The Democrats' inaugural leader was Don Chipp
, a former Liberal cabinet minister, who famously promised to "keep the bastards honest". At the 1977 federal election
, the Democrats polled 11.1 percent of the Senate
vote and secured two seats. The party would retain a presence in the Senate for the next 30 years, at its peak (between 1999 and 2002) holding nine out of 76 seats, though never securing a seat in the lower house
. The party's share of the vote collapsed at the 2004 election
and was further diminished in 2007
with the last senators leaving office in 2008.
Due to the party's numbers in the Senate, both Liberal and Labor
governments required the assistance of the Democrats to pass contentious legislation, most notably in the case of the Howard Government
's goods and services tax
. Ideologically, the Democrats were usually regarded as centrists
, occupying the political middle ground between the Liberal Party and the Labor Party.
Over three decades, the Australian Democrats achieved representation in the legislatures of the ACT
, South Australia, New South Wales, Western Australia and Tasmania as well as Senate
seats in all six states. However, at the 2004
federal elections, all seven of its Senate seats were lost.
The last remaining State parliamentarian, David Winderlich
, left the party and was defeated as an independent in 2010
The party was formally deregistered in 2016 for not having the required 500 members.
In 2018 the Australian Democrats merged with Country Minded
, an Australian political party seeking accountable regional and agricultural representation.
On 7 April 2019 the merged entity regained registration of the name "Australian Democrats" with the Australian Electoral Commission.
As of 2020 the National President of the party is former Parliamentary Leader and Senator, Lyn Allison
1977–1986: Foundation and Don Chipp's leadership
The two groups found a common basis for a new political movement in the widespread discontent with the two major parties. In the former Liberal Government Minister, Don Chipp, the two groups found their leader.
The party's broad aim was to achieve a balance of power in one or more parliaments and to exercise it responsibly in line with policies determined by membership.
The first Democrat federal parliamentarian was Senator Janine Haines
, who in 1977 was nominated by the South Australian Parliament to fill the casual vacancy caused by the resignation of Liberal Senator Steele Hall
. Hall had been elected as a Liberal Movement
senator, before rejoining the Liberal Party in 1976, and South Australian premier Don Dunstan
nominated Haines on the basis that the Democrats was the successor party to the Liberal Movement.
At the 1977 election
, the Australian Democrats secured two seats in the Senate with the election of Colin Mason (NSW) and Don Chipp (VIC), though Haines lost her seat in South Australia. At the 1980 election
, this increased to five seats with the election of Michael Macklin (QLD) and John Siddons (VIC) and the return of Janine Haines (SA). Thereafter they frequently held enough seats to give them the balance of power in the upper chamber.
At a Melbourne media conference on 19 September 1980, in the midst of the 1980 election campaign
, Chipp described his party's aim as to "keep the bastards honest"—the "bastards" being the major parties and/or politicians in general. This became a long-lived slogan for the Democrats.
1986–1990: Janine Haines' leadership
Don Chipp resigned from the Senate on 18 August 1986, being succeeded as party leader by Janine Haines and replaced as a senator for Victoria by Janet Powell
At the 1987 election
following a double dissolution
, the reduced quota
of 7.7% necessary to win a seat assisted the election of three new senators. 6-year terms were won by Paul McLean
(NSW) and incumbents Janine Haines (South Australia) and Janet Powell (Victoria). In South Australia, a second senator, John Coulter
, was elected for a 3-year term, as were incumbent Michael Macklin (Queensland) and Jean Jenkins
(Western Australia). 1990 saw the voluntary departure from the Senate of Janine Haines (a step with which not all Democrats agreed) and the failure of her strategic goal of winning the House of Representatives seat of Kingston
The casual vacancy was filled by Meg Lees
several months before the election of Cheryl Kernot
in place of retired deputy leader Michael Macklin. The ambitious Kernot immediately contested the party's national parliamentary deputy leadership. Being unemployed at the time, she requested and obtained party funds to pay for her travel to address members in all seven divisions.
In the event, Victorian Janet Powell
was elected as leader and John Coulter
was chosen as deputy leader.
1990-1993: Janet Powell and John Coulter
Despite the loss of Haines and the WA Senate seat (through an inconsistent national preference agreement with the ALP), the 1990 federal election heralded something of a rebirth for the party, with a dramatic rise in primary vote. This was at the same time as an economic recession
was building, and events such as the Gulf War
in Kuwait were beginning to shepherd issues of globalisation and transnational trade on to national government agendas.
Senate – National
The Australian Democrats had a long-standing policy to oppose war and so opposed Australia's support of, and participation in, the Gulf War. Whereas the House of Representatives was able to avoid any debate about the war and Australia's participation,[n 1]
the Democrats took full advantage of the opportunity to move for a debate in the Senate.
Because of the party's pacifist
-based opposition to the Gulf War, there was mass-media antipathy and negative publicity which some construed as poor media performance by Janet Powell, the party's standing having stalled at about 10%. Before 12 months of her leadership had passed, the South Australian and Queensland divisions were circulating the party's first-ever petition to criticise and oust the parliamentary leader. The explicit grounds related to Powell's alleged responsibility for poor AD ratings in Gallup and other media surveys of potential voting support. When this charge was deemed insufficient, interested party officers and senators reinforced it with negative media 'leaks'
concerning her openly established relationship with Sid Spindler
and exposure of administrative failings resulting in excessive overtime to a staff member. With National Executive blessing, the party room pre-empted the ballot by replacing the leader with deputy John Coulter
. In the process, severe internal divisions were generated. One major collateral casualty was the party whip Paul McLean
who resigned and quit the Senate in disgust at what he perceived as in-fighting between close friends. The casual NSW vacancy created by his resignation was filled by Karin Sowada
. Powell duly left the party, along with many leading figures of the Victorian branch of the party, and unsuccessfully stood as an Independent candidate when her term expired. In later years, she campaigned for the Australian Greens.
The party's parliamentary influence was weakened in 1996 after the Howard Government
was elected, and a Labor senator, Mal Colston
, resigned from the Labor Party. Since the Democrats now shared the parliamentary balance of power with two Independent senators, the Coalition government was able on occasion to pass legislation by negotiating with Colston and Brian Harradine
1997–2004: Meg Lees, Natasha Stott Despoja and Andrew Bartlett
Internal conflict and leadership tensions from 2000 to 2002, blamed on the party's support for the Government's Goods and Services Tax
, was damaging to the Democrats. Opposed by the Labor Party, the Australian Greens
and independent Senator Harradine, the tax required Democrat support to pass. In an election fought on tax, the Democrats publicly stated that they liked neither the Liberal's nor the Labor's tax packages, but pledged to work with whichever party was elected to make theirs better. They campaigned with the slogan "No Goods and Services Tax on Food".
In 1999, after negotiations with Prime Minister Howard
, Meg Lees, Andrew Murray
and the party room senators agreed to support the A New Tax System legislation
with exemptions from goods and services tax for most food and some medicines, as well as many environmental and social concessions.
Five Australian Democrats senators voted in favour.
However, two dissident senators on the party's left Natasha Stott Despoja
and Andrew Bartlett
voted against the goods and services tax.
In 2001, a leadership spill saw Meg Lees replaced as leader
by Natasha Stott Despoja after a very public and bitter leadership battle.
Despite criticism of Stott Despoja's youth and lack of experience, the 2001 election saw the Democrats receive similar media coverage to the previous election.
Despite the internal divisions, the Australian Democrats' election result in 2001 was quite good. However, it was not enough to prevent the loss of Vicki Bourne
's Senate seat in NSW.
The 2002 South Australian election
was the last time an Australian Democrat would be elected to an Australian parliament. Sandra Kanck
was re-elected to a second eight-year term from an upper house primary vote of 7.3 percent.
Resulting tensions between Stott Despoja and Lees led to Meg Lees leaving the party in 2002, becoming an independent and forming the Australian Progressive Alliance
. Stott Despoja stood down from the leadership following a loss of confidence by her party room colleagues.
It led to a protracted leadership battle in 2002, which eventually led to the election of Senator Andrew Bartlett
as leader. While the public fighting stopped, the public support for the party remained at record lows.
On 6 December 2003, Bartlett stepped aside temporarily as leader of the party, after an incident in which he swore at Liberal
Senator Jeannie Ferris
on the floor of Parliament
The party issued a statement stating that deputy leader Lyn Allison
would serve as the acting leader of the party. Bartlett apologised to the Democrats, Jeannie Ferris and the Australian public for his behaviour and assured all concerned that it would never happen again. On 29 January 2004, after seeking medical treatment, Bartlett returned to the Australian Democrats leadership, vowing to abstain from alcohol.
Following internal conflict over the goods and services tax and resultant leadership changes, a dramatic decline occurred in the Democrats' membership and voting support in all states. Simultaneously, an increase was recorded in support for the Australian Greens
who, by 2004, were supplanting the Democrats as a substantial third party
. The trend was noted that year by political scientists Dean Jaensch
Support for the Australian Democrats fell significantly at the 2004 federal election
in which they achieved only 2.4 per cent of the national vote. Nowhere was this more noticeable than in their key support base of suburban Adelaide
in South Australia, where they received between 1 and 4 percent of the lower house vote; by comparison, they tallied between 7 and 31 per cent of the vote in 2001. No Democrat senators were elected, though four kept their seats due to being elected in 2001, thus their representation fell from eight senators to four. Three incumbent senators were defeated: Aden Ridgeway
(NSW), Brian Greig
(WA) and John Cherry
(Qld). Following the loss, the customary post-election leadership ballot installed Allison as leader, with Bartlett as her deputy. From 1 July 2005 the Australian Democrats lost official parliamentary party status, being represented by only four senators while the governing Liberal-National Coalition gained a majority and potential control of the Senate—the first time this advantage had been enjoyed by any government since 1980.
On 28 August 2006, the founder of the Australian Democrats, Don Chipp, died. Former prime minister Bob Hawke said: "... there is a coincidental timing almost between the passing of Don Chipp and what I think is the death throes of the Democrats."
In November 2006, the Australian Democrats fared very poorly in the Victorian state election, receiving a Legislative Council vote tally of only 0.83%,
less than half of the party's result in 2002 (1.79 per cent).
The Democrats again had no success at the 2007 federal election
, and lost all four of their remaining Senate seats. Two incumbent senators, Lyn Allison (Victoria) and Andrew Bartlett
(Queensland), were defeated, their seats both reverting to major parties. Their two remaining colleagues, Andrew Murray (WA) and Natasha Stott Despoja (SA), retired. All four senators' terms expired on 30 June 2008—leaving the Australian Democrats with no federal representation for the first time since its founding in 1977.
Later, in 2009, Jaensch suggested it was possible the Democrats could make a political comeback at the 2010 South Australian election
but this did not occur.
The Tasmanian division of the party was deregistered for having insufficient members in January 2006.
At the 2006 South Australian election
, the Australian Democrats were reduced to 1.7 per cent of the Legislative Council (upper house) vote. Their sole councillor up for re-election, Kate Reynolds
, was defeated. In July 2006, Richard Pascoe, national and South Australian
party president, resigned, citing slumping opinion polls and the poor result in the 2006 South Australian election as well as South Australian parliamentary leader Sandra Kanck
's comments regarding the drug MDMA
which he saw as damaging to the party.
In the New South Wales state election of March 2007, the Australian Democrats lost their last remaining NSW Upper House representative, Arthur Chesterfield-Evans
. The party fared poorly, gaining only 1.8 per cent of the Legislative Council vote.
On 13 September 2007, the ACT Democrats (Australian Capital Territory Division of the party) was deregistered
by the ACT Electoral Commissioner, being unable to demonstrate a minimum membership of 100 electors.
These losses left Sandra Kanck, in South Australia, as the party's only parliamentarian. She retired in 2009 and was replaced by David Winderlich
, making him (as of 2020) the last Democrat to sit in any Australian parliament. The Democrats lost all representation when Winderlich resigned from the party in October 2009.
He sat the remainder of his term as an independent, and lost his seat at the 2010 South Australian election
On 16 April 2015, the Australian Electoral Commission deregistered the Australian Democrats as a political party for failure to demonstrate the requisite 500 members to maintain registration.
However, the party did run candidates and remain registered for a period of time thereafter in the New South Wales Democrats and Queensland Democrat
Renewed registration (2019–)
In November 2018 there was a report that CountryMinded
, a de-registered microparty
, would merge with the Australian Democrats in a new bid to seek membership growth, electoral re-registration and financial support.
In February 2019, application for registration was submitted to the AEC and was upheld on 7 April 2019,
despite an objection from the Australian Democrats (Queensland Division)
The party unsuccessfully contested the lower-house seat of Adelaide and a total of six Senate seats (two in each state of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia)
at the 2019 federal election
The party was founded on principles of honesty, tolerance, compassion and direct democracy
through postal ballots of all members, so that "there should be no hierarchical
structure ... by which a carefully engineered elite could make decisions for the members.":p187
From the outset, members' participation was fiercely protected in national and divisional constitutions prescribing internal elections, regular meeting protocols, annual conferences—and monthly journals for open discussion and balloting. Dispute resolution procedures were established, with final recourse to a party ombudsman
and membership ballot.
Policies determined by the unique participatory method promoted environmental awareness and sustainability
, opposition to the primacy of economic rationalism
), preventative approaches to human health and welfare, animal rights, rejection of nuclear technology and weapons.
The Australian Democrats were the first representatives of green politics
at the federal level in Australia. They "were in the vanguard of environmentalism in Australia. From the early 1980s they were unequivocally opposed to the building of the Franklin Dam
in Tasmania and they opposed the mining and export of uranium and the development of nuclear power plants in Australia."
In particular, leader Don Chipp
, and Tasmanian state Democrat Norm Sanders
, played crucial legislative roles in protecting the Franklin Dam.
The party's centrist role made it subject to criticism from both the right and left of the political spectrum. In particular, Chipp's former conservative
affiliation was frequently recalled by opponents on the left.[n 2]
This problem was to torment later leaders and strategists who, by 1991, were proclaiming "the electoral objective" as a higher priority than the rigorous participatory democracy espoused by the party's founders.[n 3]
Because of their numbers on the cross benches during the Hawke
governments, the Democrats were sometimes regarded as exercising a balance of power
—which attracted electoral support from a significant sector of the electorate which had been alienated by both Labor and Coalition policies and practices.
Federal parliamentary leaders
- ^ Assumed the leadership following the party's creation, subsequently confirmed as leader via a postal ballot of party members.
- ^ Elected leader following the retirement of Don Chipp, defeating John Siddons in a postal ballot of party members.
- ^ Interim leader (elected by caucus) following the resignation of Janine Haines. Haines relinquished leadership when she resigned from the Senate on 1 March 1990 to (unsuccessfully) contest the lower-house seat of Kingston at the 1990 federal election.
- ^ Elected leader via a postal ballot of party members, defeating John Coulter.
- ^ Initially interim leader (elected by caucus) following the removal of Janet Powell. Confirmed as leader on 2 October 1991 via a postal ballot of party members.
- ^ Elected leader via a postal ballot of party members, replacing John Coulter in a mandatory vote following the 1993 election.
- ^ Initially interim leader (elected by caucus) following the resignation of Cheryl Kernot. Confirmed as leader on 5 December 1997 via a postal ballot of party members, defeating Lyn Allison. Kernot had resigned in order to join the Labor Party, and was subsequently elected to the House of Representatives.
- ^ Elected leader via a postal ballot of party members, defeating Meg Lees.
- ^ Interim leader (elected by caucus) following the resignation of Natasha Stott Despoja.
- ^ Elected leader via a postal ballot of members, defeating interim leader Brian Greig.
- ^ Elected leader unopposed following the resignation of Andrew Bartlett.
State and territory members
Australian Capital Territory
New South Wales
- ^ The sole independent member in the House, Ted Mack, was unable to launch his critical motion for lack of a seconder.
- ^ Such as the then Socialist Workers' Party and early green-left parties such as the United Tasmania Group.
- ^ The first substantive reason given by rebellious senators for deposing leader Janet Powell in 1991 was her alleged failure to develop a media profile which would attract more electoral support. The first conclusive constitutional abandonment of founding principles was probably the July 1993 decision of the party's national executive to terminate monthly publication of the members' National Journal and to replace it with less frequent publication of glossy promotional material.
- ^ a b Resigned from party in November 1986 and sat as an independent senator until defeat at the 1987 election as a Unite Australia Party candidate.
- ^ Resigned from party in July 1992 and sat as an independent senator until defeat at the 1993 election.
- ^ Resigned from party in July 2002 and sat as an independent senator until defeat at the 2004 election as an Australian Progressive Alliance candidate.
- ^ Resigned from party in 1996 and sat as an independent MLC until retirement at the 2003 election.
- ^ Resigned from party on 7 October 2009 and sat as an independent MLC until 2010 election when was not re-elected.
- ^ "Constitution of The Australian Democrats"(PDF). Australian Electoral Commission. The Australian Democrats. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
- ^ "Australian Democrats Climate Policy". Australian Democrats. Australian Democrats. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- ^ Murphy, Jamieson (20 April 2019). "Keep the bastards honest: Peter Mailler to run for Australian Democrats". Moree Champion. Australian Community Media. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
- ^ a b Rodney Smith; Ariadne Vromen; Ian Cook (2012). Contemporary Politics in Australia: Theories, Practices and Issues. Cambridge University Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-521-13753-9.
- ^ "Our History". Australian Democrats. Australian Democrats. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
- ^ a b c d e f Madden, Cathy (March 2009). "Australian Democrats: the passing of an era". Parliamentary research paper No 25, 2008-09. Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
- ^ "Current register of political parties". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- ^ "2007 Senate election: (National tally of) First Preferences by Group". Results.aec.gov.au. 20 December 2007. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ "The Australian Democrats". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- ^ Chan, Gabrielle (10 November 2018). "Alex Turnbull would fund moderate independents to fight Abbott and Joyce". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- ^ "Party registration decisions and changes". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- ^ "Our Team". Australian Democrats. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- ^ The Urge to merge - Family First and the Australian Conservatives, Antony Green, ABC, 20 March 2018
- ^ "Australian Democrats | political party, Australia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
- ^ AD National Journal June 1990, p.5
- ^ "Ted Mack's speech on Gulf War". Parlinfoweb.aph.gov.au. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ "Senate Hansard, 21 Jan 1991". Parlinfoweb.aph.gov.au. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ Paas, Hans. A cautionary tale of hypocrisy and ambition. The Age, 5 July 2002. Accessed 22 December 2015
- ^ "Cheryl Kernot's Resignation Speech". AustralianPolitics.com. 15 October 1997. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- ^ Seccombe, Mike; Fray, Peter (4 July 2002). "Cheryl and Gareth – the consuming passion". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- ^ "(Day 21) Democrats Support GST, Want Food Exempt". AustralianPolitics.com. 19 September 1998. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- ^ "Australian Treasury: Tax Reform: Not a New Tax, A New Tax System". Treasury.gov.au. 1 August 1998. Archived from the original on 15 March 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- ^ Australian Democrats: The GST and the New Tax System Election 2004 Issue Sheet
- ^ Senator Meg Lees's address to the Australian Democrats' National Conference, Brisbane, 20 January 2001 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- ^ Kirk, Alexandra (19 June 1999). "Democrats make good on GST compromise deal". ABC PM, Radio National. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- ^ ABC TV: 7.30 Report: 7/6/1999: "GST deal sparks Democrat crisis" Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine]
- ^ John Kehoe "Lees has no regrets Democrats gave their support" Australian Financial Review 30 June 2010.
- ^ Phillip Coorey "Democrats in Denial" in David Solomon (ed) Howard's Race – Winning the Unwinnable Election, Harper Collins, 2002, p42-44
- ^ Alison Rogers, The Natasha Factor, Lothian Books, 2004, pp29ff
- ^ Phillip Coorey "Democrats Opt for Leadership" in David Solomon (ed) Howard's Race – Winning the Unwinnable Election, Harper Collins, 2002, p180
- ^ Stott Despoja resigns as Democrats leaderArchived 15 January 2005 at the Wayback Machine, ABC 7.30 Report, 21 August 2002
- ^ "Disgraced leader steps aside". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 7 December 2003. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
- ^ "the Australian Democrats appear to be in decline, having performed very poorly at the 2004 federal election and look to be replaced by the Greens as the major 'minor' party". --Jaensch D. et al. Australian Political Parties in the SpotlightArchived 26 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine pp 40–41. Australian National University, January 2005
- ^ "Hawke predicts end is near for Democrats". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 August 2006. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ "Victorian Electoral Commission: Results for Upper House, 2006". Vec.vic.gov.au. 1 January 1999. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ "Victorian Electoral Commission: Results for Upper House, 2006". Vec.vic.gov.au. 1 January 1999. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ Caldwell A Democrats to lose parliamentary representation 26 November 2007
- ^ Dean Jaensch radio interview, Last remaining Democrat MP could become independent, at ABC PM, 20 July 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2009
- ^ "Australian Democrats Deregistered in Tasmania". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 5 January 2006. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ "Political analyst predicts Democrats' demise". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 July 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ "Former leader sees Democrats in 'tatters'". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 July 2006. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ Kanck says rave party safer than the front bar, The Advertiser 5 July 2006 Article no longer available online.
- ^ "ACT legislation register – Electoral (Cancellation of the Registration of the Australian Democrats) Notice 2007 – main page". Legislation.act.gov.au. 13 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ Emmerson, Russell (7 October 2009). "David Winderlich quits, Democrats are no more". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ "The Australian Democrats". Funding, Disclosure and Political Parties: Political Party Registration: Deregistered/renamed political parties. Australian Electoral Commission. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- ^ Chan, Gabrielle. "Alex Turnbull would fund moderate independents to fight Abbott and Joyce". The Guardian, 11 November 2018
- ^ "Party registration decisions and changes". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- ^ "Notices" (PDF). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- ^ for registration, 25 March 2019. Pp 2, 5
- ^ Our candidates. Australian Democrats website, Retrieved 26 May 2019
- ^ State and territory [Senate] results. Australian Electoral Commission, 2019
- ^ Chipp D and Larkin J The Third Man Rigby, Melbourne (1978) ISBN 0-7270-0827-7
- ^ Chipp, Donald Leslie (1925–2006), The Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate
- ^ a b Haines, Janine (1945–2004), The Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate
- ^ Macklin, Michael John (1943– ), The Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate
- ^ Powell, Janet Frances (1942–2013), The Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate
- ^ Coulter, John Richard (1930–), The Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate
- ^ a b Kernot, Cheryl (1948–), The Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate
- ^ Life after Cheryl, The Age, 6 December 1997.
- ^ Honestly, who are the bastards now?, The Age, 23 August 2002.
- ^ Greig's leadership tilt starts with apology to sick Chipp, The Sydney Morning Herald, 27 August 2002.
- ^ Andrew Bartlett Elected Leader Of Australian Democrats, AustralianPolitics.com, 5 October 2002.
- ^ Victorian to lead ailing Democrats, The Age, 4 November 2004.
- Bennett D, Discord in the Democrats PWHCE article, Melbourne 2002
- Beyond Our Expectations—Proceedings of the Australian Democrats First National Conference, Canberra, 16–17 February 1980. [Papers by: Don Chipp, Sir Mark Oliphant, Prof. Stephen Boyden, Bob Whan, Julian Cribb, Colin Mason, John Siddons, A. McDonald]
- Chipp D (ed. Larkin J) Chipp, Methuen Haynes, North Ryde NSW, 1987 ISBN 0-454-01345-0
- Gauja A Evaluating the Success and Contribution of a Minor Party: the Case of the Australian Democrats Parliamentary Affairs (2010) 63(3): 486–503, 21 January 2010, at Oxford Journals. (Paid subscription, Athens or participating library membership required)
- Paul A and Miller L The Third Team July 2007 A historical essay in 30 Years—Australian Democrats Melbourne 2007. (A 72-page anthology of historical and biographical monographs about the state and federal parliamentary experiences of the Democrats, for the party's 30th anniversary.)
- Sugita H Challenging 'twopartism'—the contribution of the Australian Democrats to the Australian party system, PhD thesis, Flinders University of South Australia, July 1995
- Warhurst J (ed.) Keeping the bastards honest Allen & Unwin Sydney 1997 ISBN 1-86448-420-9
- Warhurst J, Don Chipp Was The Right Man In The Right Place At The Right Time Canberra Times 7 September 2006
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