Bosawás Biosphere Reserve The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve
in the northern part of state Jinotega
(border with Honduras
is a hilly tropical forest
designated in 1997 as a UNESCO biosphere reserve
. At approximately 20,000 km² (2 million hectares) in size, the reserve (i.e. nucleus plus buffer zone) comprises about 15% of the nation's total land area making together with the biosphere of the banana river in Honduras that geographically is a single jungle only that is divided by land borders it the second largest rainforest in the Western Hemisphere
, after the Amazon
Bosawás is largely unexplored, and is extremely rich in biodiversity
Bosawás overlaps the homelands of two of Nicaragua's indigenous peoples, the Sumos
and the Miskito
, in an area which is rich in natural resources, most notably timber
About 130,000 inhabitants practice subsistence farming
within the boundaries, about 35,000 of them indigenous Miskito and Sumo people.
The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve evolved from the Sandinista revolution
. The Sandinista government had granted two regions of the Caribbean coast to be governed autonomously
by the indigenous population. The subsequent Chamorro government
set aside three large reserves, Bosawás being the largest, with its nucleus comprising approximately 7% of Nicaragua's total land area (the rest constitutes the reserve's buffer zone). The creation of Bosawás was considered a violation of the region's constitutionally guaranteed territorial autonomy.
In January 2020, several Mayangna people
living on the Reserve were killed and kidnapped, reportedly by Nicaraguans seeking to use the land for farming and forestry.
Flora and fauna
About an estimated of 10,000 km² of forest occur in Bosawas.
diversity of Bosawás is very high, with vascular plants
considered to be in the thousands. Bosawás also is rich in invertebrate
and vertebrate taxa
. Within Bosawás live an estimated 100,000 to 200,000 insect
species; the number is believed to be higher, however a closer estimate is not possible due to the area being relatively unexplored. Quetzals
are present in significant numbers, along with the largest and most powerful eagle found in the Americas
, the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja
). These, however, are just a few of the 700 Nicaraguan bird species
potentially found in the reserve. Pumas
, considered powerful top predators of the food chain, are present in the reserve, and tapirs
) are their favorite prey.
- ^ Science Show - 19 August 2006 - Bosawas Bioreserve Nicaragua
- ^ a b McGinnis, Michael D. (1999). Bioregionalism. New York: Routledge. pp. 176–177. ISBN 0-415-15444-8.
- ^ "Nicaragua: Six indigenous people reportedly killed in attack". BBC News. January 30, 2020.
- ^ "Bosawas: Flora y Fauna" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2007-06-22. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
Last edited on 14 April 2021, at 11:29
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.