ALBA - Wikipedia
ALBA
  (Redirected from Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas)
This article is about the intergovernmental organization in Latin America and the Caribbean. For the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, see Alba. For the Gaelic television channel from the BBC, see BBC Alba. For other uses, see Alba (disambiguation).
ALBA or ALBA–TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Spanish: Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America – Peoples' Trade Treaty (Spanish: Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América – Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The name "Bolivarian" refers to the ideology of Simón Bolívar, the 19th-century South American independence leader born in Caracas who wanted Hispanic America to unite as a single "Great Nation".[3][failed verification][dubious discuss]
Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America
Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América  (Spanish)
Coat of arms
HeadquartersCaracas
Official languages
  • Spanish
  • English
Member states
Leaders
Sacha Llorenti[1]
Establishment
• Cuba–Venezuela Agreement
14 December 2004
• People's Trade Agreement
29 April 2006
Area
• Total
2,513,337[2] km2 (970,405 sq mi)
Population
• 2008 estimate
69,513,221
• Density
27.65/km2 (71.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2008 estimate
• Total
$636.481 billion
• Per capita
$9,156
Currency
5 currencies
Time zoneUTC-4 to -6
Internet TLD
Website
www​.portalalba​.org​/index​.php​/
Founded initially by Cuba and Venezuela in 2004, it is associated with socialist and social democratic governments wishing to consolidate regional economic integration based on a vision of social welfare, bartering and mutual economic aid. The ten member countries are Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Venezuela.[4] Suriname was admitted to ALBA as a guest country at a February 2012 summit. ALBA nations may conduct trade using a virtual regional currency known as the SUCRE. Venezuela and Ecuador made the first bilateral trade deal using the Sucre, instead of the US dollar, on 6 July 2010.[5] Ecuador withdrew from the group in August 2018.[6]
The name initially contained "Alternative" instead of "Alliance", but was changed on 24 June 2009.[7]
History
Late Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, founder of ALBA
The agreement was proposed by the government of Venezuela, led by Hugo Chávez[8] as an alternative to the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA or ALCA in Spanish, an agreement proposed by the United States) that had been opposed by some countries in Latin America.[citation needed]
This Cuba–Venezuela Agreement,[9] signed on 14 December 2004, by Presidents Chávez and Fidel Castro, was aimed at the exchange of medical and educational resources and petroleum between the two nations. Venezuela began to deliver about 96,000 barrels of oil per day from its state-owned oil company, PDVSA, to Cuba at very favorable prices. In exchange, Cuba sent 20,000 state-employed medical staff and thousands of teachers to Venezuela's poorest states. The agreement also made it possible for Venezuelans to travel to Cuba for specialized medical care, free of charge.​[10]​[11]​[​self-published source?]
When it was launched in 2004, ALBA had only two member states, Venezuela and Cuba.[11][12] Subsequently, a number of other Latin American and Caribbean nations entered into this 'Peoples' Trade Agreement' (Spanish: Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos, or TCP), which aims to implement the principles of ALBA. Bolivia under Evo Morales joined in 2006, Nicaragua under Daniel Ortega in 2007, and Ecuador under Rafael Correa in 2009. Honduras, under Manuel Zelaya, joined in 2008, but withdrew in 2010 after the 2009 Honduran coup d'état.[13] The Caribbean nations Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Saint Lucia also joined.[14]
Jamaica, at the invitation of Chávez,[15] and Mexico, at the invitation of Ortega,[16] were invited to join the ALBA countries. Chávez also invited the countries of Central America to join ALBA,[17] and invited Argentina to use SUCRE, the currency of this organization.[18] Vietnam has been invited to join as an observer.[19] In the eleventh Summit of ALBA in February 2012, Suriname, St. Lucia and Haiti requested admission to the organization. Haiti was granted the special status of permanent member and the other two countries were named special members, while awaiting their full incorporation.[11]
Chávez was honored posthumously by the nine member countries of the group and special guests Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil, Suriname, Guyana and Haiti at the group's 12th Presidential Summit in Guayaquil, Ecuador.[20]
Ecuador withdrew from ALBA in August 2018.[21]Bolivia's interim government withdrew in November 2019 during the political crisis,[22] but the newly elected government of Luis Arce rejoined following the 2020 Bolivian general election.[23][24]
Common currency
In October 2009, ALBA leaders agreed at a summit in Bolivia to create a common regional currency. "The document is approved," said Bolivian President Evo Morales, the summit host. President Hugo Chávez (Venezuela) announced "The sucre [is] an autonomous and sovereign monetary system that will be agreed upon today so that it can be implemented in 2010."[25] As of 2015, the virtual currency is being used to compensate trade between Bolivia, Cuba, Nicaragua, and especially Ecuador and Venezuela.[11]
Summits of heads of state and government
SummitDateLocationCountryDecisions
I Ordinary14 December 2004Havana CubaFounding summit of ALBA. Cuba-Venezuela Agreement signed by presidents Hugo Chávez and
Fidel Castro.
II Ordinary27–28 April 2005Havana CubaAttended by presidents Hugo Chávez and Fidel Castro.
III Ordinary29 April 2006Havana CubaAttended by presidents Hugo Chávez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales from Bolivia,
who joins the group. The TCP is signed.
IV Ordinary10 January 2007Managua NicaraguaMeeting coinciding with inauguration as president of Nicaragua of Daniel Ortega, who announces
the entry in the bloc as fourth country member.
V Ordinary28–29 April 2007Barquisimeto
 Venezuela
VI Ordinary24–26 January 2008Caracas
 Venezuela
Dominica joins the bloc.
I Extraordinary22 April 2008Caracas
 Venezuela
II Extraordinary25 August 2008Tegucigalpa HondurasHonduras joins the bloc.
III Extraordinary26 November 2008Caracas
 Venezuela
IV Extraordinary2 February 2009Caracas
 Venezuela
Celebration of the tenth anniversary of Bolivarian Revolution.
V Extraordinary16–17 April 2009Cumaná
 Venezuela
VI Extraordinary24 June 2009Maracay
 Venezuela
Antigua and Barbuda, Ecuador and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines join the bloc.
VII Extraordinary29 June 2009Managua NicaraguaCondemnation of the coup d'etat in Honduras and demand of restoration of deposed president
Manuel Zelaya.
VII Ordinary16–17 October 2009Cochabamba
 Bolivia
The Unified System for Regional Compensation (SUCRE) is adopted.
VIII Ordinary13–14 December 2009Havana CubaCelebration of the fifth anniversary of the bloc.
IX Ordinary19 April 2010Caracas
 Venezuela
Honduras had left the group.[26]
X Ordinary25 June 2010Otavalo
 Ecuador
XI Ordinary4–5 February 2012Caracas
 Venezuela
XII Ordinary30 July 2013Guayaquil
 Ecuador
Saint Lucia joins the bloc.
VIII Extraordinary20 October 2014Havana CubaSummit to deal with the Ebola crisis.
XIII Ordinary14 December 2014Havana CubaGrenada and Saint Kitts and Nevis join the bloc. Celebration of the tenth anniversary of the bloc.
IX Extraordinary17 March 2015Caracas
 Venezuela
XIV Ordinary5 March 2017Caracas
 Venezuela
XV Ordinary5 March 2018Caracas
 Venezuela
XVI Ordinary14 December 2018[27]Havana Cuba
XVII Ordinary14 December 2019[28][29]Havana CubaCelebration of the fifteenth anniversary of the bloc.
XVIII Ordinary14 December 2020[30][31]videoconferenceCelebration of the sixteenth anniversary of the bloc and of the rejoining of Bolivia into it.
Membership
Main article: Member states of ALBA
Full members
Common nameOfficial nameJoin datePopulationArea (km²)E.E.Z + Area (km²)GDP PPP (US$ bn)Capital
 Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda24 June 200997,118442110,5311.575St. John's
 Bolivia
Plurinational State of Bolivia29 April 20069,119,1521,098,58150.904La Paz
 CubaRepublic of Cuba14 December 200411,451,652110,861460,637114.100Havana
 DominicaCommonwealth of Dominica20 January 200872,66075429,7360.977Roseau
 Grenada[4][32]Grenada14 December 2014111,454348.527,7701.467St. George's
 NicaraguaRepublic of Nicaragua11 January 2007[33]6,466,199129,495254,25418.878Managua
 Saint Kitts and Nevis[4][34]
Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis14 December 201454,96126110,2351.087Basseterre
 Saint LuciaSaint Lucia20 July 2013180,87061716,1562.101Castries
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines24 June 2009120,00038936,6911.259Kingstown
 Venezuela
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela14 December 200428,199,825916,4451,387,952374.111Caracas
ALBA–TCP totals10 countries46,166,3891,159,612.52,333,962515.555
Observer members
Common nameOfficial namePopulationCapital
 HaitiRepublic of Haiti10,847,334Port-au-Prince
 IranIslamic Republic of Iran81,672,300Tehran
 Syria
Syrian Arab Republic18,284,407Damascus
Former members
Common nameOfficial nameJoin yearWithdrawal yearPopulationCapital
 HondurasRepublic of Honduras200820109,112,867Tegucigalpa
 Ecuador
Republic of Ecuador2009201816,385,068Quito
In addition, Suriname is a "special guest member" that intends to become a full member.[35]
Other ALBA initiatives
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XIV ALBA-TCP summit, 2017
PetroCaribe
Based on the earlier San José Accords (1980) and Caracas Energy Accords (2000) between Venezuela and a number of Caribbean states, Petrocaribe was founded in 2005 to facilitate oil trade under a concessionary financial agreement. The initiative has provided the Caribbean member states with important hydrocarbon resources, which many do not possess on their territories, in exchange for services and goods. In the case of Cuba, a nation largely deprived of oil since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Petrocaribe has provided oil in exchange for medical doctors.[36]
TeleSUR
Launched in 2005, TeleSUR is a media conglomerate that provides news and current affairs broadcasts throughout the ALBA bloc. The program is based on an internet based television channel and is a cooperative effort between the governments of Venezuela, Cuba and Nicaragua.
PETROSUR
PETROSUR is an inter-governmental energy alliance between Venezuelan PDVSA, Argentinean YPF, and Brazilian Petrobras nationalized oil companies. The goal of this initiative is to provide funding for social welfare programs within these nations.[citation needed]
Criticism
In August 2013, BBC News stated that "Alba consists of one oil-rich nation and various minnows wishing to benefit from its largesse" and that "there is little chance of the rhetoric becoming reality any time soon".[37] As the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela began, President Nicolás Maduro called on other ALBA members to begin contributing, though the smaller members distanced themselves from the proposal since they only sought the benefits from Venezuela.[37]
During the 2017 Venezuelan protests, Williams Dávila, President of the MERCOSUR Committee of International Affairs, Interregional and Strategic Planning, criticized ALBA, stating that "populism always attacks the OAS because it is composed of sovereign states, but the states that are part of ALBA act as the vassal countries of Cuba."[38]
In July 2018, President Lenín Moreno of Ecuador distanced himself from ALBA, stating that the organization "has not worked for a while."[39] In August 2018, Ecuador officially withdrew from ALBA.
Karen Longaric, appointed as foreign minister by Jeanine Áñez's interim government, announced the formal departure of the country from ALBA in November 2019 over "interference" in Bolivia's political crisis.[40]
See also
References
  1. ^ "Sacha Llorenti es elegido por unanimidad como el nuevo secretario general del ALBA-TCP". ABI (in Spanish). 14 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  2. ^ The total area of ALBA reaches 5,057,735 km² if the maritime areas is included .
  3. ^ "Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - international organization". Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  4. ^ a b c "Declaration of the ALBA-TCP XIII Summit and commemoration of its tenth anniversary, December 14, 2014 - ALBA TCP". Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  5. ^ venezuelanalysis, 7 July 2010, Venezuela Pays for First ALBA Trade with Ecuador in New Regional Currency
  6. ^ "Ecuador leaves Venezuelan-run regional alliance". AP NEWS. 2018-08-24. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  7. ^ "ALBA pasa a ser Alianza Bolivariana de los Pueblos de América" (in Spanish). Venezolana de Televisión. June 3, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-30.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ Arana, Marie. "Opinion - Bolívar, Latin America's Go-To Hero". Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-11-04. Retrieved 2005-12-02. initial Cuba-Venezuela TCP
  10. ^ https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/CubaVenezuela-Alliance-Piccone-Trinkunas.pdf
  11. ^ a b c d Inc, IBP (20 March 2009). Latin America Energy Policy and Regulations Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Programs. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781438728360. Retrieved 24 August 2018 – via Google Books.[self-published source]
  12. ^ Monthly Review, 2 July 2008, ALBA: Creating a Regional Alternative to Neo-liberalism?
  13. ^​https://www.americasquarterly.org/blog/honduran-congress-approves-withdrawal-from-alba/
  14. ^ https://repeatingislands.com/2009/06/26/two-more-caribbean-nations-join-alba/
  15. ^ "Cuba Revolución: Chávez invita a Jamaica a sumarse al ALBA". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  16. ^ Diario, El Nuevo. "El Nuevo Diario". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  17. ^ (ABN), Agencia Bolivariana de Noticias. "Chávez invitó a toda Centroamérica a unirse al ALBA". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  18. ^ "Chávez invita a Argentina a sumarse a la moneda virtual sucre - Radio La Primerísima". Archived from the original on 2016-05-27. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  19. ^ "Venezuela invita a Vietnam a sumarse al ALBA como observador". Archived from the original on July 20, 2014.
  20. ^ "Twelfth ALBA Presidential Summit Takes Place in Ecuador". americasquarterly.org. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  21. ^ "Ecuador leaves Venezuelan-run regional alliance". AP NEWS. Associated Press. 2018-08-24. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  22. ^ "Bolivia rompe relaciones con Venezuela y se retira de la Alianza Bolivariana ALBA | DW | 15.11.2019". Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). 15 November 2019. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  23. ^ "Bolivia reanuda su participación en Unasur, Celac y Alba". France 24. 2020-11-20. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  24. ^ https://peoplesdispatch.org/2020/12/14/alba-tcp-member-countries-celebrate-16-years-of-regional-integration/
  25. ^ "Bolivia summit adopts new currency". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  26. ^ "Honduras se retira de Alba". Honduras se retira de Alba.
  27. ^ Inicia hoy XVI Cumbre del ALBA-TCP en La Habana. In: albatcp.cubaminrex.cu 12/14/2018.
  28. ^ "17th Summit of ALBA-TCP in Cuba focuses on regional situation". Prensa Latina. 14 December 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  29. ^ "ALBA-TCP: primer frente de integración, afirma declaración de cumbre". Prensa Latina (in Spanish). 14 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  30. ^ "ALBA-TCP celebra su 16 aniversario vía videoconferencia con presidentes de países miembros". ABI (in Spanish). 13 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  31. ^ "ALBA-TCP ratifica compromiso con la integración regional". Prensa Latina (in Spanish). 14 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  32. ^ "Granada - ALBA TCP". Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  33. ^ "Nicaragua celebra 14 años de solidaridad y respeto como parte del ALBA-TCP". La Voz del Sandinismo (in Spanish). 11 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  34. ^ "San Cristóbal y Nieves - ALBA TCP". Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  35. ^ El Universal, 6 February 2012, ALBA summit ends with entry of guest countries
  36. ^ Cederlöf, Gustav; Kingsbury, Donald V. (2019). "On PetroCaribe: Petropolitics, Energopower, and Post-Neoliberal Development in the Caribbean Energy Region". Political Geography. 72: 124–133. doi​:​10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.04.006​.
  37. ^ a b Plummer, Robert (1 August 2013). "Alba alliance ambitions lay bare Latin trade confusion". BBC News. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  38. ^ "Dávila: Víctimas de uso armas prohibidas en manifestaciones están bajo protección del derecho internacional". La Patilla (in Spanish). 14 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  39. ^ "Lenin Moreno ordenó a la UNASUR desalojar edificio en Ecuador". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  40. ^ "La política internacional de Añez: anunció la salida de Bolivia del Alba, de la Unasur y rompió relaciones con Venezuela". Latinomerica Piensa (in Spanish). 15 November 2019.
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Last edited on 12 April 2021, at 18:49
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