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Black Europeans of African ancestry
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Black Europeans of African ancestry, or Afro-Europeans, refers to people in Europe who trace full or partial ancestry to Sub Saharan Africa.
Black Europeans
Total population
~9,600,000 (2019 est.)
Religion
Christianity, Islam[1]
Related ethnic groups
African diaspora
Summer Carnival in Rotterdam
European Union
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In the European Union as of 2019, there is a record of approximately 9.6 million people of Sub Saharan African or Afro-Caribbean descent, comprising around 2% of the total population, with over half located in France. The countries with the largest African population in the EU are:
CountryPopulationComments / source
France5,464,000 (2020)[2]Sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants; estimate based on total SSA+Caribbean born (1.718 million) and their descendants using a 1.9x multiplier on the former and by adding this to those born in the Primarily Black DOM-TOMs (Reunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyane, Mayotte and Saint Martin - 2.206 million). A 1.9x multiplier is used as Sub-Saharan Africans have a longer migration history in France than in Sweden or Germany, where detailed demographic stats show a ratio of 1.6 of total SSA descent population to "SSA and Caribbean born" population. This is likely a slight underestimate (error: ± 300,000) - there are likely slightly more SSA descent French since Sub Saharan immigration into France started much earlier than elsewhere in Europe except the United Kingdom; using the ratios from the United Kingdom (census 2011 vs foreign born 2011), for instance, there would be more than 6 million SSA descent in France including the DOM TOMs.
Italy867,000 (2020)[3]Sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants, Estimating descendants who may have Italy as country of birth. There are approximately 584,000 blacks born outside Italy; of which 493k are Sub-Saharan African born and 88k Caribbean born in Italy; assuming the ratio of Sub-Saharan descent to Sub-Saharan born in Italy is similar to that of Germany and Sweden, we estimate 867,000 Black People in Italy (this includes illegal migrants). Note, Sub-Saharan African does not include Moroccans, Egyptians, Libyans or Tunisians, as these populations are respectively Arab or Berber and not Black. There are over 1.5 million North Africans, inclusive of descendants, in Italy. This is likely a slight overestimate - but with high precision (error ±60,000).
Spain700,000 (2020)[4]Approximated using statistics on foreign-born persons to estimate full and partial descendants based on birth statistics. There are 286,000 born in Sub Saharan Africa and an additional 184,000 born in S.S African Majority Latin America and Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Haiti etc. - we try to account for the countries where Blacks are small minorities like Argentina by fully counting Caribbean born population as black). Assuming the ratio of Sub-Saharan descent to Sub-Saharan born in Spain is similar to that of Germany and Sweden, we estimate 700,000 Black People in Spain. Most are from former Spanish colonies in Latin America and Equatorial Guinea, also includes many contract workers from Africa. This statistic does not include Moroccans, who alone comprise a community over 800,000 in Spain as they are North-Africans and not Black. This is a precise estimate (error: ± 5,000).
Germany1.000.000 (2020)[5]More than one million people of African descent live in Germany. They participate in shaping this country - as parents, journalists, cleaners, pastors, Afroshop owners, pensioners, sports stars, presenters, musicians, carers, activists, researchers and much more. This is a precise census number.
Netherlands490,000 (2019)[6]Sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants, alongside any by racial or mixed race of African heritage account for roughly 490,000 people. Most have roots from former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean. A portion of Surinamese descended are counted in this as many have significant Sub-Saharan African ancestry. This is a precise census number.
Portugal450,000 (2019)[7]Approximated using statistics on foreign born persons to estimate full and partial descendants based on birth statistics. Most have roots from former Portuguese colonies in Africa. There are over 200,000 Sub Saharan born immigrants in Portugal, majority from the ex-colonies in Africa. This is an estimate, likely a slight overestimate (error: ± 30,000). [8]
Belgium410,000 (2019)[9]Estimate making use of current sub-Saharan born population (240,069) and approximate progeny born and their descendants based on historical migration and birth statistics. Most have roots in the former Belgian colonies of the Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi as well as other French-speaking African countries. This is an estimate, likely a slight overestimate (error: ± 25,000).
Sweden316,490
(2020)[10]
Sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants, alongside any by racial or mixed race of African heritage are counted. Consists mostly of recent immigrants, refugees, and asylum seekers. Most of them are from Somalia, Eritrea and countries around. Some French and British nationals of African descent can be found in Malmö and Stockholm, as well as many African-Americans in the country playing diverse sports like Basketball that stand in the country for all life. This is a precise census number.
Austria148,000 (2020)[11]Estimate making use of current Sub-Saharan born population (68,843) , Caribbean born (21,730) for total foreign born black population (90,573) and approximate progeny born and their descendants based on historical migration and birth statistics. A multiple of 1.4x is used as migration has shorter time background. See here for access to country of birth data. This is a precise estimate .
Republic of Ireland64,639 (2016)[12]Sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants, alongside any by racial or mixed race of African heritage are counted. 2016 Census is used. This is a precise census number.
Denmark52,795 (2019)[13]Sub-Saharan Africans and their descendants, alongside any by racial or mixed race of African heritage are counted. Irregular migrants are counted in this due to the use of the Schengen Information System markers - as overstays are counted as "present" in one given country - and thus the European estimate evens out). This is a precise census number.
Finland46,866 (2019)[14]I.e., according to Statistics Finland, people in Finland:
 • whose both parents are Sub-Saharan African-born (SSA; i.e., all other African countries but Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia),
 • or whose only known parent was born in SSA,
 • or who were born in SSA and whose parents' countries of birth are unknown.[15]
Thus, for example, people with one Finnish parent and one SSA parent or people with more distant SSA ancestry are not included in this country-based non-ethnic figure. Because the figure is country-based, it may include some Sub-Saharan white Africans.
Also, SSA-born adoptees' backgrounds are determined by their adoptive parents, not by their biological parents.

They are mainly from Somalia, Nigeria, DR Congo, Ethiopia, and Ghana. This is a census number.
Luxembourg30,000 (2019) [11]Estimate making use of current Sub-Saharan born population (18,253) and approximate progeny born and their descendants based on historical migration and birth statistics.
The remaining 14 states of the European Union have fewer than 100,000 individuals of Sub-Saharan African descent all together.[16] As countries such as Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Romania and Greece have received little to no immigration from Sub Saharan Africa or interaction that would have caused the formation of black or mixed race communities. Black populations, inclusive of descendants, mixed race people, and temporary students, number fewer than 10,000 in each of these states.[16]
The topic and trend of multiracialism resurfaced in Uganda as multiracial Ugandans were officially being recognized as true Ugandans (Multiracial Ugandans in Uganda).
The rest of Europe
The United Kingdom has approximately 2.5 million black people, inclusive of mixed race, according to the 2011 Census. Black people from the EU who have settled in the UK are also included such as the Black Anglo-Deutsch. Switzerland and Norway have 114,000[16] and 115,000 people of Sub-Saharan African descent, respectively; primarily composed of refugees and their descendants, but this is only the numbers for first generation migrants and second generation migrants with two parents from a different country. There are no official numbers in Norway regarding Afro-Norwegians, as Norway does not have census regarding race or ethnicity. However, Norway collects data on migrants up to the second generation, which can be used to accurately estimate the effective Black population. [17]
The East Slavic and West Balkan states along with Turkey have negligible populations of Black people, numbering fewer than 40,000 all together; primarily composed of foreign students from Africa mostly in Universities in Turkey and Russia.[18]
All together, from these estimates and statistics there are roughly 9.6 million Black people in Europe, with over two-thirds from the United Kingdom or France.
If North Africans, who are of Berber or Arab ancestry, were to be included, this estimate would double to nearly 22 million.
More than 1,000,000 sub-Saharan Africans had settled in Europe between 2010 and 2017.[19]
Notable Afro-Europeans
See also
References
  1. ^ Small, Stephen (15 June 2018). "The African Diaspora in Europe Today". AAIHS. Retrieved 22 September 2020. For example, in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Italy, the majority of Black people arrived only since the 1990s, they did not speak the national language, they arrived as refugees, and are primarily Muslims. In the UK, France, Netherlands, as well as in Belgium and Portugal, large numbers of Black people arrived in the 1950s–1970s, speaking the national language, as citizens and mainly Christians.
  2. ^ "French Institute of Demographic Studies".
  3. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". demo.istat.it. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  4. ^ "Población (españoles/extranjeros) por País de Nacimiento, sexo y año". INE (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  5. ^ "Bevölkerung in Privathaushalten nach Migrationshintergrund im weiteren Sinn nach Geburtsstaat in Staatengruppen".
  6. ^ "CBS Statline". opendata.cbs.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  7. ^ "Statistics Portugal - Web Portal". www.ine.pt. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-20. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  9. ^ "Bevolking naar woonplaats, nationaliteit, burgerlijke staat, leeftijd en geslacht | Statbel". statbel.fgov.be. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  10. ^ "PxWeb - välj tabell". www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se​. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  11. ^ a b "Eurostat".
  12. ^ "Population by Race and Ethnicity Ireland"(PDF).
  13. ^ "StatBank Denmark". www.statbank.dk. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  14. ^ "11rs -- Syntyperä ja taustamaa kielen, iän (1-v.) ja sukupuolen mukaan, 1990-2019" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  15. ^ "Käsitteet ja määritelmät" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 30 July 2020. Syntyperä ja taustamaa ... Suomalaistaustaisia ovat myös kaikki ne henkilöt, joilla vähintään toinen vanhemmista on syntynyt Suomessa. ... Ulkomaalaistaustaisia ovat ne henkilöt, joiden molemmat vanhemmat tai ainoa tiedossa oleva vanhempi on syntynyt ulkomailla. ... Jos kummankaan vanhemman syntymävaltiosta ei ole tietoa, on taustamaa ulkomailla syntyneiden henkilöiden osalta henkilön oma syntymävaltio. ... Ulkomailta adoptoitujen lasten osalta ottovanhemmat rinnastetaan biologisiksi vanhemmiksi.
  16. ^ a b c "Migration and migrant population statistics".
  17. ^ "2020-03-09". ssb.no. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  18. ^ "Top 20 countries for international students". the Guardian. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
  19. ^ "At Least a Million Sub-Saharan Africans Moved to Europe Since 2010". Pew Research Center. 22 March 2018. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
Sources
Claudy Siar délégué interministériel à l'égalité des chances, Baptême médiatique difficile pour le nouveau délégué interministériel, François-Xavier Guillerm(agence de presse GHM), 1er avril 2011. » [archive], sur Blog France-Antille de François-Xavier Guillerm [archive]
Last edited on 20 July 2021, at 07:52
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