Boulevards of Paris
which form an important part of the urban landscape of Paris
. The boulevards were constructed in several phases by central government initiative as infrastructure improvements, but are very much associated with strolling and leisurely enjoyment in the minds of Parisians.
Looking eastwards down Boulevard Haussmann and Printemps
Parisian boulevards and avenues
are usually tree-lined on one or both sides, which is rarely the case for smaller roads.
The grands boulevards
Boulevards on the Turgot map (1736) some years after their creation in place of the Louis XIII wall.
Boulevard des Capucines, sometime after its creation. Note the unflattened soil and a double line of trees for carriage circulation.
The Grands Boulevards
are essentially 'the best' of the Parisian boulevards. They correspond to the Nouveau Cours
built between 1668 and 1705 in place of the dismantled Louis XIII wall
. The boulevards of Louis XIV
were conceived by Pierre Bullet
to link the Porte Saint-Antoine (situated where the Place de la Bastille
now stands) to the Porte Saint-Honoré (situated where the Place de la Madeleine
Which exactly are classed amongst the Grands Boulevards is somewhat unclear. Many Parisians would automatically include Boulevard Haussmann amongst them, as the large department stores (Printemps
and Galeries Lafayette
) draw promenaders in the "boulevardier spirit". However, strictly speaking, "les Grands Boulevards" would only include the Boulevard Beaumarchais
and the Madeleine
The idea of the boulevard as a centre for leisure asserted itself during the 18th century, when numerous théâtres de la foire
set up near the Porte Saint-Martin
. The boulevard du Temple
became affectionately known as "boulevard du Crime
" during Bourbon Restoration
, an allusion to the criminal acts portrayed there by stage actors. According to the Almanach des Spectacles
, "Tautin was stabbed 16,302 times, Marti poisoned 11,000 times, Fresnoy set on fire 27,000 times in countless ways..., Mademoiselle Adèle Dupuis was seduced, kidnapped or drowned 75,000 times".
From 1784 to 1791, Ledoux
built the Wall of the Farmers-General
, with boulevards running along its exterior. This wall was built to collect the octroi
, a tax on goods entering the city which was hated by Parisians. It was demolished approximately between 1789 and 1860. Although it was almost completely razed by Haussman in 1860 as part of his transformation of Paris, some parts remain. The surviving boulevards were subject to urban planners' failed attempts in the 1950s to transform them into urban freeways.
Haussmann's renovation of Paris
brought the boulevard to the heart of Paris, whereas they had hitherto been limited to uninhabited or sparsely inhabited zones. Le boulevard, whose initial function was to go around the capital, became structural urban thoroughfares.
The boulevards from Haussmann and before now define Paris, with uniform façades and overhanging balconies stretching along them. These are immediately recognisable, and are under the strict control of Paris' urban planners
The Boulevards of the Marshals
Map of the tramway Lines 3a (shown in orange) and 3b (shown in green), which run along the Boulevards of the Marshals
In addition, the Boulevard Périphérique
, the beltway surrounding Paris, was built on the site of the ruins of the Thiers wall
, a short distance 'outboard' from the Boulevards of the Marshals. However, it is more like a motorway than a boulevard. Île-de-France tramway Lines 3a and 3b
run along the Boulevards of the Marshals, nearly encircling Paris since 3b opened in December 2010, on the sixth anniversary of the opening of 3a along the southern section.
Chadych, Danielle; Leborgne, Dominique (2002). Atlas de Paris
. Parigramme. ISBN 2-84096-249-7
Last edited on 17 June 2021, at 06:56
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