Base Realignment and Closure
The Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949
after the 1947 reorganization for establishing the National Military Establishment
was passed regarding reductions of US military bases
, forts, posts, and stations. The subsequent 1950s buildup for the Cold War
(e.g., during the Korean War
) resulted in extensive installations such as the widespread number of Permanent System radar stations
and Semi Automatic Ground Environment
(SAGE) control centers
. By 1959, plans for extensive numbers of Cold War installations were canceled (e.g., DoD's June 19, 1959, Continental Air Defense Program
reduced the number of Super Combat Center
underground nuclear bunker to 7) and in 1958, US Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles
(ICBMs) began to replace Strategic Air Command
bombers. From 1960–1964, the Eisenhower
and Kennedy Administrations
closed 574 U.S. military bases around the world, particularly after President John F. Kennedy
was briefed after his inauguration that the missile gap
was not a concern.
On March 28, 1961 President Kennedy announced the closure of 73 military establishments.
"In December 1963, Secretary McNamara announced the closure of twenty-six DOD installations or activities in the CONUS".:134
The DoD realigned "307 military bases" beginning with an announcement in October 1969.
224 closures were announced in 1973.
1974 Project ConciseProject Concise
eliminated most of the Project Nike
missile locations which generally each had 2 sites, a radar station on an elevated landform for guidance and command/control, and a launch area that had launch rails and stored missiles and warheads. A 1976 follow-on program to Concise closed additional installations.
Grace Commission, 1983The Grace Commission
was President Ronald Reagan
's "Private Sector Survey" on cost control that "concluded in 1983 that savings could be made in the military base structure" and "recommended establishing an independent commission to study the issue." "Public Law 100–526 endorsed the review" in October 1988 and authorized the "special commission to recommend base realignments and closures to the Secretary of Defense" and provided relief from NEPA provisions that had hindered the base closure process.:156
1988 Carlucci Commission
Defense Base Realignment and Closure Act of 1990
The Defense Base Realignment and Closure Act of 1990 provided "the basic framework for the transfer and disposal of military installations closed during the base realignment and closure (BRAC) process".
The process was created in 1988 to reduce pork barrel
politics with members of Congress that arise when facilities face activity reductions.
The most recent process began May 13, 2005, when Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld
forwarded his recommendations for realignments and closures to the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. The BRAC is an independent nine-member panel appointed by the President. This panel evaluated the list by taking testimony from interested parties and paying visits to affected bases. The BRAC Commission had the opportunity to add bases to the list, and did so in a July 19, 2005 hearing. The Commission met its deadline of September 2005 to provide the evaluated list to the President, who approved the list with the condition that the list could only be approved or disapproved in its entirety. On November 7, 2005 the approved list was then given to Congress which then had the opportunity to disapprove the entire list within 45 days by enacting a resolution of disapproval. This did not happen and the BRAC Commission's recommendations became final.
Defense Base Realignment and Closure Commissions
In 1990, the Navy considered cutting 34 military installations.
The Pentagon released its proposed list for the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission
on May 13, 2005 (a date given the moniker "BRAC Friday," a pun
on Black Friday
). After an extensive series of public hearings
, analysis of DoD-supplied supporting data, and solicitation of comments from the public, the list of recommendations was revised by the 9-member Defense Base Closure and Realignments Commission in two days of public markups and votes on individual recommendations (the proceedings were broadcast by C-SPAN
and are available for review on the network's website). The Commission submitted its revised list to the President on September 8, 2005. The President approved the list and signalled his approval to Congress on September 15. The House of Representatives took up a joint resolution to disapprove the recommendations on October 26, but the resolution failed to pass. The recommendations were thereby enacted. The Secretary of Defense
must implement the recommendations no later than September 15, 2011.
Major facilities slated for closure included:
- Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, renamed Brooks City-Base after San Antonio assumed control
- Defense Finance and Accounting Service, New York (removed from list 2005)
- Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota (removed from list August 26, 2005)
- Fort Gillem, Georgia
- Fort McPherson, Georgia
- Fort Monmouth, New Jersey
- Fort Monroe, Virginia
- Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine
- Naval Air Station Willow Grove Joint Reserve Base, Pennsylvania
- Naval Station Ingleside, Texas
- Naval Station Pascagoula, Mississippi
- Naval Submarine Base New London, Connecticut (removed from list August 24, 2005)
- Navy Supply Corps School
- Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts (removed from list August 26, 2005)
- Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine (removed from list August 26, 2005)
Major facilities slated for realignment include:
- Army Human Resource Command (HRC), Missouri, moving to the Fort Knox Military Installation in Kentucky
- Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico
- Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska
- Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska
- Fort Belvoir, Virginia
- Fort Meade, Maryland
- Fort Rucker, Alabama, Aviation Technical Test Center moving to the Redstone Arsenal, AL and combining with the Redstone Technical Test Center to form Redstone Test Center
- Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota
- Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia (extent contingent on reopening the former Naval Air Station Cecil Field in Florida)
- Naval Station Great Lakes, Illinois
- Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina (Transferred to U.S. Army as Pope Army Airfield and merged with Fort Bragg)
- Rome Laboratory, New York
- Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.
The 2005 Commission recommended that Congress authorize another BRAC round in 2015, and then every 8 years thereafter.
On May 10, 2012, the House Armed Services Committee
rejected Pentagon calls for base closures outside of 2015 round by a 44 to 18 vote.
Defense Secretary Leon Panetta
had called for two rounds of base closures, while at the same time arguing that the alternative of the sequester would be a "meat-ax" approach to cuts which would "hollow out" military forces.
In May 2014, it was attempted to fund another round of BRAC, although funding was not approved in a vote in May of that year.
In March 2015, the Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for Energy, Installations and Environment addressed the possibility of a future BRAC, indicating that the DOD, Defense Secretary Ash Carter
was requesting authority to conduct another BRAC.
In September 2015, at the tenth anniversary of the end of the most recent BRAC commission report, its former chairman Anthony J. Principi
wrote "now is the time to do what’s right for our men and women in uniform. Spending dollars on infrastructure that does not serve their needs is inexcusable."
Base Closure and Realignment Appropriations
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)
The following is a chronological timeline of authorizations for U.S. Congressional legislation related to US defense installation realignments and military base closures.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 15, 2005. Retrieved May 15, 2005.
- ^ "Explore Congressional Research Service Reports: List View UNT Digital Library". Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- ^ a b Flynn, Aaron M. (February 23, 2005). "Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC): Property Transfer and Disposal" (abstract at University of Texas Digital Library). Congressional Research Service Reports. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- ^ "Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission (BRAC)". Brac.gov. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- ^ "Base Closure and Realignment (BRAC): Background and Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. April 25, 2019. p. 7. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- ^ a b c "Highlands Radar Site Closing" (PDF). The Daily Register. Red Bank, New Jersey. November 20, 1964. Archived from the original(PDF) on April 25, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2011. McNamara Firm on Base Shutdowns … Temporary Team … Highlands Air Force Station … personnel will be inactivated by July, 1966, leaving Army radar unit at base intact
- ^ "The Lewiston Daily Sun - Google News Archive Search". News.google.com. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- ^ "99 - Special Message to the Congress on the Defense Budget. March 28, 1961". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
- ^ a b c d Shaw, Frederick J., ed. (2004). Locating Air Force Base Sites: History's Legacy (Report). AFD-100928-010. Air Force History and Museums Program. The passage in October 1988 of Public Law 100–526 removed certain restrictive provisions of the 1969 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and allowed the first round of domestic base closings in nearly a decade. ...
- ^ Defense Agencies Summary: DoD Project 693, nd, fldr FY 1969 Budget, box 71, ASD(C) files, OSD Hist.
- ^ Drea, Edward J. (1984). McNamara, Clifford,and the Burdens of Vietnam1965-1969(PDF) (Report). Volume VI, Secretaries of Defense Historical Series. Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense. ISBN 978-0-16-088135-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2013. the U.S. Air Force Strategic Air Command, denominated a specified command because, although part of the Air Force, it came under the operational control of the JCS.24 ... Clifford had previously appointed a group, known as Project 693, to determine which programs to sacrifice when it became necessary.65 ... McNamara test, 25 Jan 66, House Subcte No 2, HCAS, Hearing: Department of Defense Decision to Reduce the Number and Types of Manned Bombers in the Strategic Air Command, 6084.
- ^ "Niagara Falls Air Force Units Are Phased Out" (Google news archive). Observer-Reporter. October 28, 1969. Retrieved September 3, 2013.
- ^ "Kentucky New Era". Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- ^ "Lodi News-Sentinel". Archived from the original on May 15, 2016.
- ^ "Base-Closing Plan Survives Assaults by Some on Hill". CQ Press. CQ Almanac 1989, 45th ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. pp. 470–73. Missing or empty |url= (help)
- ^ a b c d "BASE CLOSURES AND REALIGNMENTS BY STATE: 1995, 1993, 1991, AND 1988" (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on May 28, 2019. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- ^ Cassata, Donna (April 25, 1990). "34 military bases may face the ax". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. Spartanburg, S.C. p. A3.
- ^ "Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission - 1993 Report to the President"(PDF). United States Department of Defense. July 1, 1993. Retrieved October 23, 2007.
- ^ 1995 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission Report to the President (Report).
- ^ See Joint Base Background (part 4 of the Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam webpage)[permanent dead link] (on Hickam AFB's official website). Retrieved 2010-06-18. To access other parts of the webpage, go to the bottom of the right scroll bar and click on the down arrow (or the "page-down" double arrow). To go to earlier parts of the webpage, click on the up arrow (or the "page-up" double arrow). See Hickam Air Force Base#Internet webpage for a partial list of the webpage parts that discuss joint basing and BRAC.
- ^ BRAC panel calls closure round premature - News. GovExec.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
- ^ Military Headlines. Military.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
- ^ U.S. House committee rejects more military base closings. NOLA.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
- ^ Pub.L. 113–66 (text) (pdf): National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 (Sec. 2711; page 334; 127 Stat. 1004)
- ^ Jordan, Bryant (May 7, 2014). "House Panel Protects A-10, Pulls BRAC from Budget". Military.com. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- ^ Marshall, Jr., Tyrone. "Senior DoD Official Testifies on Budget, BRAC". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- ^ Anthony J. Principi (September 3, 2015). "Time for a new BRAC". The Hill. Capitol Hill Publishing Corp., a subsidiary of News Communications, Inc. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
Last edited on 27 January 2021, at 22:06
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.