Early life and education
Lieutenant Brent Scowcroft (seated second from left) during his early pilot training days with other members of the 82nd Squadron
at Grenier Airfield
Scowcroft was born March 19, 1925, in Ogden, Utah
, the son of Lucile (née Ballantyne) and James Scowcroft, a grocer and business owner.
He was a descendant of early 19th-century British immigrants from England and Scotland, along with immigrants from Denmark
. He elaborated upon his relationship with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
in a 1999 oral history: "I have close personal ties to some of the church leadership. They would not consider me a good Mormon
. I don’t live by all of the rules the Mormons like—I like a glass of wine
and a cup of coffee
. But yes, I do consider myself a Mormon. It’s part of a religious and a cultural heritage."
Having envisioned life as a fighter pilot following World War II
, Scowcroft completed his pilot training in October 1948 following his commissioning as an Air Force Second Lieutenant
in 1947 and received his Air Force Command Pilot Wings.
However, on January 6, 1949, while on flight training with North American P-51 Mustang
, his P-51 Mustang aircraft experienced engine trouble after taking-off from Grenier Army Airfield
, causing the plane to crash-land. Although his injuries were not critical, Scowcroft assumed that he would never fly again and considered another career within the Air Force.
He served in a variety of operational and administrative positions from 1948 to 1953. In the course of his military career, he held positions at the Joint Chiefs of Staff
, headquarters of the United States Air Force
, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. His other assignments included: faculty positions at the United States Air Force Academy
and the United States Military Academy, and Assistant Air Attaché
in the American Embassy
As a senior officer, General Scowcroft was assigned to Headquarters U.S. Air Force in the office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Plans and Operations, and served in the Long Range Planning Division, Directorate of Doctrine, Concepts and Objectives from 1964 to 1966. He next attended the National War College
at Fort McNair
, followed by assignment in July 1968 to the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. In September 1969, he was reassigned to Headquarters U.S. Air Force in the Directorate of Plans as Deputy Assistant for National Security Council Matters. In March 1970 he joined the Joint Chiefs of Staff
organization and became the Special Assistant to the Director of the Joint Staff.
On the morning of September 11, 2001
, Scowcroft was in an E-4B
aircraft, also known as the National Airborne Operations Command Center (NAOC), on the tarmac waiting to takeoff and fly to Offutt Air Force Base
, when the first hijacked airliner hit the World Trade Center
(WTC). Scowcroft's aircraft was en route to Offutt when the second hijacked airliner struck the WTC and Scowcroft was involved in observing the command and control operations of both President George W. Bush in Florida
and Vice President Dick Cheney
, who was at the White House
Scowcroft was a leading Republican
critic of American policy towards Iraq
before and after the 2003 invasion
, which war critics in particular have seen as significant given Scowcroft's close ties to former President George H. W. Bush.
He drew attention for reports of remarks critical of Bush – which he did not deny when reported by The Washington Post
citing his view that "Bush is 'mesmerized' by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, that Iraq is a 'failing venture' and that the administration's unilateralist approach has harmed relations between Europe and the United States."
Despite his public criticism of the decision to invade, Scowcroft continued to describe himself as "a friend" of the Bush administration.
He also strongly opposed a precipitous withdrawal, arguing that a pull-out from Iraq before the country was able to govern, sustain, and defend itself "would be a strategic defeat for American interests, with potentially catastrophic consequences both in the region and beyond".
Scowcroft went on to stress that the U.S. must "secure the support of the countries of the region themselves. It is greatly in their self-interest to give that support.. unfortunately, in recent years they have come to see it as dangerous to identify with the United States, and so they have largely stood on the sidelines."
He backed the invasion of Afghanistan
as a "direct response" to terrorism.
In 1998, he co-wrote A World Transformed
with George H. W. Bush. This book described what it was like to be in the White House
during the end of the Cold War
, as the Soviet Union
collapsed in the early 1990s. Notably, both figures explained why they didn't go on to Baghdad
in 1991: "Had we gone the invasion route, the United States could conceivably still be an occupying power in a bitterly hostile land."
His discussions of foreign policy with Zbigniew Brzezinski
, led by journalist David Ignatius
, were published in a 2008 book titled America and the World: Conversations on the Future of American Foreign Policy
Scholarly evaluations of Scowcroft's performance have been generally favorable. For example Ivo Daalder
and I. M. Destler quoting other scholars, conclude:
"Brent Scowcroft was in many ways the ideal national security adviser—indeed, he offers a model for how the job should be done." His "winning formula" consisted of gaining the trust of the key principals of U.S. foreign policymaking, establishing "a cooperative policy process at all levels," one both transparent and collegial, and keeping an "unbreakable relationship with the president," thanks to their close friendship and mutual respect. The result was that Scowcroft "proved to be an extraordinarily effective national security adviser" in comparison with others who have held the office, particularly in light of the difficult and transformative period in which he held office.
Other evaluations from colleagues and national security veterans in both parties echo similar points. The Atlantic Council provided an assessment, with quotes from several experts after Scowcroft's death, that noted "Looking back on his time working with Scowcroft in the Nixon administration, former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger explained that 'in a period when America was tearing itself apart,' Scowcroft’s 'steadiness had a calming influence then as did his faith in his country’s ultimate purposes.' Former US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates argued that what 'set Brent apart as National Security Advisor was that he played fair…he did not take advantage of his close relationship with the president to disadvantage others.' John Deutch, former Director of Central Intelligence, recalled that “Brent had the ideal temperament to lead the country. He was smart, deceptively articulate with a calm demeanor that often masked his strategic thinking.'"
Scowcroft was the inspiration and namesake for a special presidential award begun under the George H. W. Bush
administration. According to Robert Gates
, the award is given to the official "who most ostentatiously falls asleep in a meeting with the president". According to Gates, the president "evaluated candidates on three criteria. First, duration—how long did they sleep? Second, the depth of the sleep. Snoring always got you extra points. And third, the quality of recovery. Did one just quietly open one's eyes and return to the meeting, or did you jolt awake and maybe spill something hot in the process?"
According to Bush himself, the award "gives extra points for he/she who totally craters, eyes tightly closed, in the midst of meetings, but in fairness a lot of credit is given for sleeping soundly while all about you are doing their thing."
Scowcroft had gained a reputation for doing such things to the extent that it became a running gag
Scowcroft married Marian Horner in 1951. His wife, a Pennsylvania
native, trained as a nurse at St. Francis School of Nursing in Pittsburgh and graduated from Columbia University. They had one daughter, Karen Scowcroft. Marian Horner Scowcroft, a diabetic
, died on July 17, 1995, at George Washington University Hospital
In March 1993, when Scowcroft was given an honorary KBE
by Queen Elizabeth II, his daughter was also received by the Queen.
- ^ "Brent Scowcroft". Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- ^ "Brent Scowcroft Oral History". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- ^ "Brent Scowcroft". Aspen Institute. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- ^ a b c McFadden, Robert D. (August 6, 2020). "Brent Scowcroft, a Force on Foreign Policy for 40 Years, Dies at 95". nytimes. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- ^ "LIEUTENANT GENERAL BRENT SCOWCROFT". www.af.mil.
- ^ Charlton, Linda (November 4, 1975). "Deputy in Kissinger's Place". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
- ^ Gelb, Leslie H. (November 4, 1975). "Ford's Timetable Upset in Shakeup". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
- ^ a b Weaver, Dustin (March 7, 2017). "Senate panel approves Trump adviser keeping his military rank". TheHill.
- ^ "Biographies : Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft". Af.mil. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- ^ "Kissinger Becomes Secretary of State". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- ^ Scowcroft, Brent; Hamilton, Lee (December 12, 2011). "[Letter from Lee H. Hamilton and Brent Scowcroft of the Blue Ribbon Commission for America's Nuclear Future to President Barack Obama Regarding Nuclear Waste Disposal and the Fiscal Year 2013 Budget]". Homeland Security Digital Library.
- ^ Brzezinski, Zbigniew; Scowcroft, Brent (2008). America and The World: Conversations on the future of American Foreign Policy. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01501-6.
- ^  Archived August 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Double Warning Against Iraq War". Commondreams.org. August 5, 2002. Archived from the original on September 21, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- ^ "Interviews – Brent Scowcroft | Gunning For Saddam | FRONTLINE". PBS. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- ^ Kessler, Glenn (October 16, 2004). "Scowcroft Is Critical of Bush". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- ^ Priest, Dana; Wright, Robin (January 7, 2005). "Scowcroft Skeptical Vote Will Stabilize Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- ^ Rice, Andrew (September 6, 2004). "Brent Scowcroft Calls Iraq War "overreaction"". The New York Observer. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- ^ Scowcroft, Brent (January 4, 2007). "Getting the Middle East Back on Our Side". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey (October 24, 2005). "Breaking Ranks". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- ^ "William Oliver Baker Award Recipients – INSA".
- ^ vanden Heuvel, Katrina (October 19, 2004). "Scowcroft Blasts W." The Nation. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- ^ Kakutani, Michiko (September 22, 2008). "A Dialogue and a Discourse on America's Global Role" – via NYTimes.com.
- ^ "USACC. Brent Scowcroft". Archived from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- ^ "Kissinger, Iraq, BNL". Pinknoiz.com. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- ^ "International Republican Institute web site, accessed July 16, 2010". Archived from the original on April 28, 2010.
- ^ "SIPA: School of International and Public Affairs". Sipa.columbia.edu. Archived from the original on December 21, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- ^ Blake, A. 78 Republican politicians, donors and officials who are supporting Hillary Clinton.. The Washington Post. December 7, 2016.
- ^ Ivo Daalder and I. M. Destler, In the Shadow of the Oval Office: Profiles of the National Security Advisers and the Presidents They Served—From JFK to George W. Bush (2009), p. 170.
- ^ "Celebrating the 'impeccable integrity and unbounded courage' of Brent Scowcroft". Atlantic Council. September 10, 2020. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
- ^ Wilkie, Christina (May 12, 2010). "Fall asleep in the Oval Office? You could win a 'Scowcroft award'". The Hill. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- ^ "The Boss Lauds a Champion Sleeper". The New York Times. January 18, 1990. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- ^ Roberts, Argetsinger, Roxanne, Amy (December 14, 2011). "Brent Scowcroft and the art of sleeping through the meeting". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- ^ "Marian Horner Scowcroft – St. Francis Hospital (Pittsburgh) School of Nursing Memorial Site". Lindapages.com. July 18, 1995. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- ^ "Court Circular – People – News". The Independent. March 18, 1993. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- ^ "Longtime presidential adviser Brent Scowcroft dies at 95". NBC News. Associated Press. August 7, 2020. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- ^ McFadden, Robert D. (August 7, 2020). "Brent Scowcroft, a Force on Foreign Policy for 40 Years, Dies at 95". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- ^ Source - https://www.nationalguard.mil/coronavirus/videoid/782086/, Video - https://www.dvidshub.net/video/embed/782086, caption - Lt Gen Brent Scowcroft Arlington National Cemetery Internment, Air Force Television Pentagon (SAF/PAI), Jan. 29, 2021, 2:36, text - Lt Gen Brent Scowcroft was a United States Air Force officer who was a two-time United States National Security Advisor under presidents Gerald Ford and George H. W. Bush. He was given military funeral honors at Arlington National Cemetery on 29 Jan, 2021.
- ^ a b c Sparrow, Bartholomew (January 27, 2015). The Strategist: Brent Scowcroft and the Call of National Security. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1586489632.
- ^ a b "Longtime Public Servant Brent Scowcroft Dies". Texas A&M Today. August 7, 2020. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- ^ a b c Brent Scowcroft | The Scowcroft Group, biography
- ^ "Remarks Honoring Brent Scowcroft with the DOD Distinguished Public Service Award". U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE.
- ^ "Vabariigi President". www.president.ee. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- ^ "General Scowcroft awarded Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun – The Scowcroft Group". www.scowcroft.com. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients – GW Libraries". library.gwu.edu. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- ^ "SCOWCROFT SAYS NOW IS TIME TO HELP SHAPE WORLD
". April 24, 1992. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- ^ "Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft". Bush School of Government and Public Service. Texas A&M University. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- ^ "Complete List of Recipients (1945–Present) – Office of the Secretary of the University". secretary.columbia.edu. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- ^ "Former National Security Advisor to Receive Honorary Degree". www.weber.edu. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- Daalder, Ivo H., and I. M. Destler. In the Shadow of the Oval Office: Profiles of the National Security Advisers and the Presidents They Served—From JFK to George W. Bush. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009. ISBN 978-1416553199.
- Sparrow, Bartholomew H. "Realism's Practitioner: Brent Scowcroft and the Making of the New World Order, 1989–1993."Diplomatic History, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2010, pp. 141–175. JSTOR 24916037.
- Sparrow, Bartholomew. The Strategist: Brent Scowcroft and the Call of National Security (2015)
- Brzezinski, Zbigniew, and Brent Scowcroft. America and the World: Conversations on the Future of American Foreign Policy. New York: Basic Books, 2008. ISBN 0465015018 / ISBN 978-0465015016.
- Bush, George H.W., and Brent Scowcroft. A World Transformed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998. ISBN 0679432485.
- Deutch, John, and Arnold Kanter, Brent Scowcroft. "Saving NATO's Foundation."Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 6, November/December 1999, pp. 54–67. doi:10.2307/20049532.
- Perry, William James, and Brent Scowcroft, Charles D. Ferguson. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy. Independent Task Force Report, No. 62. Council on Foreign Relations, April 2009. ISBN 978-0876094204.
- Scowcroft, Brent. "A World in Transformation." The National Interest, No. 119, Special Issue: Crisis of the Old Order, May/June 2012, pp. 7–9. JSTOR 42896448.
- Scowcroft, Brent. "Don't Attack Saddam."Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2002, p. A12.
- Scowcroft, Brent. "Foreword." Burrows, Mathew J. Global Risks 2035: The Search for a New Normal. Atlantic Council, September 2016. JSTOR resrep03678.
- Scowcroft, Brent. "Getting the Middle East Back on Our Side." New York Times, January 4, 2007.
Last edited on 28 March 2021, at 03:55
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.