In 2007 Lewis was called "the West's leading interpreter of the Middle East".
Others have criticized Lewis' essentialist and generalizing approach to the Muslim world as well as his tendency to restate hypotheses that were challenged by more recent research. On a political level, Lewis is credited with having revived the image of the cultural inferiority of Islam and of emphasizing the dangers of jihad
His advice was frequently sought by neoconservative
policymakers, including the Bush administration
However, his active support of the Iraq War
and neoconservative ideals have since come under scrutiny.
Family and personal life
In 1936, Lewis graduated from the School of Oriental Studies (now School of Oriental and African Studies
, SOAS) at the University of London
with a BA
in history with special reference to the Near
and Middle East. He earned his PhD three years later, also from SOAS, specializing in the history of Islam
Lewis also studied law, going part of the way toward becoming a solicitor, but returned to study Middle Eastern history. He undertook post-graduate studies at the University of Paris
, where he studied with the orientalist Louis Massignon
and earned the "Diplôme des Études Sémitiques" in 1937.
He returned to SOAS in 1938 as an assistant lecturer in Islamic History.
In 1974, aged 57, Lewis accepted a joint position at Princeton University
and the Institute for Advanced Study
, also located in Princeton
, New Jersey. The terms of his appointment were such that Lewis taught only one semester per year, and being free from administrative responsibilities, he could devote more time to research than previously. Consequently, Lewis's arrival at Princeton marked the beginning of the most prolific period in his research career during which he published numerous books and articles based on previously accumulated materials.
After retiring from Princeton in 1986, Lewis served at Cornell University
Bernard Lewis in 2007
Lewis' influence extends beyond academia to the general public. He began his research career with the study of medieval
Arab, especially Syrian, history.
His first article, dedicated to professional guilds
of medieval Islam, had been widely regarded as the most authoritative work on the subject for about thirty years.
However, after the establishment of the state of Israel
in 1948, scholars of Jewish origin found it more and more difficult to conduct archival and field research in Arab countries, where they were suspected of espionage. Therefore, Lewis switched to the study of the Ottoman Empire
, while continuing to research Arab history through the Ottoman archives
which had only recently been opened to Western researchers. A series of articles that Lewis published over the next several years revolutionized the history of the Middle East by giving a broad picture of Islamic society, including its government, economy, and demographics.
Lewis argued that the Middle East is currently backward and its decline was a largely self-inflicted condition resulting from both culture and religion, as opposed to the post-colonialist view which posits the problems of the region as economic and political maldevelopment mainly due to the 19th-century European colonization.
In his 1982 work Muslim Discovery of Europe,
Lewis argues that Muslim societies could not keep pace with the West and that "Crusader successes were due in no small part to Muslim weakness."
Further, he suggested that as early as the 11th century Islamic societies were decaying, primarily the byproduct of internal problems like "cultural arrogance," which was a barrier to creative borrowing, rather than external pressures like the Crusades
In the wake of Soviet and Arab attempts to delegitimize Israel as a racist country, Lewis wrote a study of anti-Semitism
, Semites and Anti-Semites
In other works he argued Arab rage against Israel was disproportionate to other tragedies or injustices in the Muslim world, such as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
and control of Muslim-majority land in Central Asia, the bloody and destructive fighting during the Hama uprising in Syria
(1982), the Algerian Civil War
(1992–1998), and the Iran–Iraq War
In addition to his scholarly works, Lewis wrote several influential books accessible to the general public: The Arabs in History
(1950), The Middle East and the West
(1964), and The Middle East
In the wake of the 11 September 2001 attacks
, the interest in Lewis's work surged, especially his 1990 essay The Roots of Muslim Rage
. Three of his books were published after 9/11: What Went Wrong?
(written before the attacks), which explored the reasons of the Muslim world's apprehension of (and sometimes outright hostility to) modernization; The Crisis of Islam
; and Islam: The Religion and the People
described him as "certainly the most eminent and respected historian of the Arab world, of the Islamic world, of the Middle East and beyond".
The first two editions of Lewis' The Emergence of Modern Turkey
(1961 and 1968) describe the Armenian Genocide
as "the terrible holocaust of 1915, when a million and a half Armenians perished".
In later editions, this text is altered to "the terrible slaughter of 1915, when, according to estimates, more than a million Armenians perished, as well as an unknown number of Turks
In this passage, Lewis argues that the deaths were the result of a struggle for the same land between two competing nationalist movements.
The change in Lewis' textual description of the Armenian Genocide
and his signing of the petition against the Congressional resolution was controversial among some Armenian historians as well as journalists, who suggested that Lewis was engaging in historical revisionism
to serve his own political and personal interests.
Lewis called the label "genocide" the "Armenian version of this history" in a November 1993 interview with Le Monde
, for which he faced a civil proceeding in a French court.
In a subsequent exchange on the pages of Le Monde
, Lewis wrote that while "terrible atrocities" did occur, "there exists no serious proof of a decision and of a plan of the Ottoman government aiming to exterminate the Armenian nation".
In reference to both these articles, the court stated that Lewis "failed in his duty of objectivity and prudence in expressing himself without nuance on such a sensitive subject".
He was ordered to pay one franc
as damages for his statements on the Armenian Genocide in Ottoman Turkey.
Three other court cases against Bernard Lewis failed in the Paris tribunal, including one filed by the Armenian National Committee of France and two filed by Jacques Trémollet de Villers
Lewis has argued for his denial stance that:
The meaning of genocide is the planned destruction of a religious and ethnic group, as far as it is known to me, there is no evidence for that in the case of the Armenians. [...] There is no evidence of a decision to massacre. On the contrary, there is considerable evidence of attempts to prevent it, which were not very successful. Yes there were tremendous massacres, the numbers are very uncertain but a million may well be likely...
[and] the issue is not whether the massacres happened or not, but rather if these massacres were as a result of a deliberate preconceived decision of the Turkish government... there is no evidence for such a decision.
Lewis has been labelled a "genocide denier" by Stephen Zunes
, Israel Charny
, David B. MacDonald
and the Armenian National Committee of America
Israeli historian Yair Auron
suggested that "Lewis' stature provided a lofty cover for the Turkish national agenda of obfuscating academic research on the Armenian Genocide". Israel Charny
wrote that Lewis' "seemingly scholarly concern ... of Armenians constituting a threat to the Turks as a rebellious force who together with the Russians threatened the Ottoman Empire, and the insistence that only a policy of deportations was executed, barely conceal the fact that the organized deportations constituted systematic mass murder".
Charny compares the "logical structures" employed by Lewis in his denial of the genocide to those employed by Ernst Nolte
in his Holocaust negationism
Views and influence on contemporary politics
In the mid-1960s, Lewis emerged as a commentator on the issues of the modern Middle East and his analysis of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
and the rise of militant Islam
brought him publicity and aroused significant controversy. American historian Joel Beinin
has called him "perhaps the most articulate and learned Zionist advocate in the North American Middle East academic community".
Lewis's policy advice has particular weight thanks to this scholarly authority.
U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney
remarked "in this new century, his wisdom is sought daily by policymakers, diplomats, fellow academics, and the news media".
A harsh critic of the Soviet Union
, Lewis continued the liberal tradition in Islamic historical studies. Although his early Marxist
views had a bearing on his first book The Origins of Ismailism
, Lewis subsequently discarded Marxism. His later works are a reaction against the left-wing current of Third-worldism
which came to be a significant current in Middle Eastern studies
During his career Lewis developed ties with governments around the world: during her time as Prime Minister of Israel, Golda Meir
assigned Lewis' articles as reading to her cabinet members, and during the Presidency of George W. Bush, he advised administration members including Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld
and Bush himself. He was also close to King Hussein of Jordan
and his brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal
. He also had ties to the regime of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
, the last Shah
, the Turkish military dictatorship led by Kenan Evren
, and the Egyptian government of Anwar Sadat
: he acted as a go-between between the Sadat administration and Israel in 1971 when he relayed a message to the Israeli government regarding the possibility of a peace agreement at the request of Sadat's spokesman Tahasin Bashir.
Lewis advocated closer Western ties with Israel and Turkey, which he saw as especially important in light of the extension of the Soviet influence in the Middle East. Modern Turkey holds a special place in Lewis's view of the region due to the country's efforts to become a part of the West.
He was an Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Turkish Studies
, an honor which is given "on the basis of generally recognized scholarly distinction and ... long and devoted service to the field of Turkish Studies."
Lewis views Christendom
and Islam as civilizations that have been in perpetual collision since the advent of Islam in the 7th century. In his essay The Roots of Muslim Rage
(1990), he argued that the struggle between the West and Islam was gathering strength. According to one source, this essay (and Lewis' 1990 Jefferson Lecture on which the article was based) first introduced the term "Islamic fundamentalism
" to North America.
This essay has been credited with coining the phrase "clash of civilizations
", which received prominence in the eponymous book by Samuel Huntington
However, another source indicates that Lewis first used the phrase "clash of civilizations" at a 1957 meeting in Washington where it was recorded in the transcript.
Lewis writes of jihad as a distinct religious obligation, but suggests that it is a pity that people engaging in terrorist activities are not more aware of their own religion:
The fanatical warrior offering his victims the choice of the Koran or the sword is not only untrue, it is impossible. The alleged choice - conversion or death - is also, with rare and atypical exceptions, untrue. Muslim tolerance of unbelievers and misbelievers was far better than anything available in Christendom until the rise of secularism in the 17th century.
Muslim fighters are commanded not to kill women, children, or the aged unless they attack first; not to torture or otherwise ill-treat prisoners; to give fair warnings of the opening of hostilities or their resumption after a truce; and to honor agreements. At no time did the classical jurists offer any approval or legitimacy to what we nowdays call terrorism. Nor indeed is there any evidence of the use of terrorism as it is practiced nowadays.
The emergence of the by now widespread terrorism practice of suicide bombing is a development of the 20th century. It has no antecedents in Islamic history, and no justification in the terms of Islamic theology, law, or tradition.
, has criticized this view and stated: "Methodologically, [Lewis] insists that terrorism by individual Muslims should be considered Islamic terrorism, while terrorism by individual Jews or Christians is never considered Jewish or Christian terrorism."
He also criticised Lewis' understanding of Osama bin Laden
, seeing Lewis' interpretation of bin Laden "as some kind of influential Muslim theologian" along the lines of classical theologians like Al-Ghazali
, rather than "the terrorist fanatic that he is". AbuKhalil has also criticized the place of Islam in Lewis' worldview more generally, arguing that the most prominent feature of his work was its "theologocentrism" (borrowing a term from Maxime Rodinson
) - that Lewis interprets all aspects of behavior among Muslims solely through the lens of Islamic theology
, subsuming the study of Muslim peoples, their languages, the geographical areas where Muslims predominate, Islamic governments, the governments of Arab countries and Sharia
under the label of "Islam".
Debates with Edward Said
Lewis was known for his literary debates with Edward Said
, the Palestinian American literary theorist
whose aim was to deconstruct what he called Orientalist
scholarship. Said, who was a professor at Columbia University
, characterized Lewis' work as a prime example of Orientalism in his 1978 book Orientalism
and in his later book Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World
Said asserted that the field of Orientalism was political intellectualism bent on self-affirmation rather than objective study,
a form of racism, and a tool of imperialist
He further questioned the scientific neutrality of some leading Middle East scholars, including Lewis, on the Arab World
. In an interview with Al-Ahram
weekly, Said suggested that Lewis' knowledge of the Middle East was so biased that it could not be taken seriously and claimed "Bernard Lewis hasn't set foot in the Middle East, in the Arab world, for at least 40 years. He knows something about Turkey, I'm told, but he knows nothing about the Arab world."
Said considered that Lewis treats Islam as a monolithic entity without the nuance of its plurality, internal dynamics, and historical complexities, and accused him of "demagogy and downright ignorance".
In Covering Islam
, Said argued that "Lewis simply cannot deal with the diversity of Muslim, much less human life, because it is closed to him as something foreign, radically different, and other," and he criticised Lewis' "inability to grant that the Islamic peoples are entitled to their own cultural, political, and historical practices, free from Lewis' calculated attempt to show that because they are not Western... they can't be good."
Rejecting the view that Western scholarship was biased against the Middle East, Lewis responded that Orientalism developed as a facet of European humanism
, independently of the past European imperial expansion.
He noted the French and English pursued the study of Islam in the 16th and 17th centuries, yet not in an organized way, but long before they had any control or hope of control in the Middle East; and that much of Orientalist study did nothing to advance the cause of imperialism. In his 1993 book Islam and the West
, Lewis wrote "What imperial purpose was served by deciphering the ancient Egyptian language, for example, and then restoring to the Egyptians knowledge of and pride in their forgotten, ancient past?"
Furthermore, Lewis accused Said of politicizing the scientific study of the Middle East (and Arabic studies in particular); neglecting to critique the scholarly findings of the Orientalists; and giving "free rein" to his biases.
Stance on the Iraq War
In 2002, Lewis wrote an article for The Wall Street Journal
regarding the buildup to the Iraq War
entitled "Time for Toppling", where he stated his opinion that "a regime change may well be dangerous, but sometimes the dangers of inaction are greater than those of action".
In 2007, Jacob Weisberg
described Lewis as "perhaps the most significant intellectual influence behind the invasion of Iraq
". Michael Hirsh
attributed to Lewis the view that regime change in Iraq would provide a jolt that would "modernize the Middle East" and suggested that Lewis' allegedly 'orientalist' theories about "what went wrong" in the Middle East, and other writings, formed the intellectual basis of the push towards war in Iraq. Hirsch reported that Lewis had told him in an interview that he viewed the 11 September attacks
as "the opening salvo of the final battle" between Western and Islamic civilisations: Lewis believed that a forceful response was necessary. In the run up to the Iraq War, he met with Vice President Dick Cheney
several times: Hirsch quoted an unnamed official who was present at a number of these meetings, who summarised Lewis' view of Iraq as "Get on with it. Don't dither". Brent Scowcroft
quoted Lewis as stating that he believed "that one of the things you’ve got to do to Arabs is hit them between the eyes with a big stick. They respect power".
As'ad AbuKhalil has claimed that Lewis assured Cheney that American troops would be welcomed by Iraqis and Arabs, relying on the opinion of his colleague Fouad Ajami
Hirsch also drew parallels between the Bush administration
's plans for post-invasion Iraq and Lewis' views, in particular his admiration for Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
and Westernising reforms
in the new Republic of Turkey
which emerged from the collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Writing in 2008, Lewis did not advocate imposing freedom and democracy on Islamic nations. "There are things you can't impose. Freedom, for example. Or democracy. Democracy is a very strong medicine which has to be administered to the patient in small, gradually increasing doses. Otherwise, you risk killing the patient. In the main, the Muslims have to do it themselves."
, writing for The New Yorker
in an article subtitled "The two Minds of Bernard Lewis", finds Lewis's stance on the war difficult to reconcile with Lewis' past statements cautioning democracy enforcement in the world at large. Buruma ultimately rejects suggestions by his peers that Lewis promotes war with Iraq to safeguard Israel, but instead concludes "perhaps he loves it [the Arab world] too much":
It is a common phenomenon among Western students of the Orient to fall in love with a civilization. Such love often ends in bitter impatience when reality fails to conform to the ideal. The rage, in this instance, is that of the Western scholar. His beloved civilization is sick. And what would be more heartwarming to an old Orientalist than to see the greatest Western democracy cure the benighted Muslim? It is either that or something less charitable: if a final showdown between the great religions is indeed the inevitable result of a millennial clash, then we had better make sure that we win.
, writing on 28 May 2018, in an article subtitled "On Bernard Lewis and 'his extraordinary capacity for getting everything wrong'", asked: "Just imagine: What sort of a person would spend a lifetime studying people he loathes? It is quite a bizarre proposition. But there you have it: the late Bernard Lewis did precisely that." Similarly, Richard Bulliet
described Lewis as "...a person who does not like the people he is purporting to have expertise about...he doesn’t respect them, he considers them to be good and worthy only to the degree they follow a Western path".
According to As'ad AbuKhalil
, "Lewis has poisoned the Middle East academic field more than any other Orientalist and his influence has been both academic and political. But there is a new generation of Middle East experts in the West who now see clearly the political agenda of Bernard Lewis. It was fully exposed in the Bush years."
Alleged nuclear threat from Iran
In 2006, Lewis wrote that Iran
had been working on a nuclear weapon
for fifteen years. In August 2006, in an article about whether the world can rely on the concept of mutual assured destruction
as a deterrent in its dealings with Iran, Lewis wrote in The Wall Street Journal
about the significance of 22 August 2006 in the Islamic calendar
. The Iranian president had indicated he would respond by that date to U.S. demands regarding Iran's development of nuclear power. Lewis wrote that the date corresponded to the 27th day of the month of Rajab of the year 1427, the day Muslims commemorate the night flight of Muhammad
to heaven and back. Lewis wrote that it would be "an appropriate date for the apocalyptic ending of Israel and, if necessary, of the world".
According to Lewis, mutual assured destruction is not an effective deterrent in the case of Iran, because of what Lewis describes as the Iranian leadership's "apocalyptic worldview" and the "suicide or martyrdom complex that plagues parts of the Islamic world today".
Lewis' article received significant press coverage.
However, the day passed without any incident.
- Lewis, Bernard (1967). The Assassins: A Radical Sect in Islam. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
- Lewis, Bernard (1971). Race and color in Islam. New York: Harper & Row.
- Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-16087-0.
- Lewis, Bernard (1988). The Political Language of Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Lewis, Bernard (1992). Race and slavery in the Middle East: an historical enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5.
- Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-80712-6.
- Lewis, Bernard (1999). The Multiple Identities of the Middle East. Schocken Books. ISBN 978-0-805-24172-3.
- Lewis, Bernard (2001). The Muslim Discovery of Europe. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-32165-4.
- Lewis, Bernard (2002). What Went Wrong?. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-06051-6-055.
- Lewis, Bernard (2004). From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting The Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517336-9.
- Lewis, Bernard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2008). Islam: The Religion and the People. Indianapolis: Wharton Press. ISBN 978-0-13-223085-8.
- Lewis, Bernard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2012). Notes on a century: reflections of a Middle East historian. New York: Viking Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-02353-0.
Awards and honors
- ^ a b "Lewis, Bernard 1916- - Dictionary definition of Lewis, Bernard 1916- - Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". www.encyclopedia.com.
- ^ a b c d "Professor Bernard Lewis". The British Academy. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
- ^ "Bernard Lewis, Scholar and Political Advisor, Dead At 101". The Jerusalem Post. Jerusalem. 20 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- ^ Abrahmson, James L. (8 June 2007). "Will the West – and the United States – Go the Distance?". American Diplomacy. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- ^ König, Daniel (2015). "Arabic-Islamic Records". Arabic-Islamic Views of the Latin West: Tracing the Emergence of Medieval Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-873719-3. OCLC 913853067.
- ^ Weisberg, Jacob (14 March 2007). "AEI's weird celebration". Slate. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- ^ Neocons Gather To Fete Iraq War Godfather Bernard Lewis, The Forward
- ^ Bernard Lewis revises Bernard Lewis (says he opposed invasion of Iraq!), Mondoweiss
- ^ How neoconservatives led US to war in Iraq, The National (Abu Dhabi)
- ^ Migdal, Joel (2014). Shifting Sands the United States in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 241. ISBN 9780231536349.
- ^ Ahmad, Muhammad (2014). The road to Iraq : the making of a neoconservative war. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748693054.
- ^ Chaudet, Didier (2016). When Empire Meets Nationalism : Power Politics in the US and Russia. City: Routledge. ISBN 978-1134762538.
- ^ a b c Said, Edward (1997) . Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Random House. pp. xxx–xxxi. ISBN 978-0-679-75890-7.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–20. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2006.
- ^ Edward W. Said and Oleg Grabar, reply by Bernard Lewis (12 August 1982). "Orientalism: An Exchange". New York Review of Books.
- ^ a b Ronald Grigor Suny; Fatma Müge Göçek; Norman M. Naimark, eds. (2011). A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780199781041.
- ^ a b Getler, Michae (21 April 2006). "Documenting and Debating a 'Genocide'". PBS. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- ^ "Condamnation judiciaire de Bernard Lewis". Voltairenet.org (in French). 8 June 2004. Archived from the original on 19 October 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
- ^ Lewis 2004, pp. 1–2. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLewis2004 (help)
- ^ "Bernard Lewis Cleveland E. Dodge Professor of Near Eastern Studies, Emeritus". University of Princeton. Archived from the original on 16 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006.
- ^ "Profile: Professor Bernard Lewis". Telegraph. 15 February 2004. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- ^ Sugarman, Martin (6 October 2008). "Breaking the codes; Jewish personnel at Bletchley Park"(PDF). Bletchley Park. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- ^ Lewis 2004, pp. 3–4. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLewis2004 (help)
- ^ Lewis 2004, pp. 6–7. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLewis2004 (help)
- ^ Karni, Annie (8 November 2007). "Group formed to improve Middle East scholarship". The New York Sun. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- ^ "About ASMEA". ASMEA. 20 May 2018.
- ^ a b "Jefferson Lecture". The National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (1 September 1990). "The roots of Muslim rage". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- ^ a b "The 2007 Irving Kristol Lecture by Bernard Lewis". AEI. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- ^ a b c Humphreys, R. Stephen (May–June 1990). "Bernard Lewis: An Appreciation". Humanities. 11 (3): 17–20. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- ^ Lewis 2004, pp. 156–80. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLewis2004 (help)
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (2001). The Muslim Discovery of Europe. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 22. ISBN 978-0393321654.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (2004). The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. pp. 90–91, 108, 110–11. ISBN 978-0812967852.
- ^ "What Went Wrong". C-SPAN. 30 December 2001. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- ^ Aronson, Emily (22 May 2018). "Bernard Lewis, eminent Middle East historian at Princeton, dies at 101". Princeton University. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
- ^ Karsh, Efraim (2007). Islamic Imperialism: A History. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0300106039. Retrieved 21 February 2015. lewis.
- ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. (2007). Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. p. 131. ISBN 978-0765805591.
- ^ Nathaniel Herzberg (22 April 2005). "L'historien Bernard Lewis condamné pour avoir nié la réalité du génocide arménien". Le Monde.
- ^ "Condamnation judiciaire de Bernard Lewis". Voltaire Network (in French). 8 June 2004. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- ^ "Condamnation judiciaire de Bernard Lewis". Voltaire Network (in French). 8 June 2004. Retrieved 21 February 2015. c’est en occultant les éléments contraires à sa thèse, que le défendeur a pu affirmer qu’il n’y avait pas de "preuve sérieuse" du génocide arménien ; [...] il a ainsi manqué à ses devoirs d’objectivité et de prudence, en s’exprimant sans nuance, sur un sujet aussi sensible (Translation: it is by concealing the elements contrary to his thesis that the defendant could affirm that there was no "serious proof" of the Armenian genocide; [...] he has thus failed in his duty of objectivity and prudence in expressing himself without nuance on such a sensitive subject)
- ^ a b "Les actions engagées par les parties civiles arméniennes contre "le Monde" déclarées irrecevables par le tribunal de Paris". Le Monde (in French). 27 November 1994.
- ^ "Lewis Replies". Princeton Alumni Weekly. 5 June 1996. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- ^ Auron, Yair (2005). The Banality of Denial: Israel and the Armenian Genocide. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. p. 235. ISBN 978-0765808349.
- ^ Melson, Robert (1992). Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0226519906.
- ^ MacDonald, David B. (2008). Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical Representation. London: Routledge. p. 241. ISBN 978-0415430616.
- ^ Finkelstein, Norman G. (2003). The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering. London: Verso. p. 69. ISBN 978-1859844885.
- ^ "Statement of Professor Bernard Lewis, Princeton University, "Distinguishing Armenian Case from Holocaust"" (PDF). Assembly of Turkish American Associations. 14 April 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 July 2006. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- ^ Zunes, Stephen. "US Denial of the Armenian Genocide". Common Dreams. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- ^ The Psychological Satisfaction of Denials of the Holocaust or Other Genocides by Non-Extremists or Bigots, and Even by Known ScholarsArchived 24 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, by Israel Charny, "IDEA" journal, 17 July 2001, Vol.6, no.1
- ^ Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical Representation, By David B. MacDonald, Routledge, 2008, ISBN 0-415-43061-5, p. 121
- ^ "Genocide Denier Bernard Lewis Honored at White House Ceremony - Asbarez.com". asbarez.com. 28 November 2006.
- ^ Auron, Yair (2003). The Banality of Denial: Israel and the Armenian Genocide. Routledge. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-351-30542-6.
- ^ Charny, Israel (17 July 2001). "The Psychological Satisfaction of Denials of the Holocaust or Other Genocides by Non-Extremists or Bigots, and Even by Known Scholars". IDEA. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- ^ Charny, Israel W. (2006). Fighting Suicide Bombing: A Worldwide Campaign for Life. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International. p. 241. ISBN 978-0275993368.
- ^ Beinin, Joel (July 1987). "Review of Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice by Bernard Lewis". MERIP Middle East Report (147): 42–45. doi:10.2307/3011952. JSTOR 3011952.
- ^ "Remarks by Vice President Cheney at the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia Luncheon Honoring Professor Bernard Lewis". The White House. 2 May 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- ^ a b c AbuKhalil, As'ad. "The Legacy and Fallacies of Bernard Lewis". consortiumnews.com. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- ^ "About the Institute of Turkish Studies". Institute of Turkish Studies. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- ^ Haque, Amber (2004). "Islamophobia in North America: Confronting the Menace". In Driel, Barry van (ed.). Confronting Islamophobia in Educational Practice. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-1858563404.
- ^ a b Ajami, Fouad (2 May 2006). "A Sage in Christendom: A Personal Tribute to Bernard Lewis". OpinionJournal. Retrieved 23 May 2006.
- ^ Liebowitz, Ruthie Blum (6 March 2008). "One on One: When Defeat Means Liberation". Jerusalem Post.
- ^ a b c d Lewis, Bernard 1916-2018. Islam : the religion and the people. Churchill, Buntzie Ellis 1939- (Second printing, with corrections on October 2011 ed.). Upper Saddle River. pp. 146, 151, 153. ISBN 978-0-13-443119-2. OCLC 940955691.
- ^ AbuKhalil, 2004, p. 134
- ^ Said, Edward W. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-0394740676.
- ^ Windschuttle, Keith (January 1999). "Edward Said's "Orientalism" Revisited". The New Criterion. 17: 30. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- ^ "Resources of Hope". Al-Ahram Weekly (631). 2 April 2003. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- ^ Said, Edward W. (4 October 2001). "The Clash of Ignorance". The Nation. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (1993). Islam and the West. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0195090611.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (24 June 1982). "The Question of Orientalism" (PDF). New York Review of Books. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (27 September 2002). "Time for Toppling". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- ^ Weisberg, Jacob (14 March 2007). "AEI's Weird Celebration". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- ^ a b c Hirsh, Michael (November 2004). "Bernard Lewis Revisited". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey (31 October 2005). "Breaking Ranks". New Yorker. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- ^ Leibowitz, Ruthie Blum (6 March 2008). "One on One: When Defeat Means Liberation". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- ^ Buruma, Ian (14 June 2004). "Lost in Translation: The Two Minds of Bernard Lewis". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- ^ Bernard Lewis and His Reputation Archived 12 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine by As'ad AbuKhalil, 2012-12-17
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (8 August 2006). "August 22". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 February 2015. What is the significance of Aug. 22? This year, Aug. 22 corresponds, in the Islamic calendar, to the 27th day of the month of Rajab of the year 1427. This, by tradition, is the night when many Muslims commemorate the night flight of Muhammad on the winged horse Buraq, first to "the farthest mosque," usually identified with Jerusalem, and then to heaven and back[Quran 17:1]. This might well be deemed an appropriate date for the apocalyptic ending of Israel and if necessary of the world. It is far from certain that Mr. Ahmadinejad plans any such cataclysmic events precisely for 22 Aug.. But it would be wise to bear the possibility in mind.
- ^ Greene, Thomas C. (21 August 2006). "Nuclear Holocaust Starts Today: WSJ". The Register. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- ^ Eslocker, Asa (21 August 2006). "August 22: Doomsday?". ABC News. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- ^ Krieger, Hilary Leila (22 August 2006). "Apocalypse Now?". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- ^ Greene, Thomas C. (23 August 2006). "Nuclear Apocalypse Milder Than Expected: Back to the Ouija Board". The Register. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- ^ Gawenda, Michael (26 August 2006). "World Survives, But Solution on Iran is No Closer". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- ^ One week…and still no nuclear apocalypse, Aditya Dasgupta, 30 August 2006, Foreign Policy
- ^ Murphy, Brian (19 May 2018). "Bernard Lewis, eminent historian of the Middle East, dies at 101". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- ^ Kramer, Martin (26 July 2018). "Bernard Lewis rests among the greats". JNS. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- ^ "Prize Winners". harveypz.net.technion.ac.il. Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- ^ "Bernard Lewis". amacad.org. American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- ^ "The National Book Critics Circle Award: 1996 Winners & Finalists". bookcritics.org. National Book Critics Circle. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- ^ "Past Winners". Jewish Book Council. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- ^ "Thomas Jefferson Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences". amphilsoc.org. American Philosophical Society. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- ^ "Ataturk Peace Prize to Bernard Lewis".
- ^ "President Bush Awards the 2006 National Humanities Medals". neh.gov. National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- ^ "Scholar-Statesman Award Dinner". washingtoninstitute.org. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
Last edited on 3 May 2021, at 01:27
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