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Biome
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A biome /
ˈbaɪoʊm
/ is a collection of organisms that have adaptations for the environment in which they exist. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate.[1][2] Biome is a broader term than habitat; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats.
One way of mapping terrestrial biomes around the world
While a biome can cover large areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on or in a human body.[3]
A 'biota' is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales. The biotas of the Earth make up the biosphere.
History of the concept
The term was suggested in 1916 by Clements, originally as a synonym for biotic community of Möbius (1877).[4] Later, it gained its current definition, based on earlier concepts of phytophysiognomy, formation and vegetation (used in opposition to flora), with the inclusion of the animal element and the exclusion of the taxonomic element of species composition.[5][6] In 1935, Tansley added the climatic and soil aspects to the idea, calling it ecosystem.[7][8] The International Biological Program (1964–74) projects popularized the concept of biome.[9]
However, in some contexts, the term biome is used in a different manner. In German literature, particularly in the Walter terminology, the term is used similarly as biotope (a concrete geographical unit), while the biome definition used in this article is used as an international, non-regional, terminology—irrespectively of the continent in which an area is present, it takes the same biome name—and corresponds to his "zonobiome", "orobiome" and "pedobiome" (biomes determined by climate zone, altitude or soil).[10]
In Brazilian literature, the term "biome" is sometimes used as synonym of "biogeographic province", an area based on species composition (the term "floristic province" being used when plant species are considered), or also as synonym of the "morphoclimatic and phytogeographical domain" of Ab'Sáber, a geographic space with subcontinental dimensions, with the predominance of similar geomorphologic and climatic characteristics, and of a certain vegetation form. Both include many biomes in fact.[5][11][12]
Classifications
To divide the world into a few ecological zones is difficult, notably because of the small-scale variations that exist everywhere on earth and because of the gradual changeover from one biome to the other. Their boundaries must therefore be drawn arbitrarily and their characterization made according to the average conditions that predominate in them.[13]
A 1978 study on North American grasslands[14] found a positive logistic correlation between evapotranspiration in mm/yr and above-ground net primary production in g/m2/yr. The general results from the study were that precipitation and water use led to above-ground primary production, while solar irradiation and temperature lead to below-ground primary production (roots), and temperature and water lead to cool and warm season growth habit.[15] These findings help explain the categories used in Holdridge's bioclassification scheme (see below), which were then later simplified by Whittaker. The number of classification schemes and the variety of determinants used in those schemes, however, should be taken as strong indicators that biomes do not fit perfectly into the classification schemes created.
Holdridge (1947, 1964) life zones
Holdridge life zone classification scheme. Although conceived as three-dimensional by its originator, it is usually shown as a two-dimensional array of hexagons in a triangular frame.
Main article: Holdridge life zones
In 1947, the American botanist and climatologist Leslie Holdridge classified climates based on the biological effects of temperature and rainfall on vegetation under the assumption that these two abiotic factors are the largest determinants of the types of vegetation found in a habitat. Holdridge uses the four axes to define 30 so-called "humidity provinces", which are clearly visible in his diagram. While this scheme largely ignores soil and sun exposure, Holdridge acknowledged that these were important.
Allee (1949) biome-types
The principal biome-types by Allee (1949):[16]
Kendeigh (1961) biomes
The principal biomes of the world by Kendeigh (1961):[17]
Whittaker (1962, 1970, 1975) biome-types
The distribution of vegetation types as a function of mean annual temperature and precipitation.
Whittaker classified biomes using two abiotic factors: precipitation and temperature. His scheme can be seen as a simplification of Holdridge's; more readily accessible, but missing Holdridge's greater specificity.
Whittaker based his approach on theoretical assertions and empirical sampling. He had previously compiled a review of biome classifications.[18]
Key definitions for understanding Whittaker's scheme
Whittaker's distinction between biome and formation can be simplified: formation is used when applied to plant communities only, while biome is used when concerned with both plants and animals. Whittaker's convention of biome-type or formation-type is a broader method to categorize similar communities.[19]
Whittaker's parameters for classifying biome-types
Whittaker used what he called "gradient analysis" of ecocline patterns to relate communities to climate on a worldwide scale. Whittaker considered four main ecoclines in the terrestrial realm.[19]
  1. Intertidal levels: The wetness gradient of areas that are exposed to alternating water and dryness with intensities that vary by location from high to low tide
  2. Climatic moisture gradient
  3. Temperature gradient by altitude
  4. Temperature gradient by latitude
Along these gradients, Whittaker noted several trends that allowed him to qualitatively establish biome-types:
Whittaker summed the effects of gradients (3) and (4) to get an overall temperature gradient and combined this with a gradient (2), the moisture gradient, to express the above conclusions in what is known as the Whittaker classification scheme. The scheme graphs average annual precipitation (x-axis) versus average annual temperature (y-axis) to classify biome-types.
Biome-types
  1. Tropical rainforest
  2. Tropical seasonal rainforest
    • deciduous
    • semideciduous
  3. Temperate giant rainforest
  4. Montane rainforest
  5. Temperate deciduous forest
  6. Temperate evergreen forest
    • needleleaf
    • sclerophyll
  7. Subarctic-subalpine needle-leaved forests (taiga)
  8. Elfin woodland
  9. Thorn forests and woodlands
  10. Thorn scrub
  11. Temperate woodland
  12. Temperate shrublands
    • deciduous
    • heath
    • sclerophyll
    • subalpine-needleleaf
    • subalpine-broadleaf
  13. Savanna
  14. Temperate grassland
  15. Alpine grasslands
  16. Tundra
  17. Tropical desert
  18. Warm-temperate desert
  19. Cool temperate desert scrub
  20. Arctic-alpine desert
  21. Bog
  22. Tropical fresh-water swamp forest
  23. Temperate fresh-water swamp forest
  24. Mangrove swamp
  25. Salt marsh
  26. Wetland[20]
Goodall (1974–) ecosystem types
The multiauthored series Ecosystems of the world, edited by David W. Goodall, provides a comprehensive coverage of the major "ecosystem types or biomes" on earth:[21]
  1. Terrestrial Ecosystems
    1. Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems
      1. Wet Coastal Ecosystems
      2. Dry Coastal Ecosystems
      3. Polar and Alpine Tundra
      4. Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen, and Moor
      5. Temperate Deserts and Semi-Deserts
      6. Coniferous Forests
      7. Temperate Deciduous Forests
      8. Natural Grasslands
      9. Heathlands and Related Shrublands
      10. Temperate Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forests
      11. Mediterranean-Type Shrublands
      12. Hot Deserts and Arid Shrublands
      13. Tropical Savannas
      14. Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems
      15. Wetland Forests
      16. Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground
    2. Managed Terrestrial Ecosystems
      1. Managed Grasslands
      2. Field Crop Ecosystems
      3. Tree Crop Ecosystems
      4. Greenhouse Ecosystems
      5. Bioindustrial Ecosystems
  2. Aquatic Ecosystems
    1. Inland Aquatic Ecosystems
      1. River and Stream Ecosystems
      2. Lakes and Reservoirs
    2. Marine Ecosystems
      1. Intertidal and Littoral Ecosystems
      2. Coral Reefs
      3. Estuaries and Enclosed Seas
      4. Ecosystems of the Continental Shelves
      5. Ecosystems of the Deep Ocean
    3. Managed Aquatic Ecosystems
      Managed Aquatic Ecosystems
  3. Underground Ecosystems
    Cave Ecosystems
Walter (1976, 2002) zonobiomes
The eponymously-named Heinrich Walter classification scheme considers the seasonality of temperature and precipitation. The system, also assessing precipitation and temperature, finds nine major biome types, with the important climate traits and vegetation types. The boundaries of each biome correlate to the conditions of moisture and cold stress that are strong determinants of plant form, and therefore the vegetation that defines the region. Extreme conditions, such as flooding in a swamp, can create different kinds of communities within the same biome.[10][22][23]
ZonobiomeZonal soil typeZonal vegetation type
ZB I. Equatorial, always moist, little temperature seasonalityEquatorial brown claysEvergreen tropical rainforest
ZB II. Tropical, summer rainy season and cooler “winter” dry seasonRed clays or red earthsTropical seasonal forest, seasonal dry forest, scrub, or savanna
ZB III. Subtropical, highly seasonal, arid climateSerosemes, sierozemesDesert vegetation with considerable exposed surface
ZB IV. Mediterranean, winter rainy season and summer droughtMediterranean brown earthsSclerophyllous (drought-adapted), frost-sensitive shrublands and woodlands
ZB V. Warm temperate, occasional frost, often with summer rainfall maximumYellow or red forest soils, slightly podsolic soilsTemperate evergreen forest, somewhat frost-sensitive
ZB VI. Nemoral, moderate climate with winter freezingForest brown earths and grey forest soilsFrost-resistant, deciduous, temperate forest
ZB VII. Continental, arid, with warm or hot summers and cold wintersChernozems to serozemsGrasslands and temperate deserts
ZB VIII. Boreal, cold temperate with cool summers and long wintersPodsolsEvergreen, frost-hardy, needle-leaved forest (taiga)
ZB IX. Polar, short, cool summers and long, cold wintersTundra humus soils with solifluction (permafrost soils)Low, evergreen vegetation, without trees, growing over permanently frozen soils
Schultz (1988) ecozones
Schultz (1988, 2005) defined nine ecozones (note that his concept of ecozone is more similar to the concept of biome used in this article than to the concept of ecozone of BBC):[24]
  1. polar/subpolar zone
  2. boreal zone
  3. humid mid-latitudes
  4. dry mid-latitudes
  5. subtropics with winter rain
  6. subtropics with year-round rain
  7. dry tropics and subtropics
  8. tropics with summer rain
  9. tropics with year-round rain
Bailey (1989) ecoregions
Robert G. Bailey nearly developed a biogeographical classification system of ecoregions for the United States in a map published in 1976. He subsequently expanded the system to include the rest of North America in 1981, and the world in 1989. The Bailey system, based on climate, is divided into seven domains (polar, humid temperate, dry, humid, and humid tropical), with further divisions based on other climate characteristics (subarctic, warm temperate, hot temperate, and subtropical; marine and continental; lowland and mountain).[25][26]
Olson & Dinerstein (1998) biomes for WWF / Global 200
Terrestrial biomes of the world according to Olson et al. and used by the WWF and Global 200.
Main article: Global 200
A team of biologists convened by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a scheme that divided the world's land area into biogeographic realms (called "ecozones" in a BBC scheme), and these into ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein, 1998, etc.). Each ecoregion is characterized by a main biome (also called major habitat type).[27][28]
This classification is used to define the Global 200 list of ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation.[27]
For the terrestrial ecoregions, there is a specific EcoID, format XXnnNN (XX is the biogeographic realm, nn is the biome number, NN is the individual number).
Biogeographic realms (terrestrial and freshwater)
The applicability of the realms scheme above - based on Udvardy (1975)—to most freshwater taxa is unresolved.[29]
Biogeographic realms (marine)
Biomes (terrestrial)
  1. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (tropical and subtropical, humid)
  2. Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests (tropical and subtropical, semihumid)
  3. Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests (tropical and subtropical, semihumid)
  4. Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (temperate, humid)
  5. Temperate coniferous forests (temperate, humid to semihumid)
  6. Boreal forests/taiga (subarctic, humid)
  7. Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands (tropical and subtropical, semiarid)
  8. Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands (temperate, semiarid)
  9. Flooded grasslands and savannas (temperate to tropical, fresh or brackish water inundated)
  10. Montane grasslands and shrublands (alpine or montane climate)
  11. Tundra (Arctic)
  12. Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub or sclerophyll forests (temperate warm, semihumid to semiarid with winter rainfall)
  13. Deserts and xeric shrublands (temperate to tropical, arid)
  14. Mangrove (subtropical and tropical, salt water inundated)[28]
Biomes (freshwater)
According to the WWF, the following are classified as freshwater biomes:[31]
Biomes (marine)
Biomes of the coastal and continental shelf areas (neritic zone):
Summary of the scheme
Example:
Biosphere
Biogeographic realm: Palearctic
Ecoregion: Dinaric Mountains mixed forests (PA0418); biome type: temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Ecosystem: Orjen, vegetation belt between 1,100 and 1,450 m, Oromediterranean zone, nemoral zone (temperate zone)
Biotope: Oreoherzogio-Abietetum illyricae Fuk. (Plant list)
Plant: Silver fir (Abies alba)
Other biomes
Marine biomes
Further information: Marine habitats
Pruvot (1896) zones or "systems":[33]
Longhurst (1998) biomes:[34]
Other marine habitat types (not covered yet by the Global 200/WWF scheme):[citation needed]
Anthropogenic biomes
Further information: Anthropogenic biome
Humans have altered global patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. As a result, vegetation forms predicted by conventional biome systems can no longer be observed across much of Earth's land surface as they have been replaced by crop and rangelands or cities. Anthropogenic biomes provide an alternative view of the terrestrial biosphere based on global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems, including agriculture, human settlements, urbanization, forestry and other uses of land. Anthropogenic biomes offer a way to recognize the irreversible coupling of human and ecological systems at global scales and manage Earth's biosphere and anthropogenic biomes.
Major anthropogenic biomes:
Microbial biomes
Further information: Habitat § Microhabitats
Endolithic biomes
The endolithic biome, consisting entirely of microscopic life in rock pores and cracks, kilometers beneath the surface, has only recently been discovered, and does not fit well into most classification schemes.[36]
See also
References
  1. ^ "The world's biomes". www.ucmp.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  2. ^ Cain, Michael; Bowman, William; Hacker, Sally (2014). Ecology (Third ed.). Massachusetts: Sinauer. p. 51. ISBN 9780878939084.
  3. ^ "Finally, A Map Of All The Microbes On Your Body". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 2018-04-16. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  4. ^ Clements, F. E. 1917. The development and structure of biotic communities. J. Ecology 5:120–121. Abstract of a talk in 1916, [1] Archived 2016-10-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ a b Coutinho, L. M. (2006). O conceito de bioma. Acta Bot. Bras. 20(1): 13–23, [2] Archived 2016-10-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Martins, F. R. & Batalha, M. A. (2011). Formas de vida, espectro biológico de Raunkiaer e fisionomia da vegetação. In: Felfili, J. M., Eisenlohr, P. V.; Fiuza de Melo, M. M. R.; Andrade, L. A.; Meira Neto, J. A. A. (Org.). Fitossociologia no Brasil: métodos e estudos de caso. Vol. 1. Viçosa: Editora UFV. pp. 44–85. [3]Archived 2016-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. Earlier version, 2003, [4] Archived 2016-08-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Cox, C. B., Moore, P.D. & Ladle, R. J. 2016. Biogeography: an ecological and evolutionary approach. 9th edition. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, p. 20, [5] Archived 2016-11-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Tansley, A.G. (1935). The use and abuse of vegetational terms and concepts. Ecology 16 (3): 284–307, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-09-24..
  9. ^ Box, E.O. & Fujiwara, K. (2005). Vegetation types and their broad-scale distribution. In: van der Maarel, E. (ed.). Vegetation ecology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. pp. 106–128, [6]Archived 2016-08-28 at the Wayback Machine.
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  11. ^ Batalha, M.A. (2011). The Brazilian cerrado is not a biome. Biota Neotrop. 11:21–24, [8]Archived 2016-10-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Fiaschi, P.; Pirani, J.R. 2009. Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, v. 47, pp. 477–496. Disponível em: <​https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249500929_Review_of_plant_biogeographic_studies_in_Brazil Archived 2017-08-31 at the Wayback Machine>.
  13. ^ Schultz, Jürgen (1995). The ecozones of the world. pp. 2–3. ISBN 3540582932.
  14. ^ Sims, Phillip L.; Singh, J.S. (July 1978). "The Structure and Function of Ten Western North American Grasslands: III. Net Primary Production, Turnover and Efficiencies of Energy Capture and Water Use". Journal of Ecology. British Ecological Society. 66 (2): 573–597. doi:10.2307/2259152. JSTOR 2259152.
  15. ^ Pomeroy, Lawrence R. and James J. Alberts, editors. Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.
  16. ^ Allee, W.C. (1949). Principles of animal ecology. Philadelphia, Saunders Co., [9] Archived 2017-10-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Kendeigh, S.C. (1961). Animal ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall
  18. ^ Whittaker, Robert H., Botanical Review, Classification of Natural Communities, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Jan–Mar 1962), pp. 1–239.
  19. ^ a b Whittaker, Robert H. Communities and Ecosystems. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, Inc., 1975.
  20. ^ Whittaker, R. H. (1970). Communities and Ecosystems. Toronto, pp. 51–64, [10].
  21. ^ Goodall, D. W. (editor-in-chief). Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 36 vol., 1974–, [11] Archived 2016-09-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Walter, H. 1976. Die ökologischen Systeme der Kontinente (Biogeosphäre). Prinzipien ihrer Gliederung mit Beispielen. Stuttgart.
  23. ^ Walter, H. & Breckle, S-W. (1991). Ökologie der Erde, Band 1, Grundlagen. Stuttgart.
  24. ^ Schultz, J. Die Ökozonen der Erde, 1st ed., Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1988, 488 pp.; 2nd ed., 1995, 535 pp.; 3rd ed., 2002; 4th ed., 2008; 5th ed., 2016. Transl.: The Ecozones of the World: The Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995; 2nd ed., 2005, [12].
  25. ^​http://www.fs.fed.us/land/ecosysmgmt/index.html Archived 2009-01-01 at the Wayback Machine Bailey System, US Forest Service
  26. ^ Bailey, R. G. 1989. Explanatory supplement to ecoregions map of the continents. Environmental Conservation 16: 307–309. [With map of land-masses of the world, "Ecoregions of the Continents – Scale 1 : 30,000,000", published as a supplement.]
  27. ^ a b Olson, D. M. & E. Dinerstein (1998). The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biol. 12:502–515, [13] Archived 2016-10-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ a b c Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V. N., Underwood, E. C., D'Amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel, W. W., Hedao, P., Kassem, K. R. (2001). Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51(11):933–938, [14] Archived 2012-09-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Abell, R., M. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. d. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez, and P. Petry. (2008). Freshwater ecoregions of the world: A new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58:403–414, [15] Archived 2016-10-06 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ Spalding, M. D. et al. (2007). Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573–583, [16]Archived 2016-10-06 at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: Major Habitat Types" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-05-13.. Accessed May 12, 2008.
  32. ^ WWF: Marine Ecoregions of the WorldArchived 2009-02-07 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Pruvot, G. Conditions générales de la vie dans les mers et principes de distribution des organismes marins: Année Biologique, vol. 2, pp. 559—587, 1896, [17] Archived 2016-10-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Longhurst, A. 1998. Ecological Geography of the Sea. San Diego: Academic Press, [18].
  35. ^ Zimmer, Carl (March 19, 2015). "The Next Frontier: The Great Indoors". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  36. ^ "What is the Endolithic Biome? (with picture)". wiseGEEK. Archived from the original on 2017-03-07. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
External links
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Look up Biome in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Biomes and ecosystems.
Last edited on 16 June 2021, at 20:34
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