarie
supported expeditions to open up new lands to the south of Sydney
The 1820s saw further exploration in the Canberra area associated with the construction of a road from Sydney to the Goulburn
plains. While working on the project, Charles Throsby
learned of a nearby lake and river from the local Indigenous peoples and he accordingly sent Wild to lead a small party to investigate the site. The search was unsuccessful, but they did discover the Yass River
and it is surmised that they would have set foot on part of the future territory.
A second expedition was mounted shortly thereafter and they became the first Europeans to camp at the Molonglo
(Ngambri) and Queanbeyan
However, they failed to find the Murrumbidgee River.
The issue of the Murrumbidgee was solved in 1821 when Throsby mounted a third expedition and successfully reached the watercourse, on the way providing the first detailed account of the land where Canberra now resides.
The last expedition in the region before settlement was undertaken by Allan Cunningham
He reported that the region was suitable for grazing and the settlement of the Limestone Plains followed immediately thereafter.
Significant homesteads, structures and settlements in the ACT prior to 1909.
The first land grant in the region was made to Joshua John Moore in 1823 and European settlement in the area began in 1824 with the construction of a homestead by his stockmen on what is now the Acton Peninsula
Moore formally purchased the site in 1826 and named the property Canberry
A significant influx of population and economic activity occurred around the 1850s goldrushes
The goldrushes prompted the establishment of communication between Sydney and the region by way of the Cobb & Co
coaches, which transported mail and passengers.
The first post offices opened in Ginninderra
in 1859 and at Lanyon in 1860.
During colonial times, the European communities of Ginninderra, Molonglo
and Tuggeranong settled and farmed the surrounding land. The region was also called the Queanbeyan
district, after the two largest towns in the area. The villages of Ginninderra and Tharwa developed to service the local agrarian communities.
During the first 20 years of settlement, there was only limited contact between the settlers and Aboriginal people. Over the succeeding years, the Ngunnawal and other local indigenous people effectively ceased to exist as cohesive and independent communities adhering to their traditional ways of life.
Those who had not succumbed to disease and other predations either dispersed to the local settlements or were relocated to more distant Aboriginal reserves
set up by the New South Wales government in the latter part of the 19th century.
Creation of the territory
The Federal Capital survey camp was established c. 1909. An extensive survey of the ACT was completed by Charles Scrivener and his team in 1915.
In 1898, a referendum on a proposed Constitution was held in four of the colonies – New South Wales
, South Australia
. Although the referendum achieved a majority in all four colonies, the New South Wales referendum failed to gain the minimum number of votes needed for the bill to pass. Following this result, a meeting of the four Premiers in 1898 heard from George Reid
, the Premier of New South Wales
, who argued that locating the future capital in New South Wales would be sufficient to ensure the passage of the Bill. The 1899 referendum on this revised bill was successful and passed with sufficient numbers.
Section 125 of the Australian Constitution
thus provided that, following Federation in 1901, land would be ceded freely to the new Federal Government
This, however, left open the question of where to locate the capital. In 1906 and after significant deliberations, New South Wales agreed to cede sufficient land on the condition that it was in the Yass
this site being closer to Sydney.
Initially, Dalgety, New South Wales
remained at the forefront, but Yass-Canberra prevailed after voting by federal representatives.
The Seat of Government Act 1908
was passed in 1908, which repealed the 1904 Act and specified a capital in the Yass-Canberra region.
Government surveyor Charles Scrivener
was deployed to the region in the same year to map out a specific site and, after an extensive search, settled upon the present location.
The Australian Capital Territory, alongside the Northern Territory
, was transferred to the Commonwealth by New South Wales
on January 1, 1911, two years before the naming of Canberra as the national capital on March 20, 1913.
Development throughout 20th century
The ceremony for the naming of Canberra, 12 March 1913. Prime Minister Andrew Fisher
is standing, centre, in dark suit. To his right is the Governor-General, Lord Denman
, and to his left, Lady Denman
In 1911, an international competition to design the future capital was held, which was won by the Chicago architect Walter Burley Griffin
The official naming of Canberra occurred on 12 March 1913 and construction began immediately.
In 1978, an advisory referendum was held to determine the views of ACT citizens about whether there should be self-government. Just under 64 percent of voters rejected devolved government options, in favour of the status quo.
Nevertheless, in 1988, the new minister for the Australian Capital Territory Gary Punch
received a report recommending the abolition of the National Capital Development Commission
and the formation of a locally elected government. Punch recommended that the Hawke government
accept the report's recommendations and subsequently Clyde Holding
introduced legislation to grant self-government to the territory in October 1988.
The initial years of self-government were difficult and unstable.
A majority of ACT residents had opposed self-government and had it imposed upon them by the federal parliament. At the first election, 4 of the 17 seats were won by anti-self-government single-issue parties due to a protest vote by disgruntled territorians and a total of 8 were won by minor parties and independents.
In 1992, Labor won eight seats and the minor parties and independents won only three. Stability increased, and in 1995, Kate Carnell
became the first elected Liberal chief minister. In 1998, Carnell became the first chief minister to be re-elected.
Location of the ACT and Jervis Bay
The Australian Capital Territory is the smallest mainland territory (aside from the Jervis Bay Territory
) and covers a total land area of 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq mi), slightly smaller than Luxembourg
It is bounded by the Goulburn
railway line in the east, the watershed
of Naas Creek
in the south, the watershed of the Cotter River
in the west and the watershed of the Molonglo River
in the north-east. These boundaries were set to give the ACT an adequate water supply.
The ACT extends about 88.5 kilometres (55.0 mi) North-South between 35.124°S and 35.921°S, and 57.75 kilometres (35.88 mi) West-East between 148.763°E and 149.399°E.
The city area of Canberra
occupies the north-eastern corner of this area.
There are a large range of mountains, rivers and creeks throughout the territory and are largely contained within the Namadgi National Park
. These include the Naas and Murrumbidgee Rivers.
January is the hottest month with an average high of 27.7 °C (81.9 °F).
July is the coldest month when the average high drops to 11.2 °C (52.2 °F).
The highest maximum temperature recorded in the territory was 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) on 4 January 2020. The lowest minimum temperature was −10.0 °C (14.0 °F) on 11 July 1971.
Rainfall varies significantly across the territory.
Much higher rainfall occurs in the mountains to the west of Canberra compared to the east.
The mountains act as a barrier during winter with the city receiving less rainfall.
Average annual rainfall in the territory is 629 millimetres (24.8 in) and there is an average of 108 rain days annually.
The wettest month is October with an average rainfall of 65.3 millimetres (2.57 in) and the driest month is June with an average of 39.6 millimetres (1.56 in).
Frost is common in the winter months. Snow is rare in Canberra's city centre, but the surrounding areas get annual snowfall through winter and often the snow-capped mountains can be seen from the city. The last significant snowfall in the city centre was in 1968.
Smoke haze became synonymous with the 2019/2020 Australian summer. On 1 January 2020 Canberra had the worst air quality of any major city in the world, with an AQI of 7700 (USAQI 949).
Notable geological formations in the Australian Capital Territory include the Canberra Formation, the Pittman Formation, Black Mountain Sandstone and State Circle Shale.
In the 1840s fossils
from the Silurian
period were discovered at Woolshed Creek near Duntroon
. At the time, these were the oldest fossils discovered in Australia, though this record has now been far surpassed.
Other specific geological places of interest include the State Circle cutting and the Deakin anticline
The oldest rocks in the ACT date from the Ordovician
around 480 million years ago. During this period the region along with most of Eastern Australia was part of the ocean floor; formations from this period include the Black Mountain Sandstone
formation and the Pittman Formation
consisting largely of quartz
. These formations became exposed when the ocean floor was raised by a major volcanic activity
in the Devonian
forming much of the east coast of Australia
The native forest in the Canberra region was almost wholly eucalypt
species and provided a resource for fuel and domestic purposes. By the early 1960s, logging had depleted the eucalypt, and concern about water quality led to the forests being closed. Interest in forestry began in 1915 with trials of a number of species including Pinus radiata
on the slopes of Mount Stromlo. Since then, plantations have been expanded, with the benefit of reducing erosion in the Cotter catchment, and the forests are also popular recreation areas.
The fauna of the territory includes representatives from most major Australian animal groups
. This includes kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, platypus, echidna, emu, kookaburras and dragon lizards.
Government and politics
, located in the northern end of the territory, is an entirely planned city.
The ACT has internal self-government, but Australia's Constitution
does not afford a territory legislature the high degree of independence provided to that of a state. Instead, each territory is governed under a Commonwealth statute
—for the ACT, the Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Act 1988.
The chief minister performs many of the roles that a state governor normally holds in the context of a state; however, the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly gazettes the laws and summons meetings of the Assembly.
Laws are made in a 25-member Legislative Assembly
that combines both state and local government functions (prior to 2016, the Assembly was made up of 17 members).
Members of the Legislative Assembly are elected via the Hare–Clark
Unlike other self-governing Australian territories (for example, the Northern Territory
), the ACT does not have an Administrator.
The Crown is represented in government of the ACT by the Australian Governor-General
. Until 4 December 2011, the decisions of the assembly could be overruled by the Governor-General (effectively by the national government) under section 35 of the Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Act 1988, although the federal parliament voted in 2011 to abolish this veto power, instead requiring a majority of both houses of the federal parliament to override an enactment of the ACT.
Judiciary and policing
AFP vehicle in Canberra
Jervis Bay Territory
In 1915, the Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act 1915
created the Jervis Bay Territory
as an annexe to the Federal Capital Territory. While the Act's use of the language of "annexed" is sometimes interpreted as implying that the Jervis Bay Territory was to form part of the Federal Capital Territory, the accepted legal position is that it has been a legally distinct territory from its creation despite being subject to ACT law and, prior to ACT self-government in 1988, being administratively treated as part of the ACT.
In 1988, when the ACT gained self-government, Jervis Bay was formally pronounced as a separate territory administered by the Commonwealth known as the Jervis Bay Territory. However, the laws of the ACT continue to apply to the Jervis Bay Territory.
Magistrates from the ACT regularly travel to the Jervis Bay Territory to conduct court.
Another occasional misconception is that the ACT retains a small area of territory on the coast on the Beecroft Peninsula
, consisting of a strip of coastline around the northern headland of Jervis Bay. While the land is owned by the Commonwealth Government, that area itself is still considered to be under the jurisdiction of New South Wales government, not a separate territory nor a part of the ACT.
Estimated resident population since 1981.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics
estimates that the population of the territory was 419,200 on 31 March 2019.
The population is projected to reach to approximately 700,000 by 2058.
The overwhelming majority of the population reside in the city of Canberra.
At the 2016 census
, the median weekly income for people in the territory aged over 15 was $998 while the national average was $662.
The average level of degree qualification in the ACT is higher than the national average. Within the ACT, 37.1% of the population hold a bachelor's degree level or above education compared to the national figure of 20%.
City and townships
Bikepath to Weston Creek.
The urban areas of Canberra are organised into a hierarchy of districts, town centres, group centres, local suburbs as well as other industrial areas and villages. There are seven districts (with an eighth currently under construction), each of which is divided into smaller suburbs, and most of which have a town centre which is the focus of commercial and social activities. The districts were settled in the following chronological order:
- North Canberra: mostly settled in the 1920s and '30s, with expansion up to the 1960s, now 14 suburbs;
- South Canberra: settled from the 1920s to '60s, 13 suburbs;
- Woden Valley: first settled in 1963, 12 suburbs;
- Belconnen: first settled in 1967, 25 suburbs;
- Weston Creek: settled in 1969, 8 suburbs;
- Tuggeranong: settled in 1974, 19 suburbs;
- Gungahlin: settled in the early 1990s, 18 suburbs although only 15 are developed or under development;
- Molonglo Valley: first suburbs currently under construction.
The North and South Canberra districts are substantially based on Walter Burley Griffin's designs.
In 1967, the then National Capital Development Commission
adopted the "Y Plan" which laid out future urban development in Canberra around a series of central shopping and commercial area known as the 'town centres' linked by freeways, the layout of which roughly resembled the shape of the letter Y,
with Tuggeranong at the base of the Y and Belconnen and Gungahlin located at the ends of the arms of the Y.
Ancestry and immigration
Country of Birth (2016)
At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:[N 2]
The 2016 census showed that 32% of the ACT's inhabitants were born overseas
Of inhabitants born outside of Australia, the most prevalent countries of birth were England, China, India, New Zealand and the Philippines.
The most common responses in the 2016 census
for religion in the territory were No Religion (36.2%), Catholic (22.3%), Anglican (10.8%), Not stated (9.2%) and Hinduism (2.6%).
In Australian Capital Territory, Christianity was the largest religious group reported overall (49.9%).
Almost all educational institutions in the Australian Capital Territory are located within Canberra
. The ACT public education system schooling is normally split up into Pre-School
, Primary School (K-6), High School (7–10) and College
(11–12) followed by studies at university or CIT (Canberra Institute of Technology). Many private high schools include years 11 and 12 and are referred to as colleges. Children are required to attend school until they turn 17 under the ACT Government
's "Learn or Earn" policy.
In February 2004 there were 140 public and non-governmental schools
in ACT; 96 were operated by the Government and 44 are non-Government.
In 2005, there were 60,275 students in the ACT school system. 59.3% of the students were enrolled in government schools with the remaining 40.7% in non-government schools. There were 30,995 students in primary school, 19,211 in high school, 9,429 in college and a further 340 in special schools.
The Greater Western Sydney Giants
(Australian Rules) play three regular season matches a year and one pre-season match in Canberra at Manuka Oval.
Arts and entertainment
The National Museum of Australia
established in 2001 records Australia's social history and is one of Canberra's more architecturally daring buildings.
Canberra has many venues for live music and theatre: the Canberra Theatre and Playhouse
which hosts many major concerts and productions;
and Llewellyn Hall (within the ANU School of Music
), a world-class concert hall are two of the most notable. The Albert Hall
was Canberra's first performing arts venue, opened in 1928. It was the original performance venue for theatre groups such as the Canberra Repertory Society.
Canberra and the territory have a daily newspaper, The Canberra Times
, which was established in 1926.
There are also several free weekly publications, including news magazines CityNews
and Canberra Weekly.
A DAB+ digital radio trial is also in operation, it simulcasts some of the AM/FM stations, and also provides several digital only stations (DAB+ Trial Listing
Five free-to-air television stations service the territory:
Each station broadcasts a primary channel and several multichannels
The Australian Capital Territory has two large public hospitals both located in Canberra: the approximately 600-bed Canberra Hospital
and the 174-bed Calvary Public Hospital in Bruce
. Both are teaching institutions.
The largest private hospital is the Calvary John James Hospital in Deakin
Calvary Private Hospital in Bruce and Healthscope
's National Capital Private Hospital in Garran are also major healthcare providers.
Canberra has 10 aged care facilities. Canberra's hospitals receive emergency cases from throughout southern New South Wales,
and ACT Ambulance Service
is one of four operational agencies of the ACT Emergency Services Authority
provides a dedicated ambulance service for inter-hospital transport of sick newborns within the ACT and into surrounding New South Wales.
Aerial view of Tuggeranong Parkway, a major highway which links Canberra's city centre with Tuggeranong
Canberra International Airport terminal
Canberra Railway Station
The automobile is by far the dominant form of transport in Canberra and the territory.
The city is laid out so that arterial roads connecting inhabited clusters run through undeveloped areas of open land or forest, which results in a low population density;
this also means that idle land is available for the development of future transport corridors if necessary without the need to build tunnels or acquire developed residential land. In contrast, other capital cities in Australia have substantially less green space.
are generally connected by parkways
—limited access dual carriageway
with speed limits generally set at a maximum of 100 km/h (62 mph).
An example is the Tuggeranong Parkway
which links Canberra's CBD and Tuggeranong, and bypasses Weston Creek.
In most districts, discrete residential suburbs are bounded by main arterial roads with only a few residential linking in, to deter non-local traffic from cutting through areas of housing.
There are two local taxi companies. Aerial Capital Group
enjoyed monopoly status until the arrival of Cabxpress in 2007.
In October 2015, the ACT Government passed legislation to regulate ride sharing, allowing ride share services including Uber
to operate legally in Canberra.
The ACT Government was the first jurisdiction in Australia to enact legislation to regulate the service.
An interstate NSW TrainLink
railway service connects Canberra to Sydney. Canberra's railway station
is in the inner south suburb of Kingston
Train services to Melbourne are provided by way of a NSW TrainLink bus service which connects with a rail service between Sydney and Melbourne in Yass, about a one-hour drive from Canberra.
provides direct domestic services to Sydney
, Gold Coast
, with connections to other domestic centres.
There are also direct flights to small regional towns: Dubbo
in New South Wales. Regular direct international flights operate to Singapore
from the airport daily, but both with a stopover in Sydney before Canberra.
Canberra Airport is, as of September 2013, designated by the Australian Government Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development
as a restricted use designated international airport.
Until 2003, the civilian airport shared runways with RAAF Base Fairbairn
. In June of that year, the Air Force base was decommissioned and from that time the airport was fully under civilian control.
The government-owned ACTEW Corporation
manages the territory's water and sewerage infrastructure. ActewAGL
is a joint venture between ACTEW and AGL
, and is the retail provider of Canberra's utility services including water, natural gas, electricity, and also some telecommunications services via a subsidiary TransACT
Canberra's water is stored in four reservoirs, the Corin, Bendora and Cotter dams on the Cotter River
and the Googong Dam on the Queanbeyan River. Although the Googong Dam is located in New South Wales, it is managed by the ACT government.
ACTEW Corporation owns Canberra's two wastewater treatment plants, located at Fyshwick
and on the lower reaches of the Molonglo River
Electricity for Canberra
mainly comes from the national power grid through substations at Holt
Power was first supplied from a thermal plant built in 1913, near the Molonglo River, but this was finally closed in 1957.
The ACT has four solar farms, which were opened between 2014 and 2017: Royalla
(rated output of 20 megawatts, 2014), Mount Majura
(2.3 MW, 2016),Mugga Lane
(13 MW, 2017)
(11 MW, 2017).
In addition numerous houses in Canberra have photovoltaic panels and/or solar hot water systems. In 2015/16, rooftop solar systems supported by the ACT government's feed-in tariff had a capacity of 26.3 megawatts, producing 34,910 MWh. In the same year, retailer-supported schemes had a capacity of 25.2 megawatts and exported 28,815 MWh to the grid (power consumed locally was not recorded).
The ACT has the highest rate with internet access at home (94 per cent of households in 2014–15).
The economic activity of the Australian Capital Territory is heavily concentrated around the city of Canberra.
A stable housing market, steady employment and rapid population growth in the 21st century have led to economic prosperity and, in 2011, CommSec
ranked the ACT as the second best performing economic region in the country.
This trend continued into 2016, when the territory was ranked the third best performing out of all of Australia's states and territories.
In 2017–18, the ACT had the fastest rate of growth in the nation due to a rapid growth in population, a strongly performing higher education sector as well as a significant housing and infrastructure investment.
Higher education is the territory's largest export industry.
Canberra is home to a significant number of universities and higher education providers. The other major services exports of the ACT in 2017-18 were government services and personal travel.
The major goods exports of the territory in 2017-18 were gold coin, legal tender coin, metal structures and fish, though these represent a small proportion of the economy compared to services exports.
The economy of the ACT is largely dependent on the public sector with 30% of the jobs in the territory being in the public sector.
Decisions by the federal government regarding the public service can have a significant impact on the territory's economy.
The ACT's gross state product in 2017-18 was $39.8 billion which represented 2.2% of the overall gross domestic product of Australia.
In 2017-18 the ACT economy grew by 4.0 per cent, the highest growth rate of any jurisdiction in Australia. This brought real economic growth over the three years to June 2018 to 12 per cent.
- ^ In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, Mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately
- ^ As a percentage of 373,561 persons who nominated their ancestry at the 2016 census.
- ^ The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group.
- ^ Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.
- ^ Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.
- ^ a b c "National, state and territory population – September 2020". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- ^ "5220.0 – Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2019–20". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 20 November 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- ^ "ACT Flags and Emblems". Chief Minister, Treasury and Economic Development Directorate. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- ^ "Australian Capital Territory". Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2007.
- ^ Boden, Anne (23 May 2007). "Floral Emblem of the ACT". Archived from the original on 1 June 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2007.
- ^ Time to Talk Canberra. "ACT Flags and Emblems". CMD.act.gov.au. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- ^ a b "Jervis Bay Territory Governance and Administration". Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
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- ^ Osborne, Tegan (5 May 2016). "New dating shows 25,000 years of history at Birrigai rock shelter in ACT". ABC News. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
- ^ Bowler JM, Johnston H, Olley JM, Prescott JR, Roberts RG, Shawcross W, Spooner NA (2003). "New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia". Nature. 421 (6925): 837–40. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..837B. doi:10.1038/nature01383. PMID 12594511. S2CID 4365526.
- ^ a b Gillespie, Lyall (1984). Aborigines of the Canberra Region. Canberra: Wizard (Lyall Gillespie). pp. 1–25. ISBN 0-9590255-0-2.
- ^ a b c d e f Gillespie, Lyall (1991). Canberra 1820–1913. Australian Government Publishing Service. pp. 3–9, 110–111, 149, 278, 303. ISBN 0-644-08060-4.
- ^ a b c d Fitzhardinge, L. F. (1975). Old Canberra and the search for a capital. Canberra & District Historical Society. pp. 1–3, 31–32. ISBN 0-909655-02-2.
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- ^ "Kiandra". The Sydney Morning Herald. 5 February 2005. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- ^ a b Wigmore, Lionel (1971). Canberra: history of Australia's national capital. Dalton Publishing Company. pp. 20, 113. ISBN 0-909906-06-8.
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- ^ "A4 Report Map of Australia". Geoscience Australia. 16 November 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- ^ "Seat of Government Act 1908 (Cth)". National Archives of Australia. Archived from the original on 17 October 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- ^ Birtles, Terry G., "Scrivener, Charles Robert (1855–1923)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, retrieved 15 March 2021
- ^ Fitzgerald, Alan John. (1987). Canberra in two centuries : a pictorial history. Torrens, A.C.T.: Clareville Press in association with the Limestone Plains Partnership. ISBN 0-909278-02-4. OCLC 27587510.
- ^ "History of the NCA". National Capital Authority. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
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- ^ a b Sparke, Eric (1988). Canberra 1954–1980. Australian Government Publishing Service. pp. 30, 170–180. ISBN 0-644-08060-4.
- ^ Gibbney, Jim (1988). Canberra 1913–1953. Australian Government Publishing Service. pp. 231–237. ISBN 0-644-08060-4.
- ^ Andrews, W.C. (1990). Canberra's Engineering Heritage. Institution of Engineers Australia. p. 90. ISBN 0-85825-496-4.
- ^ ACT Legislative Assembly. "Establishing self-government in the ACT". Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- ^ Overall, John (1995). Canberra: yesterday, today & tomorrow: a personal memoir. Federal Capital Press of Australia. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0-9593910-6-1.
- ^ "Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Act 1988 (Cth)". National Archives of Australia. Archived from the original on 16 July 2005. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
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- ^ How were the ACT's boundaries determined?
- ^ Limits plotted on Google Maps: north: 35.12452°S, 149.12091°E (Gungahlin); east: 35.31918°S, 149.39928°E (Kings Highway); south: 35.92076°S, 149.04608°E (near Bumbalong); west: 35.49551°S, 148.76268°E (Mount Franklin Rd, near Bimberi);
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- ^ "Climate statistics for Australian locations: Canberra Airport Comparison". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
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