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Biogeographic realm
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A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classified based on their biomes or habitat types.
7 of the 8 biogeographic realms[citation needed]
  Nearctic
  Palearctic
  Afrotropical
  Indomalayan
  Australasian
  Neotropical
  Oceanian
  Antarctic realms not shown
The realms delineate the large areas of Earth's surface within which organisms have been evolving in relative isolation over long periods of time, separated from one another by geographic features, such as oceans, broad deserts, or high mountain ranges, that constitute barriers to migration. As such, biogeographic realm designations are used to indicate general groupings of organisms based on their shared biogeography. Biogeographic realms correspond to the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology.
Biogeographic realms are characterized by the evolutionary history of the organisms they contain. They are distinct from biomes, also known as major habitat types, which are divisions of the Earth's surface based on life form, or the adaptation of animals, fungi, micro-organisms and plants to climatic, soil, and other conditions. Biomes are characterized by similar climax vegetation. Each realm may include a number of different biomes. A tropical moist broadleaf forest in Central America, for example, may be similar to one in New Guinea in its vegetation type and structure, climate, soils, etc., but these forests are inhabited by animals, fungi, micro-organisms and plants with very different evolutionary histories.
The patterns of distribution of living organisms in the world's biogeographic realms were shaped by the process of plate tectonics, which has redistributed the world's land masses over geological history.
Concept history
The "biogeographic realms" of Udvardy[1] were defined based on taxonomic composition. The rank corresponds more or less to the floristic kingdoms and zoogeographic regions.
The usage of the term "ecozone" is more variable. It was used originally in stratigraphy (Vella 1962,[citation not found] Hedberg 1971[citation not found]). In Canadian literature, the term was used by Wiken[2] in macro level land classification, with geographic criteria (see Ecozones of Canada).[2][3] Later, Schültz[4] would use it with ecological and physiognomical criteria, in a way similar to the concept of biome.
In the Global 200/WWF scheme,[5] originally the term "biogeographic realm" in Udvardy sense was used. However, in a scheme of BBC,[6] it was replaced by the term "ecozone".
Terrestrial biogeographic realms
Udvardy biogeographic realms
Main article: List of biogeographic provinces
WWF / Global 200 biogeographic realms
Main article: Global 200
The World Wildlife Fund scheme[6][5][7] is broadly similar to Miklos Udvardy's system,[1] the chief difference being the delineation of the Australasian realm relative to the Antarctic, Oceanic, and Indomalayan realms. In the WWF system, the Australasia realm includes Australia, Tasmania, the islands of Wallacea, New Guinea, the East Melanesian Islands, New Caledonia, and New Zealand. Udvardy's Australian realm includes only Australia and Tasmania; he places Wallacea in the Indomalayan Realm, New Guinea, New Caledonia, and East Melanesia in the Oceanian Realm, and New Zealand in the Antarctic Realm.
Biogeographic
realm
AreaNotes
million square kilometresmillion square miles
Palearctic54.120.9Including the bulk of Eurasia and North Africa.
Nearctic22.98.8Including most of North America.
Afrotropic22.18.5Including Trans-Saharan Africa and Arabia.
Neotropic19.07.3Including South America, Central America, and the Caribbean.
Australasia7.62.9Including Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and the neighbouring islands. The northern boundary of this zone is known as the Wallace Line.
Indomalaya7.52.9Including the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and southern China.
Oceania1.00.39Including Polynesia (except New Zealand), Micronesia, and the Fijian Islands.
Antarctic0.30.12Including Antarctica.
The Palearctic and Nearctic are sometimes grouped into the Holarctic realm.
Morrone biogeographic kingdoms
Following the nomenclatural conventions set out in the International Code of Area Nomenclature, Morrone[8] defined the next biogeographic kingdoms (or realms) and regions:
Freshwater biogeographic realms
Major continental divides, showing drainage into the major oceans and seas of the world – grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the ocean
The applicability of Udvardy scheme[1] to most freshwater taxa is unresolved.[9]
The drainage basins of the principal oceans and seas of the world are marked by continental divides. The grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the ocean.[citation needed]
Marine biogeographic realms
Longhurst biogeographic provinces[10]
See also: Longhurst provinces
According to Briggs[11] and Morrone:[12]
According to the WWF scheme:[13]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Biogeographic realms.
See also
References
  1. ^ a b c Udvardy, Miklos D.F. (1975). "A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world". IUCN Occasional Paper. Morges: International Union for Conservation of Nature and natural resources (IUCN) (18).
  2. ^ a b Wicken, E. B. 1986. Terrestrial ecozones of Canada / Écozones terrestres du Canada. Environment Canada. Ecological Land Classification Series No. 19. Lands Directorate, Ottawa. 26 pp.
  3. ^ Scott, Geoffrey A.J. (1995). Canada's vegetation: a world perspective. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 13.
  4. ^ Schültz, J. Die Ökozonen der Erde, 1st ed., Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1988, 488 pp.; 2nd ed., 1995, 535 pp.; 3rd ed., 2002.
    Translated in English as: Schültz, Jürgen (2005). The Ecozones of the World: The Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere (2nd ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 9783540285274.
  5. ^ a b Olson, David M.; Dinerstein, Eric (June 1998). "The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions". Conservation Biol. 12 (3): 502–515.
  6. ^ a b "Ecozones". BBC Nature. Archived from the original on 10 July 2018.
  7. ^ Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V. N., Underwood, E. C., D'Amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel, W. W., Hedao, P., Kassem, K. R. (2001). Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51(11):933-938.
  8. ^ Morrone, J. J. (2015). Biogeographical regionalisation of the world: a reappraisal. Australian Systematic Botany 28: 81-90, [1].
  9. ^ Abell, R., M. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. d. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez, and P. Petry. (2008). Freshwater ecoregions of the world: A new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58:403-414, [2].
  10. ^ Djavidnia, S.; Mélin, F.; Hoepffner, N. (2010). "Comparison of global ocean colour data records". Ocean Science. 6 (1): 61–76. Bibcode:2010OcSci...6...61D. doi:10.5194/os-6-61-2010.
  11. ^ Briggs, J.C. (1995). Global Biogeography. Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy n. 14. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 9780444825605.
  12. ^ Morrone, J.J. (2009). Evolutionary biogeography, an integrative approach with case studies. New York City: Columbia University Press.
  13. ^ Spalding, Mark D.; Fox, Helen E.; Allen, Gerald R.; Davidson, Nick; et al. (2007). "Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas". BioScience. 57: 573–583. Archived from the original(PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
Last edited on 18 May 2021, at 08:31
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