Bardo National Museum attack On 18 March 2015, two militants attacked the Bardo National Museum
in the Tunisian
capital city of Tunis
, and took hostages.
Twenty-one people, mostly European tourists, were killed at the scene, and an additional victim died ten days later. Around fifty others were injured.
The two gunmen, Tunisian citizens Yassine Labidi and Saber Khachnaoui, were killed by police.
Police treated the event as a terrorist attack
Since the removal from power of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
in the 2011 Tunisian Revolution
, the country has faced occasional attacks from Islamist militants, mainly in remote areas. Tourism has been important to the nation's economy since its transition to democracy.
The attack began at around 12:30 p.m.
At that time, security guards protecting the museum and the nearby Parliament
building were absent on a coffee break.
The tourists were attacked as they were getting off a bus to enter the Bardo Museum compound. As scores of visitors ran toward the museum to avoid the shooting, the attackers pursued them and took them hostage inside.
The siege lasted three hours,
ending when security forces breached the building and killed two of the attackers. One policeman was fatally shot during the rescue operation.
Tunisian security forces escorted dozens of tourists up nearby steps and away from the danger, as armed agents pointed guns toward an adjacent building. Many tourists ran in panic to safety, including at least one couple carrying two children.
During the attack, members of Parliament were discussing counter-terrorist legislation when they were ordered to evacuate the building due to the sound of gunfire.
They were later forced to lie down on the ground as security forces commenced the rescue operation of hostages.
Memorial with the names of victims at the entrance.
According to analyst Rita Katz
of the SITE Intelligence Group
, holders of Twitter accounts associated with ISIL were overjoyed at the attack, urging Tunisians to "follow their brothers".
The day following the attack, the Islamic State group issued a statement claiming responsibility for the incident and promising further attacks.
Meanwhile, a Twitter account linked to the Islamic State published a photograph of one of the Italian victims; the image, showing Francesco Caldara, has a red cross drawn on it and the words: "Crusader Crushed."
Anti-terrorism protests began in central Tunis after the attack, with crowds reportedly chanting, "Tunisia is free, terrorism out."
On 24 March, nearly a week after the attack, the museum held a ceremonial reopening. Simultaneously, thousands of Tunisians and tourists staged a march in Tunis to show their solidarity with the slain victims.
Deaths by nationality
When the attack ended, nineteen foreign tourists,
including four Italians,
three French nationals,
three Polish nationals,
two Colombians (including one with dual Australian citizenship),
and one British national
were found to have been killed.
A Tunisian police officer, and two perpetrators were also reported dead.
On 28 March, an injured French woman, Huguette Dupeu, died of her wounds at a hospital.
Over 50 other people were injured, many of them foreign tourists. MSC Crociere S.A.
reported that nine of its guests had been killed, and twelve were injured; six visitors, all from MSC Splendida
, including two Spaniards, one Belgian, one British national, one French national, and one Japanese were killed.
The cruise company said that it would not schedule any further visits to the Port of La Goulette
as a replacement.
Yassine Labidi and Saber Khachnaoui, both Tunisian citizens, were identified by Tunisian Prime Minister Habib Essid
as the two slain gunmen a day after the attack.
Prior to the attack, Labidi lived in the Tunis neighborhood of Ibn Khaldoun, while Khachnaoui was from Kasserine
Labidi moved after the Jasmine Revolution
for work, and lived there until his death.
He worked as a deliveryman for a local business prior to the attack.
While Labidi was known to intelligence services, neither of the two men had previously been positively linked to known Tunisian terrorist organisations.
An operation looking for up to three suspected accomplices was launched immediately following the attack.
On the following day, nine people were arrested, four for direct links to the cell which carried out the shooting and five for having indirect links to it.
Their roles in the attack have not yet been clarified.
On 21 March, the number of people arrested reached over twenty, with ten accused of having direct links to the museum attack.
On 26 March, authorities arrested twenty-three members of a terror cell linked to the attack.
According to BBC
security correspondent Frank Gardner, an al-Qaeda
operative claimed the men had spent two months training with militants in Derna, Libya
On 20 March, Tunisian Security Minister Rafik Chelly announced that Labidi and Khachnaoui had received weapons training in Libya
from an unspecified group prior to carrying out the attack.
According to authorities, they managed to slip past the border to Libya undetected in December.
On 22 March, Tunisian President Beji Caid Essebsi
said a third gunman was involved in the attack, and is at large.
On 28 March, Tunisian police killed Lokman Abu Sakhra, an Algerian suspected of planning the attack, along with eight other armed men during a raid in the southern Gafsa
region. They were allegedly major members of the Okba Ibn Nafaa Brigade, a splinter group of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
. Interior Ministry spokesman Mohamed Ali Aroui said, "[T]he nine were among the most dangerous terrorists in Tunisia." Sakhra was said to be the leader of the group. The Tunisian government said the Okba Ibn Nafaa Brigade was responsible for the attack, despite claims of responsibility made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
On 20 May, 22-year-old Moroccan illegal immigrant Abdelmajid Touil was arrested in Italy on allegations that he aided the attackers.
Mosaic memorial at the Bardo Museum to the victims of the attack
Tunisian President Beji Caid Essebsi
announced via Facebook
that he would address the nation later that day.
In his address, he called the attack a "huge disaster" and called for Tunisia to prevent such an attack in the future,
further saying that the country was in a "war against terrorism".
He also pledged for the quick passage of an anti-terrorism law.
Prime Minister Habib Essid
issued a statement on the "cowardly" attack and called for unity,
later chairing an emergency cabinet meeting. Essebsi also praised Akil, a one-and-a-half-year-old German Shepherd
police dog who was killed in the raid, saying, "It's a victim we don't talk about but it's a heavy loss."
On the day following the attack, Essebsi ordered the deployment of Tunisian troops to the country's major cities as a security precaution.
Infinite Wave Memorial, Birmingham, England.
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Last edited on 8 May 2021, at 02:31
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