Inhabited by Kalinago
people since the 13th century, and prior to that by other Amerindians
, Barbados was invaded by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown
. It first appeared on a Spanish map in 1511.
The Portuguese Empire
claimed the island between 1532 and 1536, but later abandoned it in 1620 with their only remnants being an introduction of wild boars for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English
ship, the Olive Blossom
, arrived in Barbados on 14 May 1625; its men took possession of the island in the name of King James I
. In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, and Barbados became an English
and later British colony
During this period, the colony operated on a plantation economy
, relying on the labour of enslaved Africans
which worked on the island's plantations. The slave trade to the island continued until it was outlawed by the Slave Trade Act 1807
, with final emancipation of the enslaved population in Barbados occurring over a period of years following the Slavery Abolition Act 1833
On 30th November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm
with Elizabeth II
as its queen
though the country is planning to remove her as its head of state and become a republic by 30 November 2021.
The population of 287,010 is predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be part of the Caribbean and is ranked as one of its leading tourist destinations. About 40% of Barbados's tourists come from the UK, and the next largest groups of visitors come from the US and Canada.
The name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese
term os barbudos
or the Spanish
equivalent, los barbudos
, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree
), indigenous to the island, or to the allegedly bearded Caribs
who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying coral reefs. In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese
mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo
showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda
in the Leewards
is very similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish.
The original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era
, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan
-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth"
or "Redstone island with teeth outside (reefs)"
or simply "Teeth".
Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire". The origin is uncertain, but several theories exist. The National Cultural Foundation
of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word commonly used by slaves
, and that it derives from the Igbo
from bé mụ́
meaning "my home, kindred, kind",
the Igbo phoneme [e]
in the Igbo orthography is very close to /ɪ/
The name could have arisen due to the relatively large percentage of enslaved Igbo people
from modern-day southeastern Nigeria
arriving in Barbados in the 18th century.
The words "Bim" and "Bimshire" are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary
and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries
. Another possible source for "Bim" is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter
of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge (father of one of the island's most famous scholars, Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge
) suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire, Berkshire and Bimshire".
Lastly, in the Daily Argosy
(of Demerara, i.e. Guyana) of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of "Byam", the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians. That source suggested the followers of Byam became known as "Bims" and that this became a word for all Barbadians.
Archeological evidence suggests humans may have first settled or visited the island circa 1600 BC.
More permanent Amerindian
settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid
The two main groups were the Arawaks
from South America, who became dominant around 800–1200 AD, and the more war-like Kalinago
) who arrived from South America in the 12th–13th centuries
Spanish map of the island (1632)
It is uncertain which European nation arrived first in Barbados, which probably would have been at some point in the 15th century or 16th century. One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish.
Many, if not most, believe the Portuguese
, en route to Brazil,
were the first Europeans to come upon the island. The island was largely ignored by Europeans, though Spanish slave raiding is thought to have reduced the native population, with many fleeing to other islands.
English settlement in the 1600s
The first English ship, which had arrived on 14 May 1625, was captained by John Powell. The first settlement began on 17 February 1627, near what is now Holetown
by a group led by John Powell's younger brother, Henry, consisting of 80 settlers and 10 English indentured labourers.
Some sources state that some Africans were amongst these first settlers.
The settlement was established as a proprietary colony
and funded by Sir William Courten
, a City of London
merchant who acquired the title to Barbados and several other islands. So the first colonists were actually tenants and much of the profits of their labour returned to Courten and his company.
Courten's title was later transferred to James Hay, 1st Earl of Carlisle
, in what was called the "Great Barbados Robbery".
Carlisle then chose as governor Henry Hawley
, who established the House of Assembly
in 1639, in an effort to appease the planters, who might otherwise have opposed his controversial appointment.
In the period 1640–60, the West Indies attracted over two-thirds of the total number of English emigrants to the Americas. By 1650 there were 44,000 settlers in the West Indies, as compared to 12,000 on the Chesapeake
and 23,000 in New England
. Most English arrivals were indentured. After five years of labour, they were given "freedom dues" of about £10, usually in goods. Before the mid-1630s, they also received 5 to 10 acres (2 to 4 hectares) of land, but after that time the island filled and there was no more free land. During the Cromwellian era
(1650s) this included a large number of prisoners-of-war, vagrants and people who were illicitly kidnapped, who were forcibly transported to the island and sold as servants. These last two groups were predominantly Irish, as several thousand were infamously rounded up by English merchants and sold into servitude in Barbados and other Caribbean islands during this period, a practice that came to be known as being Barbadosed
Cultivation of tobacco, cotton, ginger
was thus handled primarily by European indentured labour until the start of the sugar cane
industry in the 1640s and the growing reliance on and importation of enslaved Africans.
Life in the young colony was not easy, with parish registers from the 1650s show, for the white population, there were four times as many deaths as marriages. The mainstay of the infant colony's economy was the growth export of tobacco, but tobacco prices eventually fell in the 1630s as Chesapeake production expanded.
Effects of the English Civil War
Around the same time, fighting during the War of the Three Kingdoms
and the Interregnum
spilled over into Barbados and Barbadian territorial waters. The island was not involved in the war
until after the execution of Charles I
, when the island's government fell under the control of Royalists (ironically the Governor, Philip Bell, remaining loyal to Parliament
while the Barbadian House of Assembly
, under the influence of Humphrey Walrond, supported Charles II
). To try to bring the recalcitrant colony to heel, the Commonwealth Parliament
passed an act on 3 October 1650 prohibiting trade between England and Barbados, and because the island also traded with the Netherlands, further navigation acts
were passed prohibiting any but English vessels trading with Dutch colonies
. These acts were a precursor to the First Anglo-Dutch War
. The Commonwealth of England
sent an invasion force under the command of Sir George Ayscue
, which arrived in October 1651. Ayscue with a smaller force which included Scottish prisoners surprised a larger force of Royalists, but had to resort to spying and diplomacy ultimately. On January 11, 1652, the Royalists in the House of Assembly led by Lord Willoughby
surrendered which marked the end of royalist privateering as a major threat.
The conditions of the surrender were incorporated into the Charter of Barbados
(Treaty of Oistins), which was signed at the Mermaid's Inn, Oistins
, on 17 January 1652.
Irish people in Barbados
Starting with Cromwell, a large percentage of the white labourer population were indentured servants and involuntarily transported people from Ireland. Irish servants in Barbados were often treated poorly, and Barbadian planters gained a reputation for cruelty.:55
The decreased appeal of an indenture on Barbados, combined with enormous demand for labour caused by sugar cultivation, led to the use of involuntary transportation to Barbados as a punishment for crimes, or for political prisoners, and also to the kidnapping of labourers who were sent to Barbados involuntarily.:55
Irish indentured servants were a significant portion of the population throughout the period when white servants were used for plantation labour in Barbados, and while a "steady stream" of Irish servants entered the Barbados throughout the seventeenth century, Cromwellian efforts to pacify Ireland created a "veritable tidal wave" of Irish labourers who were sent to Barbados during the 1650s.:56
Due to inadequate historical records, the total number of Irish labourers sent to Barbados is unknown, and estimates have been "highly contentious".:56
While one historical source estimated that as many as 50,000 Irish people were transported to either Barbados or Virginia unwillingly during the 1650s, this estimate is "quite likely exaggerated".:56
Another estimate that 12,000 Irish prisoners had arrived in Barbados by 1655 has been described as "probably exaggerated" by historian Richard B. Sheridan.:236
According to historian Thomas Bartlett, it is "generally accepted" that approximately 10,000 Irish were sent to the West Indies involuntarily, and approximately 40,000 came as voluntary indentured servants, while many also travelled as voluntary, un-indentured emigrants.:256
The sugar revolution
The introduction of sugar cane
from Dutch Brazil
in 1640 completely transformed society, the economy and the physical landscape. Barbados eventually had one of the world's biggest sugar industries.
One group instrumental in ensuring the early success of the industry was the Sephardic Jews
, who had originally been expelled from the Iberian peninsula
, to end up in Dutch Brazil
As the effects of the new crop increased, so did the shift in the ethnic composition of Barbados and surrounding islands.
The workable sugar plantation required a large investment and a great deal of heavy labour. At first, Dutch traders supplied the equipment, financing, and enslaved Africans, in addition to transporting most of the sugar to Europe.
In 1644 the population of Barbados was estimated at 30,000, of which about 800 were of African descent, with the remainder mainly of English descent. These English smallholders were eventually bought out and the island filled up with large sugar plantations worked by enslaved Africans.
By 1660 there was near parity with 27,000 blacks and 26,000 whites. By 1666 at least 12,000 white smallholders had been bought out, died, or left the island, many choosing to emigrate to Jamaica
or the American Colonies
(notably the Carolinas).
As a result, Barbados enacted a slave code
as a way of legislatively controlling its black enslaved population.
The law's text was influential in laws in other colonies.
By 1680 there were 20,000 free whites and 46,000 enslaved Africans;
by 1724, there were 18,000 free whites and 55,000 enslaved Africans.
18th and 19th centuries
Statue of Bussa
, Bridgetown. Bussa led the largest slave rebellion in Barbadian history.
The harsh conditions endured by the slaves resulted in several planned slave rebellions, the largest of which was Bussa's rebellion
in 1816 which was suppressed by British troops.
Growing opposition to slavery led to its abolition in the British Empire in 1833.
The plantocracy class retained control of political and economic power on the island, with most workers living in relative poverty.
20th century – colonial period
Deep dissatisfaction with the situation on Barbados led many to emigrate.
Things came to a head in the 1930s during the Great Depression
, as Barbadians began demanding better conditions for workers, the legalisation of trade unions and a widening of the franchise, which at that point was limited to male property owners.
As a result of the increasing unrest the British sent a commission (The West Indies Royal Commission, or Moyne Commission) in 1938, which recommended enacting many of the requested reforms on the islands.
As a result, Afro-Barbadians began to play a much more prominent role in the colony's politics, with universal suffrage being introduced in 1950.
Full internal self-government was enacted in 1961.
Barbados joined the short-lived West Indies Federation
from 1958 to 1962, later gaining full independence on 30 November 1966.
Errol Barrow became the country's first prime minister. Barbados opted to remain within the Commonwealth of Nations
, retaining Queen Elizabeth as Monarch
, represented locally by a Governor General
The Barrow government sought to diversify the economy away from agriculture, seeking to boost industry and the tourism sector. Barbados was also at forefront of regional integration efforts, spearheading the creation of CARIFTA
The DLP lost the 1976 Barbadian general election
to the BLP under Tom Adams
. Adams adopted a more conservative and strongly pro-Western stance, allowing the Americans to use Barbados as the launchpad for their invasion of Grenada
Adams died in office in 1985 and was replaced by Harold Bernard St. John
, however he lost the 1986 Barbadian general election
which saw the return of the DLP under Errol Barrow, who had been highly critical of the US intervention in Grenada. However Barrow too died in office, and was replaced by Lloyd Erskine Sandiford
who remained Prime Minister until 1994.
Plan to remove the monarchy
The government of Barbados announced on 15 September 2020 that it intends to become a republic by 30 November 2021, the 55th anniversary of its independence. If the plan is achieved (with a two-thirds majority vote in both houses of Parliament),
the Queen and Governor-General will be replaced by the country's own head of state. Barbados will then cease to be a Commonwealth realm
, but could maintain membership in the Commonwealth of Nations
One news report stated that Guyana
, as well as Trinidad and Tobago
already had such a relationship with the UK: a "loose association of former British colonies and current dependencies".
"The time has come to fully leave our colonial past behind. Barbadians want a Barbadian head of state," according to a speech written by Prime Minister Mia Mottley in her September 2020 Throne Speech. Her predecessor as PM, Freundel Stuart
, had also espoused moving to a republican system.
Whether that goal can be achieved during 2021 is "not clear", according to an investigation of the situation by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
in March 2021. After a request from the CBC, the government did not provide a timeline for the process.
The last Caribbean country that attempted a switch to a republican form of Government was neighbouring Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
in 2009, which held a referendum on the measure
that failed. In 2016 neighbouring Grenada
attempted a referendum
which would have updated the oath of office among other things, it posed specifically that the nation would have changed the oath to pledge allegiance going forward to "Grenada" rather than the "Queen" as well, a change in line with Jamaica's current Oath.
On 3 June 2021 it was suddenly reported in local Barbadian media that the public could email to submit suggestions regarding the republic issue.
Geography and climate
Map of Barbados
Barbados is situated in the Atlantic Ocean, east of the other West Indies
Islands. Barbados is the easternmost island in the Lesser Antilles
. It is flat in comparison to its island neighbours to the west, the Windward Islands
. The island rises gently to the central highland region known as Scotland District, with the high point of the nation being Mount Hillaby
340 m (1,120 ft) above sea level.
Barbados lies on the boundary of the South American
and the Caribbean Plates
of the South American plate beneath the Caribbean plate scrapes sediment from the South American plate and deposits it above the subduction zone forming an accretionary prism
. The rate of this depositing of material allows Barbados to rise at a rate of about 25 mm (1 in) per 1,000 years.
This subduction means geologically
the island is composed of coral
roughly 90 m (300 ft) thick, where reefs formed above the sediment. The land slopes in a series of "terraces" in the west and goes into an incline in the east. A large proportion of the island is circled by coral reefs
The erosion of limestone in the northeast of the island, in the Scotland District, has resulted in the formation of various caves and gullies
. On the Atlantic
east coast of the island coastal landforms
, including stacks, have been created due to the limestone composition of the area. Also notable in the island is the rocky cape known as Pico Teneriffe
or Pico de Tenerife, which is named after the fact that the island of Tenerife
in Spain is the first land east of Barbados according to the belief of the locals.
Crane Beach is situated on the south east coast
The country generally experiences two seasons, one of which includes noticeably higher rainfall. Known as the "wet season
", this period runs from June to December. By contrast, the "dry season
" runs from December to May. Annual precipitation ranges between 1,000 and 2,300 mm (40 and 90 in). From December to May the average temperatures range from 21 to 31 °C (70 to 88 °F), while between June and November, they range from 23 to 31 °C (73 to 88 °F).
Infrequent natural hazards include earthquakes, landslips
, and hurricanes
. Barbados is often spared the worst effects of the region's tropical storms
during the rainy season. Its location in the south-east of the Caribbean region puts the country just outside the principal hurricane strike zone
. On average, a major hurricane strikes about once every 26 years. The last significant hit from a hurricane to cause severe damage to Barbados was Hurricane Janet
in 1955; in 2010 the island was struck by Hurricane Tomas
, but this caused only minor damage across the country as it was only at Tropical Storm level of formation.
Barbados is susceptible to environmental pressures. As one of the world's most densely populated isles
, the government worked during the 1990s
to aggressively integrate the growing south coast of the island into the Bridgetown Sewage Treatment Plant to reduce contamination of offshore coral reefs.
As of the first decade of the 21st century, a second treatment plant has been proposed along the island's west coast. Being so densely populated, Barbados has made great efforts to protect its underground aquifers
As a coral-limestone island, Barbados is highly permeable to seepage of surface water into the earth. The government has placed great emphasis on protecting the catchment areas that lead directly into the huge network of underground aquifers and streams.
On occasion illegal squatters have breached these areas, and the government has removed squatters to preserve the cleanliness of the underground springs which provide the island's drinking water.
The government has placed a huge emphasis on keeping Barbados clean with the aim of protecting the environment and preserving offshore coral reefs which surround the island. Many initiatives to mitigate human pressures on the coastal regions of Barbados and seas come from the Coastal Zone Management Unit (CZMU).
Barbados has nearly 90 kilometres (56 miles) of coral reefs just offshore and two protected marine parks have been established off the west coast.
Overfishing is another threat which faces Barbados.
Although on the opposite side of the Atlantic, and some 4,800 kilometres (3,000 miles) west of Africa, Barbados is one of many places in the American continent that experience heightened levels of mineral dust
from the Sahara Desert
Some particularly intense dust episodes have been blamed partly for the impacts on the health of coral reefs
surrounding Barbados or asthmatic
but evidence has not wholly supported the former claim.
Access to biocapacity
in Barbados is much lower than world average. In 2016, Barbados had 0.17 global hectares
of biocapacity per person within its territory, much less than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person.
In 2016 Barbados used 0.84 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint
of consumption. This means they use approximately five times as much biocapacity as Barbados contains. As a result, Barbados is running a biocapacity deficit.
Barbados is host to four species of nesting turtles (green turtles
, hawksbill turtles
, and leatherbacks
) and has the second-largest hawksbill turtle-breeding population in the Caribbean.
The driving of vehicles on beaches can crush nests buried in the sand and such activity is discouraged in nesting areas.
Barbados is also the host to the green monkey. The green monkey is found in West Africa from Senegal to the Volta River. It has been introduced to the Cape Verde islands off north-western Africa, and the West Indian islands of Saint Kitts, Nevis, Saint Martin, and Barbados. It was introduced to the West Indies in the late 17th century when slave trade ships travelled to the Caribbean from West Africa. The green monkey in most cases, is well known to be a very curious and mischievous/troublesome creature to the locals on the island.
A bus stop in Barbados.
People shopping in the capital Bridgetown.
The 2010 national census conducted by the Barbados Statistical Service reported a resident population of 277,821, of which 144,803 were female and 133,018 were male.
The life expectancy for Barbados residents as of 2019 is 79 years. The average life expectancy is 83 years for females and 78 years for males (2019).
Barbados and Japan have the highest per capita occurrences of centenarians
in the world.
The crude birth rate is 12.23 births per 1,000 people, and the crude death rate is 8.39 deaths per 1,000 people. The infant mortality rate is 11.63 infant deaths per 1,000 live births.
Close to 90% of all Barbadians (also known colloquially as "Bajan") are of Afro-Caribbean
") and mixed descent. The remainder of the population includes groups of Europeans ("Anglo-Bajans" / "Euro-Bajans") mainly from the United Kingdom and Ireland, Italians, and Asians, predominantly Chinese and Indians (both Hindu and Muslim). Other groups in Barbados include people from the United Kingdom, United States and Canada. Barbadians who return after years of residence in the United States and children born in America to Bajan parents are called "Bajan Yankees", a term considered derogatory by some.
Generally, Bajans recognise and accept all "children of the island" as Bajans, and refer to each other as such.
The biggest communities outside the Afro-Caribbean community are:
- The Indo-Guyanese, an important part of the economy due to the increase of immigrants from partner country Guyana. There are reports of a growing Indo-Bajans diaspora originating from Guyana and India starting around 1990. Predominantly from southern India, they are growing in size but are smaller than the equivalent communities in Trinidad and Guyana. The Muslim Barbadians of Indian origin are largely of Gujarati ancestry. Many small businesses in Barbados are run and operated by Muslim-Indian Bajans.
- Euro-Bajans (5% of the population) have settled in Barbados since the 17th century, originating from England, Ireland, Portugal, and Scotland. In 1643, there were 37,200 whites in Barbados (86% of the population). More commonly they are known as "White Bajans". Euro-Bajans introduced folk music, such as Irish music and Highland music, and certain place names, such as "Scotland District", a hilly region in the parish of St. Andrew. Among White Barbadians there exists an underclass known as Redlegs comprising followers of the Duke of Monmouth after his defeat at the Battle of Sedgemoor, as well as the descendants of Irish indentured labourers and prisoners imported to the island. Many additionally moved on to become the earliest settlers of modern-day North and South Carolina in the United States. Today the Redlegs number only around 400.
- Chinese-Barbadians are a small portion of Barbados's wider Asian population. Chinese food and culture is becoming part of everyday Bajan culture.
- Lebanese and Syrians form the island's Arab Barbadian community.
- Jews arrived in Barbados just after the first settlers in 1627. Bridgetown is the home of Nidhe Israel Synagogue, one of the oldest Jewish synagogues in the Americas, dating from 1654, though the current structure was erected in 1833, replacing one ruined by the hurricane of 1831. Tombstones in the neighbouring cemetery date from the 1630s. Now under the care of the Barbados National Trust, the site was deserted in 1929 but was saved and restored by the Jewish community beginning in 1986.
- In the seventeenth century, Romani people were sent from the United Kingdom to work as slaves in the plantations in Barbados.
English is the official language
of Barbados, and is used for communications, administration, and public services all over the island. In its capacity as the official language of the country, the standard of English tends to conform to vocabulary, pronunciations, spellings, and conventions akin to, but not exactly the same as, those of British English
. For most people, however, Bajan Creole
is the language of everyday life. It does not have a standardised written form, but it is used by over 90% of the population.
Religion in Barbados (2000)
No religion (atheism, agnosticism, etc) (17.30%)
Seventh Day Adventist (5.49%)
Roman Catholic (4.18%)
Not Stated (3.28%)
Church of God (1.99%)
Jehovah's witnesses (1.96%)
Salvation Army (0.42%)
Government and politics
Barbados functions as a two-party system
. The dominant political parties are the Democratic Labour Party
and the incumbent Barbados Labour Party
. Since Independence on 30 November 1966, the Democratic Labour Party (DLP) has governed from 1966 to 1976; 1986 to 1994; and from 2008 to 2018; and the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) has also governed from 1976 to 1986; 1994 to 2008; and from 2018 to present. The Democratic Labour Party government (DLP) held office with the then Premier of Barbados became Prime Minister of Barbados, Errol Barrow for three successive terms from 4 December 1961 to 2 September 1976; and again from 28 May 1986 until his sudden death in office on 1 June 1987. The 4th Prime Minister, Sir. Lloyd Sandiford took over with the Democratic Labour Party government (DLP) from 1 June 1987 to 20 January 1991; and from 20 January 1991 to 6 September 1994. The Barbados Labour Party (BLP) held office with the then Prime Minister, Tom Adams from 2 September 1976 to 18 June 1981; and from 18 June 1981 until his sudden death in office on 11 March 1985. The 3rd Prime Minister, Sir. Harold St. John took over with the Barbados Labour Party government (BLP) from 11 March 1985 to 28 May 1986. The BLP held power from 6 September 1994 to 15 January 2008. The Democratic Labour Party government (DLP) held power with the then 6th Prime Minister, David Thompson from 15 January 2008 until his death in office on 23 October 2010. The 7th Prime Minister, Freundel Stuart took over with the Democratic Labour Party government (DLP) from 23 October 2010 to 21 February 2013; and from 21 February 2013 to 24 May 2018 for the general elections for the new Barbados Labour Party (BLP). All of Barbados' Prime Ministers, except Freundel Stuart, held under the Ministry of Finance's portfolio. The Barbados Labour Party government (BLP) held power with the now 8th Prime Minister of Barbados, Mia Mottley from 24 May 2018 to present until the next general election on 24 May 2023.
World Trade Organization, European Commission, CARIFORUM
Trade policy has also sought to protect a small number of domestic activities, mostly food production, from foreign competition, while recognising that most domestic needs are best met by imports.
The Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty 1994
On 6 July 1994, at the Sherbourne Conference Centre, St. Michael, Barbados, representatives of eight countries signed the Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaties 1994. The countries which were represented were: Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago.
On 19 August 1994 a representative of the Government of Guyana signed a similar treaty.
The Barbados Defence Force
has roughly 800 members. Within it, 14- to 18-year-olds make up the Barbados Cadet Corps. The defence preparations of the island nation are closely tied to defence treaties with the United Kingdom, the United States, and the People's Republic of China.
Barbados is divided
into 11 parishes:
St. George and St. Thomas are in the middle of the country and are the only parishes without coastlines.
is a leading resort in Barbados's tourism sector.
A proportional representation of national exports
Barbados electricity production by source
Historically, the economy of Barbados had been dependent on sugarcane
cultivation and related activities, but since the late 1970s and early 1980s it has diversified into the manufacturing and tourism sectors.
Offshore finance and information services have become important foreign exchange earners.
Partly due to the staging of the 2007 Cricket World Cup, the island saw a construction boom, with the development and redevelopment of hotels, office complexes, and homes.
This slowed during the 2008 to 2012 world economic crisis and the recession.
There was a strong economy between 1999 and 2000 but the economy went into recession in 2001 and 2002 due to slowdowns in tourism, consumer spending and the impact of the 11 September 2001 attacks
in the United States and the 7 July 2005 London bombings
in the United Kingdom. The economy rebounded in 2003 and has shown growth since 2004 which continued right through to 2008. The economy went into recession again from 2008 to 2013 before showing growth from 2014 to 2017. Then it declined to another recession from 2017 to 2019 during the world economic crisis. There were 23 downgrades by both Standard & Poor's and Moody's in 2016, 2017 and 2018. The economy showed signs of recovery with 3 upgrades from Standard and Poor's and Moody's in 2019. From 1 January to 31 March 2020 the economy had started to grow, but then it experienced another decline due to the COVID-19 economic recession
Traditional trading partners include Canada, the Caribbean Community
(especially Trinidad and Tobago
), the United Kingdom and the United States. Recent government administrations have continued efforts to reduce unemployment, encourage foreign direct investment
, and privatise remaining state-owned enterprises. Unemployment was reduced to 10.7% in 2003.
However, it has since increased to 11.9% in second quarter, 2015.
The European Union is assisting Barbados with a €10 million program of modernisation of the country's International Business and Financial Services Sector.
Barbados maintains the third largest stock exchange
in the Caribbean region. As of 2009, officials at the stock exchange were investigating the possibility of augmenting the local exchange with an International Securities Market (ISM) venture.
Sovereign default and restructuring
By May 2018, Barbados' outstanding debt climbed to US$7.5 billion, more than 1.7 times the country's GDP
. In June 2018 the government defaulted on its sovereign debt when it failed to make a coupon on Eurobonds
maturing in 2035. Outstanding bond debt of Barbados reached US$4.4 billion.
In October 2019, Barbados concluded restructuring negotiations with a creditor group including investments funds Eaton Vance Management
, Greylock Capital Management
, Teachers Advisors and Guyana Bank for Trade and Industry. Creditors will exchange existing bonds for a new debt series maturing in 2029. The new bonds involve a principal "haircut" of approximately 26% and include a clause allowing for deferment of principal and capitalization of interest in the event of a natural disaster.
The main hospital on the island is The Queen Elizabeth Hospital; however, Barbados has eight polyclinics across five provinces. There are also well-known medical care centres in Barbados such as Bayview Hospital, Sandy Crest Medical Centre and FMH Emergency Medical Clinic.
The Barbados literacy rate
is ranked close to 100%.
The mainstream public education system of Barbados is fashioned after the British model. The government of Barbados spends 6.7% of its GDP on education (2008).
All young people in the country must attend school until age 16. Barbados has over 70 primary schools and over 20 secondary schools throughout the island. There is a number of private schools, including Montessori
and the International Baccalaureate
. Student enrolment at these schools represents less than 5% of the total enrolment of the public schools.
Barbados Secondary School Entrance Examination: Children who are 11 years old on 1 September in the year of the examination are required to write the examination as a means of allocation to secondary school.
Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) examinations are usually taken by students after five years of secondary school and mark the end of standard secondary education. The CSEC examinations are equivalent to the Ordinary Level (O-Levels) examinations and are targeted toward students 16 and older.
Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examinations (CAPE) are taken by students who have completed their secondary education and wish to continue their studies. Students who sit for the CAPE usually possess CSEC or an equivalent certification. The CAPE is equivalent to the British Advanced Levels (A-Levels), voluntary qualifications that are intended for university entrance.
is a blend of West African, Portuguese, Creole, Indian and British cultures. Citizens are officially called Barbadians. The term "Bajan" (pronounced BAY-jun) may have come from a localised pronunciation of the word Barbadian, which at times can sound more like "Bar-bajan"; or, more likely, from English bay
("bayling"), Portuguese baiano
The largest carnival
-like cultural event that takes place on the island is the Crop Over
festival, which was established in 1974. As in many other Caribbean and Latin American countries, Crop Over is an important event for many people on the island, as well as the thousands of tourists that flock to there to participate in the annual events.
The festival includes musical competitions and other traditional activities, and features the majority of the island's homegrown calypso
and soca music
for the year. The male and female Barbadians who harvested the most sugarcane are crowned as the King and Queen of the crop.
Crop Over gets under way at the beginning of July and ends with the costumed parade on Kadooment Day, held on the first Monday of August. New calypso/soca music is usually released and played more frequently from the beginning of May to coincide with the start of the festival.
Bajan cuisine is a mixture of African
influences. A typical meal consists of a main dish of meat or fish, normally marinated with a mixture of herbs and spices, hot side dishes, and one or more salads. A common Bajan side dish could be pickled cucumber, fish cakes, bake, etc. The meal is usually served with one or more sauces.
The national dish
of Barbados is cou-cou
& flying fish
with spicy gravy.
Another traditional meal is "Pudding and Souse" a dish of pickled pork
with spiced sweet potatoes.
A wide variety of seafood and meats are also available.
The Mount Gay Rum
visitors centre in Barbados claims to be the world's oldest remaining rum company, with earliest confirmed deed from 1703. Cockspur Rum
are also from the island. Barbados is home to the Banks Barbados Brewery
, which brews Banks Beer, a pale lager
, as well as Banks Amber Ale
Banks also brews Tiger Malt, a non-alcoholic malted beverage
. 10 Saints beer is brewed in Speightstown
, St. Peter in Barbados and aged for 90 days in Mount Gay 'Special Reserve' Rum casks. It was first brewed in 2009 and is available in certain Caricom nations.
Barbadian folk traditions include the Landship
movement, which is a satirical, informal organization based on the Royal Navy
, tea meetings
, tuk bands
and numerous traditional songs and dances. In modern Barbados, popular styles include calypso
, contemporary folk
and world music
. Barbados is, along with Guadeloupe, Martinique, Trinidad, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, one of the few centres for Caribbean jazz.
hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup final. Cricket is one of the most followed games in Barbados and Kensington Oval is often referred to as the "Mecca in Cricket" due to its significance and contributions to the sport.
A horse and rider at Garrison Savannah
As in other Caribbean countries of British colonial heritage, cricket
is very popular on the island. The West Indies cricket team
usually includes several Barbadian players. In addition to several warm-up matches and six "Super Eight" matches, the country hosted the final of the 2007 Cricket World Cup. Barbados has produced many great cricketers including Sir Garfield Sobers
, Sir Frank Worrell
, Sir Clyde Walcott
, Sir Everton Weekes
, Gordon Greenidge
, Wes Hall
, Charlie Griffith
, Joel Garner
, Desmond Haynes
and Malcolm Marshall
is also popular in Barbados.
takes place at the Historic Garrison Savannah
close to Bridgetown. Spectators can pay for admission to the stands, or else can watch races from the public "rail", which encompasses the track.
is an increasingly popular sport, played at school or college. Barbados's national team
has shown some unexpected results as in the past it beat many much larger countries.
is very popular amongst the rich elite on the island and the "High-Goal" Apes Hill team is based at the St James's Club.
It is also played at the private Holders Festival
In golf, the Barbados Open
, played at Royal Westmoreland Golf Club, was an annual stop on the European Seniors Tour
from 2000 to 2009. In December 2006 the WGC-World Cup
took place at the country's Sandy Lane
resort on the Country Club course, an 18-hole course designed by Tom Fazio
. The Barbados Golf Club is another course on the island. It has hosted the Barbados Open on several occasions.
is also popular and is mainly played indoors.
is gaining popularity and Barbados is home to Darian King
, currently ranked 270th in the world and is the 2nd highest ranked player in the Caribbean.
The presence of the trade winds along with favourable swells make the southern tip of the island an ideal location for wave sailing (an extreme form of the sport of windsurfing
is also popular with women in Barbados.
A Hino ACME Minibus B 163 in Speightstown, St. Peter, Barbados
Although Barbados is about 34 km (21 mi) across at its widest point, a car journey from Six Cross Roads in St. Philip (south-east) to North Point in St. Lucy (north-central) can take one and a half hours or longer due to traffic. Barbados has half as many registered cars as citizens. In Barbados, drivers drive on the left side of the road.
Barbados is known for its many roundabouts. One famous roundabout is a roundabout located east of Bridgetown, where you will see an emancipation statue of a slave named Bussa.
Transport on the island is relatively convenient with "route taxis
" called "ZRs" (pronounced "Zed-Rs") travelling to most points on the island. These small buses can at times be crowded, as passengers are generally never turned down regardless of the number. They will usually take the more scenic routes to destinations. They generally depart from the capital Bridgetown
or from Speightstown
in the northern part of the island.
Including the ZRs, there are three bus systems running seven days a week (though less frequently on Sundays). There are ZRs, the yellow minibuses and the blue Transport Board buses
. A ride on any of them costs Bds$ 3.5.
The smaller buses from the two privately owned systems ("ZRs" and "minibuses") can give change; the larger blue buses from the government-operated Barbados Transport Board
system cannot, but do give receipts. The Barbados Transport Board buses travel in regular bus routes and scheduled timetables across Barbados. Schoolchildren in school uniform including some Secondary schools ride for free on the government buses and for Bds$ 2.5 on the ZRs. Most routes require a connection in Bridgetown. Barbados Transport Board's headquarters are located at Kay's House, Roebuck Street, St. Michael, and the bus depots and terminals are located in the Fairchild Street Bus Terminal in Fairchild Street and the Princess Alice Bus Terminal (which was formerly the Lower Green Bus Terminal in Jubilee Gardens, Bridgetown, St. Michael) in Princess Alice Highway, Bridgetown, St. Michael; the Speightstown Bus Terminal in Speightstown, St. Peter; the Oistins Bus Depot in Oistins, Christ Church; and the Mangrove Bus Depot in Mangrove, St. Philip. In July 2020, the Barbados Transport Board
received 33 BYD
electric buses which were obtained not only to add to the aging fleet of diesel buses but also to assist the Government in their goal of eliminating the use of fossil fuels by the year 2030.
Some hotels also provide visitors with shuttles to points of interest on the island from outside the hotel lobby. There are several locally owned and operated vehicle rental agencies in Barbados but there are no multi-national companies.
The island's lone airport is the Grantley Adams International Airport
. It receives daily flights by several major airlines from points around the globe, as well as several smaller regional commercial airlines and charters. The airport serves as the main air-transportation hub for the eastern Caribbean. In the first decade of the 21st century it underwent a US$100 million upgrade and expansion in February 2003 until completion in August 2005.
The island also has a sea port which is the primary port of call for commercial container and cruise traffic.
There was also a helicopter shuttle service, which offered air taxi services to a number of sites around the island, mainly on the West Coast tourist belt. Air and maritime traffic was regulated by the Barbados Port Authority
- ^ a b c d e f Barbados CIA World Factbook
- ^ United Nations. "World Population Prospects 2019".
- ^ "Barbados – General Information". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
- ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- ^ "Barbados". 29 August 2006. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. (fco.gov.uk), updated 5 June 2006.
- ^ Chapter 4 – The Windward Islands and Barbados Archived 4 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine – U.S. Library of Congress
- ^ a b Sauer, Carl Ortwin (1969) . Early Spanish Main, The. University of California Press. pp. 192–197. ISBN 0-520-01415-4.
- ^ Secretariat. "Barbados – History". Commonwealth of Nations. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014.
- ^ HRM Queen Elizabeth II (2010). "History and present government – Barbados". The Royal Household. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- ^ Yasharoff, Hannah. "Barbados announces plan to remove Queen Elizabeth as head of state next year". USA TODAY. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
- ^ Belle, Nicole; Bramwell, Bill (1 August 2005). "Climate Change and Small Island Tourism: Policy Maker and Industry Perspectives in Barbados". Journal of Travel Research. 44: 34–38. doi:10.1177/0047287505276589. S2CID 154912745.
- ^ Barbados the Red Land with White Teeth: Home of the Amerindians. Barbados Museum & Historical Society. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. A temporary exhibit which examined some of the preliminary excavations conducted at the dig site at Heywoods, St. Peter.
- ^ Barbados – Geography / History. Fun 'N' Sun Publishing Inc. 2008. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- ^ Faria, Norman (17 June 2009). "Guyana Consul (Barbados) Visit to Former Amerindian Village Site in B'dos" (PDF). Guyana Chronicle. Pan-Tribal Confederacy of Indigenous Tribal Nations. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2010. Adjacent to the park, there is still a fresh water stream. This as a main reason the village was here. A hundred or so metres away is the sea and a further five hundred metres [550 yd] out across a lagoon was the outlying reef where the Atlantic swells broke on the coral in shallow waters. As an aside, the word "Ichirouganaim", said to be an Arawak word used by the Amerindians to describe Barbados, is thought to refer to the "teeth" imagery of the waves breaking on the reefs off most of southern and eastern coasts.
- ^ Drewett, Peter (1991). Prehistoric Barbados. Barbados Museum and Historical Society. ISBN 1-873132-15-8.
- ^ Drewett, Peter (2000). Prehistoric Settlements in the Caribbean: Fieldwork on Barbados, Tortola and the Cayman Islands. Archetype Publications Ltd. ISBN 1-873132-22-0.
- ^ a b c Carrington, Sean (2007). A~Z of Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean Publishers Limited. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-333-92068-8.
- ^ Allsopp, Richard; Allsopp, Jeannette (2003). Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. University of the West Indies Press. p. 101. ISBN 9766401454.
- ^ Eltis, David; Richardson, David (1997). Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity, and Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7146-4820-0. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
- ^ Morgan, Philip D.; Hawkins, Sean (2004). Black Experience and the Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 82. ISBN 0-19-926029-X.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab acad ae "Encyclopedia Britannica- Barbados". Retrieved 9 July 2019.
- ^ Peter Drewett, 1993. "Excavations at Heywoods, Barbados, and the Economic Basis of the Suazoid Period in the Lesser Antilles", Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 38:113–37; Scott M. Fitzpatrick, "A critical approach to c14 dating in the Caribbean", Latin American Antiquity, 17 (4), pp. 389 ff.
- ^ Beckles, Hilary. A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Caribbean Single Market (Cambridge University Press, 2007 edition).
- ^ "AXSES Systems Caribbean Inc., The Barbados Tourism Encyclopaedia". Barbados.org. 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 16 January 2000. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- ^ "Britannica Encyclopaedia: History of Barbados". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- ^ Hilary McD. Beckles, A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Caribbean Single Market (Cambridge University Press, 2007 edition), pp. 1–6.
- ^ "New Take on George Slept Here". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
- ^ Beckles p. 7.
- ^ "Holetown Barbados – Fun Barbados Sights". funbarbados.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- ^ William And John Archived 17 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 11 January 201, Shipstamps.co.uk
- ^ "The ownership of Barbados". Coursehero. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
- ^ a b c d e f "Slavery and Economy in Barbados". Retrieved 9 July 2019.
- ^ Corish, Patrick J. (12 March 2009). "The Cromwellian Regime, 1650–60". Patrick J. Corish, The Cromwellian Regime, 1650–1660. oup.com. Oxford University Press. pp. 353–386. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562527.003.0014. ISBN 978-0-19-956252-7. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- ^ Blakemore, Richard J. and Murphy, Elaine. (2018). The British Civil Wars at Sea, 1638-1653. Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press. p. 170. ISBN 9781783272297.
- ^ Karl Watson, The Civil War in BarbadosArchived 2 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, History in-depth, BBC, 5 November 2009.
- ^ a b c d e Monahan, Michael J. (2011). The Creolizing Subject: Race, Reason, and the Politics of Purity (1st ed.). Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0823234509.
- ^ Richard B. Sheridan (1974). Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623–1775. Canoe Press. ISBN 978-976-8125-13-2.
- ^ Bartlett, Thomas. "'This famous island set in a Virginian sea': Ireland in the British Empire, 1690–1801." In The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century, by Marshall, P. J., Alaine Low, and Wm. Roger Louis., edited by P.J. Marshall, and Alaine Low. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
- ^ a b Ali, Arif (1997). Barbados: Just Beyond Your Imagination. Hansib Publishing (Caribbean) Ltd. pp. 46, 48. ISBN 1-870518-54-3.
- ^ Jerome Handler, New West Indian Guide 91 (2017) 30-55
- ^ Sweet Negotiations: Sugar, Slavery, and Plantation Agriculture in Early Barbados, Chapter 6 The Expansion of Barbados, p. 112
- ^ Orlando Pérez (1970). "Notes on the Tropical Cyclones of Puerto Rico" (PDF). San Juan, Puerto Rico National Weather Service. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- ^ Edward N. Rappaport; Jose Fernandez-Partagas; Jack Beven (1997). "The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492–1996". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- ^ "Barbados Archived 29 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine". Library of Congress Country Studies.
- ^ "Barbados – population Archived 29 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine". Library of Congress Country Studies.
- ^ Price, Sanka (10 March 2014). "'Political giant' passes away". Daily Nation. Nation Publishing. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- ^ "The Party". Official Web Site. Democratic Labour Party. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- ^ Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p85 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
- ^ Carter, Gercine (26 September 2010). "Ex-airport boss recalls Cubana crash". Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- ^ Norman 'Gus' Thomas. "Barbados to vote on move to republic". Caribbean Net News. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007.
- ^ "Barbados General Election Results 2018". caribbeanelections.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- ^ "Leave the monarchy? In Barbados, that's just the first step on a long path to healing". Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- ^ Team, Caribbean Lifestyle Editorial (15 September 2020). "Barbados to become an Independent Republic in 2021". Caribbean Culture and Lifestyle. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- ^ Speare-Cole, Rebecca (16 September 2020). "Barbados to remove Queen as head of state by November 2021". Evening Standard. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
- ^ Madden, Marlon, ed. (17 September 2020). "Wickham predicts Barbados' republic model to mirror Trinidad's". Top Featured Article. Barbados Today. Retrieved 4 June 2021. As Barbados prepares to ditch the Queen as its Head of State and become a republic, a prominent political scientist is predicting that Prime Minister Mia Mottley will follow the Trinidad and Tobago model. What's more, Peter Wickham has shot down any idea of the Barbados Labour Party administration holding a referendum on the matter, saying that to do so would be a "mistake". "There is no need to and I don't think it makes a lot of sense. We had a situation where since 1999 this [political party] indicated its desire to go in the direction of a republic. The Opposition has always supported it ... So, I think there is enough cohesion in that regard to go with it," he said.
- ^ a b "Barbados to remove Queen Elizabeth as head of state". BBC News. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- ^ "Is China behind Barbados' move to ditch the Queen?". Australian Financial Review. 28 September 2020.
- ^  "A source told the paper that CIA intelligence about China’s influence over the tiny Caribbean island has been passed to Britain."
- ^ Ridgwell, Henry, ed. (1 October 2020). "Barbados Decision to Remove Queen Elizabeth as Head of State Blamed on China". Europe. Voice of America. Retrieved 31 March 2021. Barbados signed up to China’s Belt and Road Initiative in 2019. Many analysts say that while China has been investing heavily in the region in competition with Western nations, claims that Beijing has forced Barbados’ decision to become a republic are wide of the mark. “I don’t think China’s the reason Barbados is changing who’s going to be the head of state,” Scott MacDonald, a senior associate at the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies, said in a recent Skype interview with VOA. “China’s role in the Caribbean is large. They have economic statecraft. They come with a large checkbook. But as one Barbadian ambassador said to me, ‘You know, if nothing else fails, (Britain's stance is) [they] just blame the Chinese.’”
- ^ Fisher, Lucy. "China blamed for Barbados ditching Queen" – via www.thetimes.co.uk.
- ^ "Windrush: 11 people wrongly deported from UK have died – Javid". 12 November 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- ^ "Leave the monarchy? In Barbados, that's just the first step on a long path to healing". Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- ^ "Oaths Act | Ministry of Justice - Government of Jamaica". moj.gov.jm.
- ^ "Call for citizens to propose constitutional changes to Republic Committee". Local News. Barbados Today News. 3 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021. Barbadians at home and throughout the Diaspora are being invited to submit their suggestions for the new constitution as the island prepares to assume republican status. Persons are asked to submit their suggestions in written, audio and/or video formats in keeping with the committee’s mandate to engage members of the public in this historic transition effort. Submissions, including audio and video clips under 10 minutes, can be emailed to email@example.com or posted to The Republican Status Transition Advisory Committee, Cabinet Office, Government Headquarters, Bay Street, St. Michael.
- ^ Logan, Gabi. "Geologic History of Barbados Beaches". USA Today. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2011. Barbados lies directly over the intersection of the Caribbean plate and the South American plate in a region known as a subduction zone. Beneath the ocean floor, the South American plate slowly slides below the Caribbean plate.
- ^ "Barbados Sightseeing – Animal Flower Cave". Leigh Designs. Little Bay House. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 December 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011. The Animal flower Cave is the island's lone accessible sea-cave and was discovered from the sea in 1780 by two English explorers. The cave's coral floor is estimated to be 400,000 to 500,000 years old and the "younger" coral section above the floor is about 126,000 years old. The dating was carried out by the German Geographical Institute, and visitors can see a "map" of the dating work in the bar and restaurant. The cave now stands some six feet above the high tide mark even though it was formed at sea level. This is because Barbados is rising about one inch per 1,000 years, which is yet another indication of the cave's age.
- ^ Gloria. "Pico Teneriffe – Barbados Pocket Guide". barbadospocketguide.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- ^ "Average and Record Conditions at Bridgetown, Barbados". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- ^ "Hurricane Tomas lashes Caribbean islands"Archived 5 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News, 30 October 2010.
- ^ Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Techniques in Barbados Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Cep.unep.org. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- ^ Barbados, World Resources Institute
- ^ Perspectives: A continuing problem and persistent threat Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Barbadosadvocate.com. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- ^ a b "PERSPECTIVES: Squatting – a continuing problem" Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Barbadosadvocate.com (24 March 2008). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- ^ "Squatters get thumbs down from MP Forde"Archived 21 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Nationnews.com (30 June 2010). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- ^ "Welcome to Coastal Zone Management Unit – Coastal Zone Management Unit". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- ^ Barbados' CZMU in demand Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Barbadosadvocate.com (4 February 2012). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- ^ Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies Archived 28 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, The University of the West Indies.
- ^ Fishery and Aquaculture Country ProfilesArchived 23 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine, UN-FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
- ^ Prospero, Joseph M. (June 2006). "Saharan Dust Impacts and Climate Change". Oceanography. 19 (2): 60–61. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2006.65.
- ^ The Effects of African Dust on Coral Reefs and Human Health Archived 2 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Coastal.er.usgs.gov (15 April 2014). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- ^ When the Dust Settles (DAAC Study)Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, NASA
- ^ The Impact of African Dust on Childhood Asthma Morbidity in Barbados Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Commprojects.jhsph.edu. Retrieved April 2014.
- ^ Lin, David; Hanscom, Laurel; Murthy, Adeline; Galli, Alessandro; Evans, Mikel; Neill, Evan; Mancini, MariaSerena; Martindill, Jon; Medouar, FatimeZahra; Huang, Shiyu; Wackernagel, Mathis (2018). "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012-2018". Resources. 7 (3): 58. doi:10.3390/resources7030058.
- ^ Caribbean Travel: Swim with the turtles in Barbados Archived 15 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Thestar.com (13 March 2012). Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- ^ Sea Turtles – Dive Operators Association of Barbados Archived 19 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Barbados Blue Inc.
- ^ 2010 Population and Housing Census (PDF) (Report). 1. Barbados Statistical Service. September 2013. p. i. Archived from the original(PDF) on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- ^ Best, Tony (9 April 2005)"Bajan secrets to living long". Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2006. . nationnews.com.
- ^ Byfield, Judith Ann-Marie; Denzer, LaRay; Morrison, Anthea (2010). Gendering the African diaspora: women, culture, and historical change in the Caribbean and Nigerian hinterland. Indiana University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-253-22153-7.
- ^ Archived 11 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 7 September 2006; British Broadcasting Corporation (Caribbean Bureau)
- ^ Amadou Mahtar M'Bow; M. Ali Kettani (2001). Islam and Muslims in the American Continent. Center of Historical, Economical and Social Studies.
- ^ Rhoda Reddock (1996). Ethnic minorities in Caribbean society. I.S.E.R., The University of the West Indies. ISBN 978-976-618-024-9.
- ^ Watson, Karl (17 February 2011) "Slavery and Economy in Barbados" Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, BBC.
- ^ Rodgers, Nini (November 2007). "The Irish in the Caribbean 1641–1837: An Overview". Irish Migration Studies in Latin America. 5 (3): 145–156. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- ^ "Remnants of an indentured people". The Irish Times. 19 December 2009. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2019. Today, behind the facade of a lush green, rural setting, the descendants of those transported still remain – a poor, white population of around 400 known as the Red Legs.
- ^ "Jews in Barbadoes". jewish-history.com. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- ^ "Feature - Roma and Gypsy Slavery". Travellers Times.
- ^ "National Census Report 2000, Barbados"(PDF). CARICOM Secretariat. 2009. p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- ^ "375: Anglican Church Act". Laws of Barbados (PDF). Government of Barbados. 2008.
- ^ "Baha'u'llah". Bci.org. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- ^ Fransman, Laurie (2011). Fransman's British Nationality Law. A&C Black. p. 848. ISBN 978-1-84592-095-1.
- ^ The official Constitution of BarbadosArchived 15 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine (1966) version.
- ^ "Chasing after an elusive union". Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2010.. Jamaica Observer, 20 July 2003.
- ^ Former PM: Caribbean doing/un-doing everything again and again Archived 19 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. NationNews.com. 14 July 2003
- ^ BarbadosBusiness.gov.bb, The Barbados government's Regional and International affiliations
- ^ "European Union – EEAS (European External Action Service) | EU Relations with Barbados". Europa (web portal). 19 June 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
- ^ REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. "Legal Supplement" (PDF). ird.gov.tt. Archived(PDF) from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- ^ "Barbados turns to China for military assistance". Caribbean360.com. 7 August 2006. Archived from the original on 17 September 2013.
- ^ Barbados Archived 10 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, International Monetary Fund.
- ^ World Bank – Country Groups. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
- ^ "20 percent in poverty". Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation. 20 April 2012. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- ^ Morris, Roy (2 January 2006). "Builders paradise". The Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 4 January 2006. Retrieved 29 July 2009. Industry sources are warning, however, that while the boom will bring many jobs and much income, ordinary Barbadians hoping to undertake home construction or improvement will be hard pressed to find materials or labour, given the large number of massive commercial projects with which they will have to compete. ... Construction magnate Sir Charles 'COW' Williams, agreeing that this year will be "without doubt" the biggest ever for the island as far as construction was concerned, revealed that his organisation was in the final stages of the construction of a new US$6 million plant at Lears, St Michael to double its capacity to produce concrete blocks, as well as a new US$2 million plant to supply ready-mixed concrete from its fleet of trucks. "The important thing to keep in mind is that the country will benefit tremendously from a massive injection of foreign exchange from people who want to own homes here," Sir Charles said.
- ^ "Barbados profile – Overview". BBC. 22 December 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- ^ "Latest Socio-Economic Indicators". Barbados Statistical Service. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
- ^ Lashley, Cathy (24 July 2009). "Barbados signs agreement with EU". gisbarbados.gov.bb. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- ^ "Treaty network an advantage in securities trading". Barbados Advocate. 28 July 2009. Archived from the original on 11 February 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
- ^ "Barbados announced a technical default on coupon of Eurobonds with maturity in 2035". cbonds.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- ^ "Barbados reaches debt restructuring deal with creditors". latinfinance.com. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
- ^ "Barbados completes debt restructuring and Lebanon facing growing risks". ihsmarkit.com. 25 October 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
- ^ "Unesco Institute for Statistics: Date Centre". 14 September 2007. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- ^ "The Education System in Barbados". Business Barbados. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- ^ "Crop Over Festival". 2camels.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- ^ Barbados Food Archived 29 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Totally Barbados. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- ^ Barbados National Dish: Coucou & Flying Fish Archived 16 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Epicurian Tourist. 25 December 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ^  Archived 30 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine.www.barbados.org. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- ^ Banks Beer: The Beer Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. BanksBeer.com. Retrieved 2011-3-9.
- ^ 10 Saints beer Archived 16 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine. BanksBeer.com. Retrieved 2011-3-9.
- ^ Kamugisha, Aaron (2015) Rihanna : Barbados world-gurl in global popular culture. University of the West Indies Press. ISBN 9766405026
- ^ "Ape hills polo". Ape hills Club. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- ^ Harris, Alan (26 July 2009). "Barbados Segway Polo team 2009 World Champions". Barbados Advocate. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- ^ Fare Policy: Barbados Transport Board
- ^ "EV buses are here". epaper.barbadostoday.bb. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
- ^ "National Energy Policy for Barbados 2019 - 2030". www.energy.gov.bb. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
- Burns, Sir Alan, History of the British West Indies. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1965.
- Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-19-514073-7
- Frere, Samuel, A Short History of Barbados: From its First Discovery and Settlement, to the End of the Year 1767. London: J. Dodsley, 1768.
- Gragg, Larry Dale, Englishmen transplanted: The English Colonization of Barbados, 1627–1660. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0199253890
- Hamshere, Cyril, The British in the Caribbean. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.
- Newman, Simon P. A New World of Labor: The Development of Slavery in the British Atlantic. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0812245196
- Northrup, David, ed. The Atlantic Slave Trade, Second Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002. ISBN 0-618-11624-9
- O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson, An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0812217322
- Rogozinski, January 1999. A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and Carib to the Present. Revised version, New York, USA. ISBN 0-8160-3811-2
- Scott, Caroline 1999. Insight Guide Barbados. Discovery Channel and Insight Guides; fourth edition, Singapore. ISBN 0-88729-033-7
Last edited on 18 June 2021, at 03:20
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.