Avraham (Avi) Shlaim was born to wealthy Jewish parents in Baghdad
. The family lived in a mansion with ten servants. His father was an importer of building materials with ties to the Iraqi leadership, including then-prime minister Nuri al-Said
In the 1930s, the situation of the Jews in Iraq
deteriorated, with persecution of Jews further increasing in 1948, the year of Israel's independence. In 1951, during Operation Ezra and Nehemiah
, Shlaim's family, along with most of Iraq's Jews, registered to emigrate to Israel and forfeit their Iraqi citizenship. A subsequent law ruled that all those who left forfeited all rights, including property rights. The Shlaim family lost all their property. His father crossed the border illegally on a mule, while Shlaim, his mother and sisters flew to Cyprus and from there were airlifted to Israel. The family reunited in Israel.
He married the great-granddaughter of David Lloyd George
, who was the British prime minister at the time of the Balfour Declaration
. He has lived in the United Kingdom since 1966, and holds dual British and Israeli nationality.
Shlaim taught International Relations at Reading University, specialising in European issues. His academic interest in the history of Israel began in 1982, when Israeli government archives about the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
were opened, an interest that deepened when he became a fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford
He was Alastair Buchan Reader in International Relations at Oxford from 1987 to 1996 and Director of Graduate Studies in that subject in 1993–1995 and 1998–2001. He held a British Academy Research Readership in 1995–97 and a Research Professorship in 2003–2006.
Shlaim served as an outside examiner on the doctoral thesis of Ilan Pappé
. Shlaim's approach to the study of history is informed by his belief that, "[t]he job of the historian is to judge".
Views and opinions
Shlaim is a regular contributor to The Guardian
newspaper, and signed an open letter to that paper in January 2009 condemning Israel's role in the Gaza War
Writing in the Spectator
, Shlaim called Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
a "proponent of the doctrine of permanent conflict," describing his policies as an attempt to preclude a peaceful resolution to the conflict with Palestinians. Furthermore, he described Israeli foreign policy as one that supported stability of Arab regimes over nascent democratic movements during the Arab Spring
The Israeli historians Joseph Heller
and Yehoshua Porath
have claimed that Shlaim "misleads his readers with arguments that Israel had missed the opportunity for peace while the Arabs are strictly peace seekers".
According to Yoav Gelber
, Shlaim's claim that there was a deliberate and pre-meditated anti-Palestinian “collusion” between the Jewish Agency
and King Abdullah, is unequivocally refuted by the documentary evidence on the development of contacts between Israel and Jordan before, during and after the war. Marc Lynch
however wrote that "the voluminous evidence in [Gelber's] book does not allow so conclusive a verdict".
Israeli historian Benny Morris
has harshly criticized Shlaim for what he claims is Shlaim's anti-Israel and pro-Arab bias. Morris accused Shlaim of consistently portraying Palestinian Arabs as the victims and their cause as righteous while vilifying the Zionist cause and Israel, and of distorting and omitting crucial information to give a one-sided portrayal of history. In a 2009 New Republic
article titled "Derisionist History," Morris characterized Shlaim's work as full of "careless and inflammatory hyperbole" against Israel, while being "mealy-mouthed, hesitant, disingenuous, and laudatory" toward the Arabs.
Awards and recognition
- Collusion across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement and the Partition of Palestine (winner of the 1988 Political Studies Association's W. J. M. Mackenzie Prize)
- The Politics of Partition (1990 and 1998)
- War and Peace in the Middle East: A Concise History (1995)
- The Cold War and the Middle East (co-editor, 1997)
- The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World (New York: W.W. Norton, 2001)
- Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace (London: Allen Lane, 2007)
- Israel and Palestine: Reappraisals, Revisions, Refutations (London: Verso Books, 2009)
- ^ Ethan Bronner (14 November 1999). "Israel: The Revised Edition: Two historians offer re-examinations of the Zionist–Arab conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2014. Review of The Iron Wall by Avi Shlaim and Righteous Victims by Benny Morris, with links to the first chapters of each.
- ^ Morris, Benny. "The New Historiography" in Morris, Benny. (ed) Making Israel. 1987, pp. 11–28.
- ^ a b c d e Rapaport, Meron (11 August 2005). "No peaceful solution". Haaretz Friday Supplement.
- ^ Shlaim, Avi (7 January 2009). "How Israel brought Gaza to the brink of humanitarian catastrophe". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- ^ Profile: Avi Shlaim University of Oxford
- ^ Governing Body Fellows
- ^ a b c Professor Avi Shlaim Archived 27 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, University of Oxford.
- ^ Avi Shlaim: "And for the last forty years, I have lived in Britain, and I teach at Oxford" in "It Takes an Enormous Amount of Courage to Speak the Truth When No One Else is Out There" — World-Renowned Holocaust, Israel Scholars Defend DePaul Professor Norman Finkelstein as He Fights for Tenur. Shlaim's interview; democracynow.org, 9 May 2007, accessed 23 March 2014.
- ^ "Growing outrage at the killings in Gaza". The Guardian. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2014.. Letter to the editor signed by over 300 academics, writers, and others.
- ^ Shlaim, Avi. "An Israeli spring? Rejecting the prospect of greater democracy in the Arab world could put the Jewish state at risk." Spectator 25 Feb. 2012
- ^ "Censorship battle and an antisemitic charge cause anger". The Guardian. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
- ^ Dysch, Marcus (18 August 2015). "Anti-Israel activists attack JC for challenging Jeremy Corbyn". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- ^ Joseph Heller; Yehoshua Porat (18 August 2005). "The wonders of the new history". Haaretz. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- ^ Joseph Heller (2000). The Birth of Israel, 1945–1949: Ben-Gurion and His Critics. University Press of Florida. p. 306. ISBN 0813017327.
- ^ Yoav Gelber (July 2009). "The Israeli-Arab War of 1948 : The Collusion That Never Was". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Shlaim’s conjecture of a deliberate and pre-meditated anti-Palestinian “collusion” does not stand up to a critical examination. The documentary evidence on the development of contacts between Israel and Jordan before, during and after the war unequivocally refutes Shlaim’s conclusions. If there was any collusion against the Palestinians in 1948, it was not concocted by Israel and Abdullah but rather, by Britain and Transjordan. The outcomes reveal that the British acquiescence to a Transjordanian takeover of Arab Palestine was merely a choice by default rather than a plot.
- ^ Marc Lynch (2005). "Israeli-Jordanian Dialogue, 1948-1953: Cooperation, Conspiracy, or Collusion? by Yoav Gelber". Middle East Journal. 59 (2): 329–330. JSTOR 4330143.
- ^ Benny Morris (November 28, 2009). "Derisionist History". The New Republic.
- ^ "Professor Avi Shlaim". The British Academy. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- ^ "From Wikipedia to Roman coins: British Academy recognises excellence in the humanities and social sciences". The British Academy. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Oxford home page
- Interview. The Nation, 28 June 2004.
- 2009 Interview on Israeli-Palestinian conflict inc. video, audio and text transcript.
- Video of discussion between Avi Shlaim and Shlomo Sand. Chaired by Jacqueline Rose at the Frontline Club, London, 12 November 2009
- Shlaim, Avi."The Balfour Declaration And its Consequences" in Louis, Wm. Roger, ed., Yet More Adventures with Britannia: Personalities, Politics and Culture in Britain, London, I.B. Tauris, 2005, pp. 251–270.
Last edited on 19 March 2021, at 14:18
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