Founded initially by Cuba and Venezuela in 2004, it is associated with socialist
and social democratic
governments wishing to consolidate regional economic integration based on a vision of social welfare, bartering
and mutual economic aid. The ten member countries are Antigua and Barbuda
, Saint Kitts and Nevis
, Saint Lucia
, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
was admitted to ALBA as a guest country at a February 2012 summit. ALBA nations may conduct trade using a virtual regional currency known as the SUCRE
. Venezuela and Ecuador made the first bilateral trade deal using the Sucre, instead of the US dollar, on 6 July 2010. Ecuador
withdrew from the group in August 2018.
The name initially contained "Alternative" instead of "Alliance", but was changed on 24 June 2009.
This Cuba–Venezuela Agreement,
signed on 14 December 2004, by Presidents Chávez and Fidel Castro
, was aimed at the exchange of medical and educational resources and petroleum
between the two nations. Venezuela began to deliver about 96,000 barrels of oil per day from its state-owned oil company, PDVSA
, to Cuba at very favorable prices. In exchange, Cuba sent 20,000 state-employed medical staff and thousands of teachers to Venezuela's poorest states. The agreement also made it possible for Venezuelans to travel to Cuba for specialized medical care, free of charge.[self-published source?]
When it was launched in 2004, ALBA had only two member states, Venezuela and Cuba
Subsequently, a number of other Latin American and Caribbean nations entered into this 'Peoples' Trade Agreement' (Spanish: Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos
, or TCP), which aims to implement the principles of ALBA. Bolivia
under Evo Morales
joined in 2006, Nicaragua
under Daniel Ortega
in 2007, and Ecuador
under Rafael Correa
in 2009. Honduras
, under Manuel Zelaya
, joined in 2008, but withdrew in 2010 after the 2009 Honduran coup d'état
The Caribbean nations Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Saint Lucia also joined.
, at the invitation of Chávez,
, at the invitation of Ortega,
were invited to join the ALBA countries. Chávez also invited the countries of Central America to join ALBA,
and invited Argentina
to use SUCRE
, the currency of this organization. Vietnam
has been invited to join as an observer.
In the eleventh Summit of ALBA in February 2012, Suriname, St. Lucia and Haiti requested admission to the organization. Haiti was granted the special status of permanent member and the other two countries were named special members, while awaiting their full incorporation.
Chávez was honored posthumously by the nine member countries of the group and special guests Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil, Suriname, Guyana and Haiti at the group's 12th Presidential Summit in Guayaquil, Ecuador.
In October 2009, ALBA leaders agreed at a summit in Bolivia to create a common regional currency. "The document is approved," said Bolivian President Evo Morales, the summit host. President Hugo Chávez (Venezuela) announced "The sucre [is] an autonomous and sovereign monetary system that will be agreed upon today so that it can be implemented in 2010."
As of 2015, the virtual currency is being used to compensate trade between Bolivia, Cuba, Nicaragua, and especially Ecuador and Venezuela.
Summits of heads of state and government
In addition, Suriname
is a "special guest member" that intends to become a full member.
Other ALBA initiatives
XIV ALBA-TCP summit, 2017
Based on the earlier San José Accords
(1980) and Caracas Energy Accords
(2000) between Venezuela
and a number of Caribbean states, Petrocaribe
was founded in 2005 to facilitate oil trade under a concessionary financial agreement. The initiative has provided the Caribbean member states with important hydrocarbon resources, which many do not possess on their territories, in exchange for services and goods. In the case of Cuba
, a nation largely deprived of oil since the fall of the Soviet Union
in 1991, Petrocaribe has provided oil in exchange for medical doctors.
Launched in 2005, TeleSUR
is a media conglomerate that provides news and current affairs broadcasts throughout the ALBA bloc. The program is based on an internet based television channel and is a cooperative effort between the governments of Venezuela
PETROSUR is an inter-governmental energy alliance between Venezuelan PDVSA
, Argentinean YPF
, and Brazilian Petrobras
nationalized oil companies. The goal of this initiative is to provide funding for social welfare programs within these nations.
In August 2013, BBC News
stated that "Alba consists of one oil-rich nation and various minnows wishing to benefit from its largesse" and that "there is little chance of the rhetoric becoming reality any time soon".
As the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela
began, President Nicolás Maduro
called on other ALBA members to begin contributing, though the smaller members distanced themselves from the proposal since they only sought the benefits from Venezuela.
During the 2017 Venezuelan protests
, Williams Dávila, President of the MERCOSUR
Committee of International Affairs, Interregional and Strategic Planning, criticized ALBA, stating that "populism always attacks the OAS
because it is composed of sovereign states, but the states that are part of ALBA act as the vassal countries of Cuba."
In July 2018, President Lenín Moreno
of Ecuador distanced himself from ALBA, stating that the organization "has not worked for a while."
In August 2018, Ecuador officially withdrew from ALBA.
- ^ "Sacha Llorenti es elegido por unanimidad como el nuevo secretario general del ALBA-TCP". ABI (in Spanish). 14 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ The total area of ALBA reaches 5,057,735 km² if the maritime areas is included .
- ^ "Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - international organization". Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- ^ a b c "Declaration of the ALBA-TCP XIII Summit and commemoration of its tenth anniversary, December 14, 2014 - ALBA TCP". Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ venezuelanalysis, 7 July 2010, Venezuela Pays for First ALBA Trade with Ecuador in New Regional Currency
- ^ "Ecuador leaves Venezuelan-run regional alliance". AP NEWS. 2018-08-24. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
- ^ "ALBA pasa a ser Alianza Bolivariana de los Pueblos de América" (in Spanish). Venezolana de Televisión. June 3, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-30.[permanent dead link]
- ^ Arana, Marie. "Opinion - Bolívar, Latin America's Go-To Hero". Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-11-04. Retrieved 2005-12-02. initial Cuba-Venezuela TCP
- ^ https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/CubaVenezuela-Alliance-Piccone-Trinkunas.pdf
- ^ a b c d Inc, IBP (20 March 2009). Latin America Energy Policy and Regulations Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Programs. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781438728360. Retrieved 24 August 2018 – via Google Books.[self-published source]
- ^ Monthly Review, 2 July 2008, ALBA: Creating a Regional Alternative to Neo-liberalism?
- ^ https://repeatingislands.com/2009/06/26/two-more-caribbean-nations-join-alba/
- ^ "Cuba Revolución: Chávez invita a Jamaica a sumarse al ALBA". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ Diario, El Nuevo. "El Nuevo Diario". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ (ABN), Agencia Bolivariana de Noticias. "Chávez invitó a toda Centroamérica a unirse al ALBA". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ "Chávez invita a Argentina a sumarse a la moneda virtual sucre - Radio La Primerísima". Archived from the original on 2016-05-27. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ "Venezuela invita a Vietnam a sumarse al ALBA como observador". Archived from the original on July 20, 2014.
- ^ "Twelfth ALBA Presidential Summit Takes Place in Ecuador". americasquarterly.org. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- ^ "Ecuador leaves Venezuelan-run regional alliance". AP NEWS. Associated Press. 2018-08-24. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
- ^ "Bolivia rompe relaciones con Venezuela y se retira de la Alianza Bolivariana ALBA | DW | 15.11.2019". Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). 15 November 2019. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
- ^ "Bolivia reanuda su participación en Unasur, Celac y Alba". France 24. 2020-11-20. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
- ^ https://peoplesdispatch.org/2020/12/14/alba-tcp-member-countries-celebrate-16-years-of-regional-integration/
- ^ "Bolivia summit adopts new currency". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ "Honduras se retira de Alba". Honduras se retira de Alba.
- ^ Inicia hoy XVI Cumbre del ALBA-TCP en La Habana. In: albatcp.cubaminrex.cu 12/14/2018.
- ^ "17th Summit of ALBA-TCP in Cuba focuses on regional situation". Prensa Latina. 14 December 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
- ^ "ALBA-TCP: primer frente de integración, afirma declaración de cumbre". Prensa Latina (in Spanish). 14 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
- ^ "ALBA-TCP celebra su 16 aniversario vía videoconferencia con presidentes de países miembros". ABI (in Spanish). 13 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- ^ "ALBA-TCP ratifica compromiso con la integración regional". Prensa Latina (in Spanish). 14 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ "Granada - ALBA TCP". Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ "Nicaragua celebra 14 años de solidaridad y respeto como parte del ALBA-TCP". La Voz del Sandinismo (in Spanish). 11 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
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- ^ El Universal, 6 February 2012, ALBA summit ends with entry of guest countries
- ^ Cederlöf, Gustav; Kingsbury, Donald V. (2019). "On PetroCaribe: Petropolitics, Energopower, and Post-Neoliberal Development in the Caribbean Energy Region". Political Geography. 72: 124–133. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.04.006.
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- ^ "Dávila: Víctimas de uso armas prohibidas en manifestaciones están bajo protección del derecho internacional". La Patilla (in Spanish). 14 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- ^ "Lenin Moreno ordenó a la UNASUR desalojar edificio en Ecuador". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-07-07.
- ^ "La política internacional de Añez: anunció la salida de Bolivia del Alba, de la Unasur y rompió relaciones con Venezuela". Latinomerica Piensa (in Spanish). 15 November 2019.
Last edited on 12 April 2021, at 18:49
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