An interesting sociolinguistic feature of Bahrain is the existence of three distinct dialects: Bahrani, Sunni and Ajami
Sunni Bahrainis speak a dialect which is most similar to urban dialect spoken in Qatar
The Persian language
has the most foreign linguistic influence on all the Bahraini dialects.
The differences between Bahrani Arabic and other Bahraini dialects suggest differing historical origins. The main differences between Bahrani and non-Bahrani dialects are evident in certain grammatical forms and pronunciation. Most of the vocabulary, however, is shared between dialects, or is distinctly Bahraini, arising from a shared modern history. Many Bahrani words have also been borrowed from Hindi, Turkish, or English.
Examples of words borrowed from other languages
Bahrani Arabic (called Baħrāni
by its speakers) shares many features with Gulf Arabic dialects
(e.g. Kuwait, UAE, Qatar) of which it is not considered part by most linguists. Some general features:
- Classical Arabic /q/ becomes /g/, for example gamar (moon).
- Classical Arabic /ð/ becomes /d/, for example danab (tail).
- /q/ and /ð/ is preserved for some Classical Arabic borrowings, for example [ðulqaʕdah] (Dhu Al-Qa'dah).
- Affrication of /k/ to /tʃ/ in many words, for example [tʃalb] (dog).
- /θ/ has the free variant /f/, and in some dialects /t/, for example falāfeh or talāteh (three).
- /dʒ/ becomes /j/ in some rural dialects, for example yiħħe (watermelon).
- Usage of -sh suffix (/ʃ/) as a feminine second-person pronoun akin to masculine -k, for example babish (your door).
- Usage of sentence-final particle e (pronounced [ɛː]) to indicate questions, for example 'inzaine (OK?).
Bahrani Arabic consonants
- ^ "Arabic, Baharna Spoken". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
- ^ "Arabic, Baharna Spoken". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- ^ Jastrow, Otto (2002). Non-Arabic Semitic elements in the Arabic dialects of eastern Arabia. Clive Holes. pp. 270–279. ISBN 9783447044912.
- ^ Holes, Clive (2001). Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. Clive Holes. pp. XXIX–XXX. ISBN 9004107630.
- ^ Bassiouney, Reem (2009). "5". Arabic Sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 105–107.
- ^ Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. Clive Holes. 2001. Page XXX. ISBN 90-04-10763-0
- ^ Al-Tajir, Mahdi Abdalla (1982). Language and linguistic origins in Baḥrain : the Baḥārnah dialect of Arabic. London: K. Paul International. ISBN 0-7103-0024-7.
Last edited on 30 March 2021, at 08:51
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