This article is about the Ivy League university in Rhode Island. For the university in Arkansas, see John Brown University
At its foundation, Brown was the first college in North America to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation
The university's medical program is the third-oldest in New England
, while its engineering program is the oldest in the Ivy League.[a]
The university was one of the early doctoral-granting U.S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding masters and doctoral studies in 1887.
In 1969, Brown adopted its Open Curriculum
after a period of student lobbying. The new curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education
" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus" and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory (Pass) or no-credit (Fail) which is unrecorded on external transcripts.
In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College
, was fully merged into the university.
Admission is among the most selective in the United States; in 2021, the university reported an acceptance rate of 5.4%.
Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill
neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island. The university is surrounded by a federally listed architectural district
with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. Benefit Street, which runs along the western edge of the campus, contains one of the richest concentrations 17th and 18th century architecture in the United States.
As of November 2019, 8 Nobel Prize winners
have been affiliated with Brown as alumni, faculty, or researchers
, as well as seven National Humanities Medalists[b]
and 10 National Medal of Science
laureates. Other notable alumni include 25 Pulitzer Prize
winners, 17 billionaires,[c]
one U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice
, four U.S. Secretaries of State
, 99 members of the United States Congress
57 Rhodes Scholars
, 52 Gates Cambridge Scholars
50 Marshall Scholars
and 15 MacArthur Genius
The foundation and the charter
That your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Mathematics, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired. That for this End... it will be necessary... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors.
The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists; ... Mr. James Manning
, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college
in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work.
James Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the college. Stiles' first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that their denomination would be underrepresented in the College Board of Fellows. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Rhode Island General Assembly on March 3, 1764 in East Greenwich
In September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the Corporation—the College's governing body—was held in Newport's Old Colony House
. Governor Stephen Hopkins
was chosen chancellor, former and future governor Samuel Ward
vice chancellor, John Tillinghast treasurer, and Thomas Eyres secretary. The Charter stipulated that the Board of Trustees should be composed of 22 Baptists, five Quakers
, five Episcopalians, and four Congregationalists. Of the 12 Fellows, eight should be Baptists—including the College president—"and the rest indifferently of any or all Denominations."
At the time of its creation, Brown's Charter was a uniquely progressive document.
Other colleges had curricular strictures against opposing doctrines, while Brown's Charter asserted, "Sectarian differences of opinions, shall not make any Part of the Public and Classical Instruction." The document additionally "recognized more broadly and fundamentally than any other [university charter] the principle of denominational cooperation."
The oft-repeated statement that Brown's Charter alone prohibited a religious test for College membership is inaccurate; other college charters were similarly liberal in that particular.
This 1792 engraving is the first published image of Brown. University Hall
stands on right while the President's House sits on the left.
The College was founded as Rhode Island College, at the site of the First Baptist Church in Warren, Rhode Island
James Manning was sworn in as the College's first president in 1765 and remained in the role until 1791. In 1766, the College authorized Rev. Morgan Edwards
to travel to Europe to "solicit Benefactions for this Institution." During his year and a half stay in the British Isles
, the reverend secured funding from benefactors including Thomas Penn
and Benjamin Franklin
In 1770, the College moved from Warren to Providence. To establish a campus, John
and Moses Brown
purchased a four acre lot on the crest of College Hill
on behalf of the school. The majority of the property fell within the bounds of the original home lot of Chad Brown
, an ancestor of the Browns and one of the original proprietors of Providence Plantations
After relocating to the city, work began on constructing a home for the College.
A building committee, organized by the Corporation, developed plans for the College's first purpose-built edifice, finalizing a design on February 9, 1770. The subsequent structure, referred to as "The College Edifice" and later as University Hall
, may have been modeled on Nassau Hall
, built 14 years prior at the College of New Jersey
. President Manning, an active member of the building process, was educated at Princeton and might have suggested that Brown's first building resemble that of his alma mater
The Brown family
Following the gift of Nicholas Brown, Jr
. (Class of 1786), the university was renamed in his honor
On September 8, 1803, the Corporation voted, "That the donation of $5000 Dollars, if made to this College within one Year from the late Commencement, shall entitle the donor to name the College." The following year, the appeal was answered by College treasurer Nicholas Brown, then a Junior. In a letter dated September 6, 1804, Brown committed "a donation of Five Thousand Dollars to Rhode Island College, to remain in perpetuity as a fund for the establishment of a Professorship of Oratory and Belles Letters." In recognition of the gift, the Corporation on the same day voted, "That this College be called and known in all future time by the Name of Brown University."
Over the years, the benefactions of Nicholas Brown, Jr., totaled nearly $160,000 and included funds for the building of Hope College (1821–22) and Manning Hall (1834-35).
The Brown family was involved in various business ventures in Rhode Island, and accrued a portion of wealth through the Triangle Trade
. The family itself was divided on the issue of slavey. John Brown had unapologetically defended slavery, while Moses Brown and Nicholas Brown Jr. were fervent abolitionists
. Under the tenure of President Ruth Simmons
, the University in 2003 established a steering committee to investigate these ties and recommend a strategy to address them.
The American Revolution
Brown's 2nd President, Jonathan Maxcy, was the first alum to serve as president Brown's 4th President, Francis Wayland, urged American universities to adopt a broader curriculum
The New Curriculum
In 1966, the first Group Independent Study Project (GISP) at Brown was formed, involving 80 students and 15 professors. The GISP was inspired by student-initiated experimental schools, especially San Francisco State College
, and sought ways to "put students at the center of their education" and "teach students how to think rather than just teaching facts."
Members of the GISP, Ira Magaziner
and Elliot Maxwell published a paper of their findings entitled, "Draft of a Working Paper for Education at Brown University."
The paper made proposals for a new curriculum, including interdisciplinary
freshman-year courses that would introduce "modes of thought," with instruction from faculty from different disciplines as well as for an end to letter grades. The following year Magaziner began organizing the student body to press for the reforms, organizing discussions and protests.
In 1968, University President Ray Heffner
established a Special Committee on Curricular Philosophy. Composed of administrators, the committee was tasked with developing specific reforms and producing recommendations. A report, produced by the committee, was presented to the faculty, which voted the New Curriculum into existence on May 7, 1969. Its key features included:
- Modes of Thought courses for first-year students
- The introduction of interdisciplinary courses
- The abandonment of "general education" distribution requirements
- The Satisfactory/No Credit (S/NC) grading option
- The ABC/No Credit grading system, which eliminated pluses, minuses, and D's; a grade of "No Credit" (equivalent to F's at other institutions) would not appear on external transcripts.
The Modes of Thought course was discontinued early on, but the other elements are remain in place. In 2006, the reintroduction of plus/minus grading was proposed in response to concerns regarding grade inflation. The idea was rejected by the College Curriculum Council after canvassing alumni, faculty, and students, including the original authors of the Magaziner-Maxwell Report.
Slavery and Justice report
The Slavery and Justice report prompted the establishment of Brown's Center for the Study of Slavery and Justice
In 2003, then-university president Ruth Simmons
launched a steering committee to research Brown's eighteenth-century ties to slavery. In October 2006, the committee released a report documenting its findings.
Entitled "Slavery and Justice," the document detailed the ways in which the university benefited both directly and indirectly from the transatlantic slave trade
and the labor of enslaved people. The report also included seven recommendations for how the university should address this legacy.
Brown has since completed a number of these recommendations including the establishment of its Center for the Study of Slavery and Justice, the construction of a slavery memorial, and the funding of a $10 million permanent endowment for Providence Public Schools
The Slavery and Justice report marked the first major effort by an American university to address its ties to slavery, and prompted other institutions to undertake similar processes.
Coat of arms
Brown's coat of arms was created in 1834. The prior year, president Francis Wayland
had commissioned a committee to update the school's original seal to match the name the university had adopted in 1804. Central in the coat of arms is a white escutcheon
divided into four sectors by a red cross; within each sector is an open book. Above the shield is a crest consisting of the upper half of a sun in splendor
among the clouds atop a red and white torse
, Brown's oldest building, was constructed in 1770 and is on the National Register of Historic Places
Soldiers Memorial Gate (1921) long marked the eastern edge of Brown's campus.
Brown's main campus, comprises 235 buildings and 143 acres (0.58 km2
) in the East Side
neighborhood of College Hill. The university's central, historic campus sits on a 15-acre (6.1-hectare) block bounded by Waterman, Prospect, George, and Thayer Streets
; newer buildings extend northward, eastward, and southward. Brown's core, historic campus, constructed primary between 1770 and 1926, is defined by three greens: the Front or Quiet Green, the Middle or College Green, and the Ruth J. Simmons Quadrangle (historically known as Lincoln Field).
A brick and wrought-iron fence punctuated by decorative gates and arches traces the block's perimeter. This section of campus is primarily Georgian
and Richardsonian Romanesque
in its architectural character.
To the south of the central campus are academic buildings and residential quadrangles, including Wriston, Keeney, and Gregorian quadrangles. Immediately to the east of the campus core sit Sciences Park and Brown's School of Engineering
. North of the central campus are performing and visual arts facilities, life sciences labs, and the Pembroke Campus, which houses both dormitories and academic buildings. Facing the western edge of the central campus sit two of the Brown's seven libraries, the John Hay Library
and the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library
The university's campus is contiguous that of the Rhode Island School of Design
, which sits immediately to Brown's west, along the slope of College Hill.
Van Wickle Gates
Built in 1901, the Van Wickle Gates are a set of wrought iron gates that stand at the western edge of Brown's campus. The larger main gate is flanked by two smaller side gates. At Convocation the central gate opens inward to admit the procession of new students; at Commencement, the gate opens outward for the procession of graduates.
A Brown superstition holds that students who walk through the central gate a second time prematurely will not graduate, although walking backward is said to cancel the hex.
John Hay Library
The John Hay Library
is home to rare books, special collections, and the university archives
The John Hay Library serves as the repository of the university's archives, rare books and manuscripts, and special collections. Noteworthy among the latter are the Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection
(described as "the foremost American collection of material devoted to the history and iconography of soldiers and soldiering"),
the Harris Collection of American Poetry and Plays (described as "the largest and most comprehensive collection of its kind in any research library"), the Lownes Collection of the History of Science (described as "one of the three most important private collections of books of science in America"), and the papers of H. P. Lovecraft
. The Hay Library is home to one of the broadest collections of incunabula
in the Americas, one of Brown's two Shakespeare First Folios
, the manuscript of George Orwell
's Nineteen Eighty-Four,
and three books bound in human skin
John Carter Brown Library
Founded in 1846, the John Carter Brown Library is generally regarded as the world's leading collection of primary historical sources relating to the exploration and colonization of the Americas. While administered and funded separately from the university, the library has been owned by Brown and located on its campus since 1904.
The library contains the best preserved of the eleven surviving copies of the Bay Psalm Book
—the earliest extant book printed in British North America and the most expensive printed book in the world.
Other holdings include a Shakespeare First Folio
and the world's largest collection of 16th century Mexican texts.
The galleries of Brown's anthropology museum, the Haffenreffer, are located in Manning Hall
The exhibition galleries of the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, Brown's teaching museum, are located in Manning Hall on the campus's main green. Its one million artifacts, available for research and educational purposes, are located at its Collections Research Center in Bristol, Rhode Island
The museum's goal is to inspire creative and critical thinking about culture by fostering an interdisciplinary understanding of the material world. It provides opportunities for faculty and students to work with collections and the public, teaching through objects and programs in classrooms and exhibitions. The museum sponsors lectures and events in all areas of anthropology, and also runs an extensive program of outreach to local schools.
Annmary Brown Memorial
The Annmary Brown Memorial was constructed from 1903 to 1907 by the politician, Civil War veteran, and book collector General Rush Hawkins
, as a mausoleum for his wife, Annmary Brown, a member of the Brown family. In addition to its crypt—the final repository for Brown and Hawkins—the Memorial includes works of art from Hawkins's private collection, including paintings by Angelica Kauffman
, Peter Paul Rubens
, Gilbert Stuart
, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
, Benjamin West
, and Eastman Johnson
, among others. His collection of over 450 incunabula
was relocated to the John Hay Library in 1990.
Today the Memorial is home to Brown's Medieval Studies
and Renaissance Studies
The Walk, a landscaped pedestrian corridor, connects the Pembroke Campus to the main campus. It runs parallel to Thayer Street
and serves as a primary axis of campus, extending from Ruth Simmons Quadrangle at its southern terminus to the Meeting Street entrance to the Pembroke Campus at its northern end.
The walk is bordered by departmental buildings as well as Brown's Performing Arts Center and Granoff Center for the Creative Arts
Three dormitories, Metcalf Hall (1919), Andrews Hall (1947), and Miller Hall (1910), formed the heart of Pembroke College and now serve as freshman residences
The Women's College in Brown University
, known as Pembroke College, was founded in October 1891. Upon its 1971 merger with the College of Brown University, Pembroke's campus was absorbed into the larger Brown campus.
The Pembroke campus is bordered by Meeting, Brown, Bowen, and Thayer Streets and sits three blocks north of Brown's central campus. The campus is dominated by brick architecture, largely of the Georgian
and Victorian styles
. The west side of the quadrangle comprises Pembroke Hall (1897), Smith-Buonanno Hall (1907), and Metcalf Hall (1919), while the east side comprises Alumnae Hall (1927) and Miller Hall (1910). The quadrangle culminates on the north with Andrews Hall (1947).
East Campus, centered on Hope and Charlesfield streets, originally served as the campus of Bryant University
. In 1969, as Bryant was preparing to relocate to Smithfield, Rhode Island
, Brown purchased their Providence campus for $5 million. The transaction expanded the Brown campus by 10 acres (40,000 m2
) and 26 buildings. In 1971, Brown renamed the area East Campus.
Today, the area is largely used for dormitories.
Built in 1925, Brown Stadium
—the home of the school's football team—is located approximately a mile and a half northeast of the university's central campus.
Marston Boathouse, the home of Brown's crew teams, lies on the Seekonk River
, to the southeast of campus. Brown's sailing teams are based out of the Ted Turner Sailing Pavilion at the Edgewood Yacht Club
in adjacent Cranston
Brown's Building for Environmental Research recycles rainwater and received a LEED Gold
Brown has committed to "minimize its energy use, reduce negative environmental impacts and promote environmental stewardship."
Since 2010, the university has required all new buildings meet LEED silver
Between 2007 and 2018, Brown reduced its greenhouse emissions
by 27 percent; the majority of this reduction is attributable to the university's Thermal Efficiency Project which converted its central heating plant from a steam-powered system to a hot water-powered system.
In 2020, Brown announced it had sold 90 percent of its fossil fuel
investments as part of a broader divestment from direct investments and managed funds that focus on fossil fuels.
In 2021, the university adopted the goal of reducing quantifiable campus emissions by 75 percent by 2025 and achieving carbon neutrality
Since 1770, the College of Brown University has been located on College Hill in Providence, Rhode Island
Founded in 1764, the College is Brown's oldest school. About 7,200 undergraduate students are enrolled in the College, and 81 concentrations are offered. For the graduating class of 2020 the most popular concentrations were Computer Science, Economics, Biology, History, Applied Mathematics, International Relations, and Political Science. A quarter of Brown undergraduates complete more than one concentration before graduating.
If the existing programs do not align with their intended curricular interests, undergraduates may design and pursue independent concentrations.
35 percent of undergraduates pursue graduate or professional study immediately, 60 percent within 5 years, and 80 percent within 10 years.
For the Class of 2009, 56 percent of all undergraduate alumni have since earned graduate degrees. Among undergraduate alumni who go on to receive graduate degrees, the most common degrees earned are J.D. (16%), M.D. (14%), M.A. (14%), M.Sc. (14%), and Ph.D. (11%). The most common institutions from which undergraduate alumni earn graduate degrees are Brown University, Columbia University
, and Harvard University
The highest fields of employment for undergraduate alumni ten years after graduation are education and higher education (15%), medicine (9%), business and finance (9%), law (8%), and computing and technology (7%).
Brown and RISD
The List Art Center, built 1969–71, designed by Philip Johnson
, houses Brown's Department of Visual Art and the David Winton Bell Gallery
Since its 1893 relocation to College Hill, Rhode Island School of Design
(RISD) has bordered Brown to its west. Since 1900, Brown and RISD students have been able to cross-register at the two institutions, with Brown students permitted to take as many as four courses at RISD to count towards their Brown degree.
The two institutions partner to provide various student-life services and the two student bodies compose a synergy in the College Hill cultural scene.
Brown|RISD Dual Degree Program
After several years of discussion between the two institutions and several students pursuing dual degrees unofficially, Brown and RISD formally established a five-year dual degree program in 2007, with the first class matriculating in the fall of 2008.
The Brown|RISD Dual Degree Program, among the most selective in the country, offered admission to 20 of the 725 applicants for the class entering in autumn 2020, for an acceptance rate of 2.7%.
The program combines the complementary strengths of the two institutions, integrating studio art and design at RISD with Brown's academic offerings. Students are admitted to the Dual Degree Program for a course lasting five years and culminating in both the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) or Bachelor of Science (Sc.B.) degree from Brown and the Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.) degree from RISD. Prospective students must apply to the two schools separately and be accepted by separate admissions committees. Their application must then be approved by a third Brown|RISD joint committee.
Admitted students spend the first year in residence at RISD completing its first-year Experimental and Foundation Studies curriculum, while taking up to three Brown classes. The second year is spent in residence at Brown, during which students take mainly Brown courses while starting on their RISD major requirements. In the third, fourth, and fifth years, students can elect to live at either school or off-campus, and course distribution is determined by the requirements of each student's unique combination of Brown concentration and RISD major. Program participants are noted for their creative and original approach to cross-disciplinary opportunities, combining, for example, industrial design with engineering, or anatomical illustration with human biology, or philosophy with sculpture, or architecture with urban studies. An annual "BRDD Exhibition" is a well-publicized and heavily attended event, drawing interest and attendees from the wider world of industry, design, the media, and the fine arts.
In 2020, the two schools announced the establishment of a new joint master of arts in design engineering program. Abbreviated as MADE, the program intends to combine RISD's programs in industrial design with Brown's programs in engineering. The program is administered through Brown's School of Engineering and RISD's Architecture and Design Division.
Theatre and playwriting
Lyman Hall, built 1890–92, houses the Department of Theatre Arts and Performance Studies
Brown's theatre and playwriting programs are among the best-regarded in the country.
Six Brown graduates have received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama
; Alfred Uhry
'58 (1988), Lynn Nottage
'86 (twice—2009, 2017), Ayad Akhtar
'93, Nilo Cruz
'94, Quiara Alegría Hudes
'04, and Jackie Sibblies Drury
In American Theater
magazine's 2009 ranking of the most-produced American plays, Brown graduates occupied four of the top five places—Peter Nachtrieb '97, Rachel Sheinkin '89, Sarah Ruhl
'97, and Stephen Karam
The undergraduate concentration encompasses programs in theatre history, performance theory, playwriting, dramaturgy, acting, directing, dance, speech, and technical production. Applications for doctoral and master's degree programs are made through the University Graduate School. Master's degrees in acting and directing are pursued in conjunction with the Brown/Trinity Rep MFA program, which partners with the Trinity Repertory Company
, a local regional theatre
Aerial view of the Brown University English department
Writing at Brown—fiction, non-fiction, poetry, playwriting, screenwriting, electronic writing, mixed media, and the undergraduate writing proficiency requirement—is catered for by various centers and degree programs, and a faculty that has long included nationally and internationally known authors. The undergraduate concentration in literary arts offers courses in fiction, poetry, screenwriting, literary hypermedia, and translation. Graduate programs include the fiction and poetry MFA writing programs in the literary arts department, and the MFA playwriting program in the theatre arts and performance studies department. The non-fiction writing program is offered in the English department. Screenwriting and cinema narrativity courses are offered in the departments of literary arts and modern culture and media. The undergraduate writing proficiency requirement is supported by the Writing Center.
Alumni authors take their degrees across the spectrum of degree concentrations, but a gauge of the strength of writing at Brown is the number of major national writing prizes won. To note only winners since the year 2000: Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
-winners Jeffrey Eugenides
'82 (2003), Marilynne Robinson
'66 (2005), and Andrew Sean Greer
'92 (2018); British Orange Prize
-winners Marilynne Robinson
'66 (2009) and Madeline Miller
'00 (2012); Pulitzer Prize for Drama
-winners Nilo Cruz
'94 (2003), Lynn Nottage
'86 (twice, 2009, 2017), Quiara Alegría Hudes
'04 (2012), Ayad Akhtar
'93 (2013), and Jackie Sibblies Drury
MFA '04 (2019); Pulitzer Prize for Biography
-winners David Kertzer
'69 (2015) and Benjamin Moser
'98 (2020); Pulitzer Prize for Journalism
-winners James Risen
'77 (twice, 2002, 2006), Mark Maremont
'80 (twice, 2003, 2007), Gareth Cook
'91 (2005), Tony Horwitz
'80 (2005), Peter Kovacs '77 (twice, 2006, 2019), Stephanie Grace '86 (2006), Mary Swerczek '98 (2006), Jane B. Spencer
'99 (2006), Usha Lee McFarling
'89 (2007), James Bandler '89 (2007), Amy Goldstein '75 (2009), David Rohde
'90 (twice, 1996, 2009), Kathryn Schulz
'96 (2016), Alissa J. Rubin
'80 (2016), Rebecca Ballhaus
'13 (2019); Pulitzer Prize for General
Nonfiction-winner James Forman Jr.
'88 (2018), as well as Pulitzer Prize for Poetry
-winner Peter Balakian
PhD '80 (2016)
The Brown Computing Laboratory, designed by Philip Johnson
Brown began offering computer science courses through the departments of Economics and Applied Mathematics in 1956 when it acquired an IBM machine. Brown added an IBM 650
in January 1958, the only one of its type between Hartford and Boston. In 1960, Brown opened its first dedicated computer building. The facility, designed by Philip Johnson
, received an IBM 7070
computer the following year. Brown granted computer sciences full Departmental status in 1979. In 2009, IBM and Brown announced the installation of a supercomputer (by teraflops standards), the most powerful in the southeastern New England region.
In the 1960s, Andries van Dam
along with Ted Nelson
, and Bob Wallace
invented The Hypertext Editing Systems
while at Brown. Nelson coined the word hypertext
while Van Dam's students helped originate XML
, and related Web standards. Among the school's computer science alumni are principal architect of the Classic Mac OS
, Andy Hertzfeld
, principal architect of the Intel 80386
and Intel 80486
microprocessors, John Crawford
, former CEO of Apple
, John Sculley
, and digital effects programer Masi Oka
Other alumni include former CS department head at MIT, John Guttag
founder, Aneel Bhusri
, and MongoDB
founder Eliot Horowitz
The character "Andy" in the animated film Toy Story
purportedly an homage to professor Van Dam from his students employed at Pixar
Between 2012 and 2018, the number of concentrators in CS tripled.
In 2017, computer science overtook economics as the school's most popular undergraduate concentration.
The Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World
The Department of Egyptology and Assyriology in Wilbour Hall (1888). Wilbour Hall is named for Egyptologist Charles Edwin Wilbour
(class of 1854)
Established in 2004, the Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World is Brown's interdisciplinary research center for archeology and ancient studies. The institute pursues fieldwork, excavations, regional surveys, and academic study of the archaeology and art of the ancient Mediterranean, Egypt, and Western Asia from the Levant
to the Caucasus
The institute has a very active fieldwork profile, with faculty-led excavations and regional surveys presently in Petra
(Egypt), Turkey, Sudan, Italy, Mexico, Guatemala, Montserrat
, and Providence.
The Joukowsky Institute's faculty includes cross-appointments from the departments of Egyptology, Assyriology, Classics, Anthropology, and History of Art and Architecture. Faculty research and publication areas include Greek and Roman art and architecture, landscape archaeology, urban and religious architecture of the Levant, Roman provincial studies, the Aegean Bronze Age, and the archaeology of the Caucasus
. The institute offers visiting teaching appointments and postdoctoral fellowships which have, in recent years, included Near Eastern Archaeology and Art, Classical Archaeology
and Art, Islamic Archaeology and Art, and Archaeology and Media Studies.
Egyptology and Assyriology
Facing the Joukowsky Institute, across the Front Green, is the Department of Egyptology and Assyriology, formed in 2006 by the merger of Brown's departments of Egyptology and History of Mathematics. It is one of only a handful of such departments in the United States.
The curricular focus is on three principal areas: Egyptology
, and the history of the ancient exact sciences (astronomy, astrology, and mathematics). Many courses in the department are open to all Brown undergraduates without prerequisite, and include archaeology, languages, history, and Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions
, literature, and science. Students concentrating in the department choose a track of either Egyptology or Assyriology. Graduate level study comprises three tracks to the doctoral degree: Egyptology, Assyriology, or the History of the Exact Sciences in Antiquity.
The Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs
Stephen Robert Hall (2018) at the Watson Institute, was designed by Toshiko Mori
The Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, Brown's center for the study of global issues and public affairs, is one of the leading institutes of its type in the country. The institute occupies facilities designed by Uruguayan architect Rafael Viñoly
and Japanese architect Toshiko Mori
. The institute was initially endowed by Thomas Watson, Jr.
(Class of 1937), former Ambassador to the Soviet Union
and longtime president of IBM
The institute's curricular interest is organized into the principal themes of development, security, and governance—with further focuses on globalization, economic uncertainty, security threats, environmental degradation, and poverty. Six Brown undergraduate concentrations are hosted by the Watson Institute: Development Studies
, International and Public Affairs, International Relations, Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Middle East Studies, Public Policy, and South Asian Studies. Graduate programs offered at the Watson Institute include the Graduate Program in Development (Ph.D.) and the Master of Public Affairs (M.P.A) Program. The institute also offers Post Doctoral, professional development and global outreach programming. In support of these programs, the Institute houses various centers, including the Brazil Initiative, Brown-India Initiative, China Initiative, Middle East Studies center, The Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS) and the Taubman Center for Public Policy. In recent years, the most internationally cited product of the Watson Institute has been its Costs of War Project
, first released in 2011 and continuously updated since. The project comprises a team of economists, anthropologists, political scientists, legal experts, and physicians, and seeks to calculate the economic costs, human casualties, and impact on civil liberties of the wars in Iraq
, and Pakistan
The School of Engineering
The Brown University Engineering Research Center, completed in 2018 and designed by KieranTimberlake
Established in 1847, Brown's engineering program is the oldest in the Ivy League and the third oldest civilian engineering program in the country.[d]
In 1916, Brown's departments of electrical, mechanical, and civil engineering were merged into a single Division of Engineering. In 2010 the division was elevated to a School of Engineering.
Engineering at Brown is especially interdisciplinary. The School is organized without the traditional departments or boundaries found at most schools, and follows a model of connectivity between disciplines—including biology, medicine, physics, chemistry, computer science, the humanities and the social sciences. The School practices an innovative clustering of faculties in which engineers team with non-engineers to bring a convergence of ideas.
IE Brown Executive MBA Dual Degree Program
Since 2009, Brown has developed an Executive MBA program in conjunction with one of the leading Business Schools in Europe; IE Business School
in Madrid. This relationship has since strengthened resulting in both institutions offering a dual degree program.
In this partnership, Brown provides its traditional coursework while IE provides most of the business-related subjects making a differentiated alternative program to other Ivy League's EMBAs.
The cohort typically consists of 25-30 EMBA candidates from some 20 countries.
Classes are held in Providence, Madrid
, Cape Town
The Pembroke Center
The Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women was established at Brown in 1981 by Joan Wallach Scott
as an interdisciplinary research center on gender.
The center is named for Pembroke College, Brown's former women's college, and is affiliated with Brown's Sarah Doyle Women's Center
. The Pembroke Center supports Brown's undergraduate concentration in Gender and Sexuality Studies
, post-doctoral research fellowships, the annual Pembroke Seminar, and other academic programs. It also manages various collections, archives, and resources, including the Elizabeth Weed Feminist Theory Papers and the Christine Dunlap Farnham Archive.
The Graduate School
Brown introduced graduate courses in the 1870s and granted its first advanced degrees in 1888. The university established a Graduate Department in 1903 and a full Graduate School in 1927.
With an enrollment of approximately 2,600 students, the school currently offers 33 and 51 master’s and doctoral programs, respectively. The school additionally offers a number of fifth-year master's programs.
Overall, admission to the Graduate School is most competitive with an acceptance rate of about 10 percent.
Carney Institute for Brain Science
The Carney Institute was founded by John Donoghue
in 2009 as the Brown Institute for Brain Science and renamed in 2018 in recognition of a $100 million gift.
The donation, one of the largest in the university's history, established the institute as one of the best-endowed university neuroscience programs in the country.
Alpert Medical School
Established in 1811, Brown's Alpert Medical School is the third oldest medical school in New England
In 1827, medical instruction was suspended by President Francis Wayland
after the program's faculty declined to follow a new policy requiring students to live on campus. The program was reorganized in 1972; the first M.D. degrees from the new Program in Medicine were awarded to a graduating class of 58 students in 1975. In 1991, the school was officially renamed the Brown University School of Medicine, then renamed once more to Brown Medical School in October 2000.
In January 2007, entrepreneur and philanthropist Warren Alpert
donated $100 million to the school. In recognition of the gift the school's name was changed to the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.
In 2020, U.S. News & World Report
ranked Brown's medical school the 9th most selective in the country, with an acceptance rate of 2.8%.U.S. News
ranks the school 38th for research and 35th for primary care.
Brown's medical school is known especially for its eight-year Program in Liberal Medical Education
(PLME), an eight-year combined baccalaureate-M.D. medical program. Inaugurated in 1984, the program is one of the most selective and renowned programs of its type in the country, offering admission to only of 2% of applicants in 2021.
Since 1976, the Early Identification Program (EIP) has encouraged Rhode Island residents to pursue careers in medicine by recruiting sophomores from Providence College
, Rhode Island College
, the University of Rhode Island
, and Tougaloo College
. In 2004, the school once again began to accept applications from premedical students at other colleges and universities via AMCAS
like most other medical schools. The medical school also offers M.D./Ph.D, M.D./M.P.H.
dual degree programs.
School of Public Health
Brown's School of Public Health grew out of the Alpert Medical School's Department of Community Health and was officially founded in 2013 as an independent school.
The school issues undergraduate (A.B., Sc.B.), graduate (M.P.H., Sc.M., A.M.), doctoral (Ph.D.), and dual-degrees (M.P.H./M.P.A., M.D./M.P.H.).
The Brown University School of Professional Studies currently offers blended learning
Executive master's degrees in Healthcare Leadership
, Cyber Security, and Science and Technology Leadership.
The master's degrees are designed to help students who have a job and life outside of academia to progress in their respective fields. The students meet in Providence every 6–7 weeks for a week seminar each trimester.
The university has also invested in MOOC
development starting in 2013, when two courses, Archeology's Dirty Little Secrets
and The Fiction of Relationship
, both of which received thousands of students.
However, after a year of courses, the university broke its contract with Coursera
and revamped its online persona and MOOC development department. By 2017, the university released new courses on edx
, two of which were The Ethics of Memory
and Artful Medicine: Art's Power to Enrich Patient Care
. In January 2018, Brown published its first "game-ified" course called Fantastic Places, Unhuman Humans: Exploring Humanity Through Literature
, which featured out of platform games to help learners understand materials, as well as a story-line that immerses users into a fictional world to help characters along their journey.
Admissions and financial aid
For the undergraduate class of 2025, Brown received 46,568 applications—the largest applicant pool in the university's history. Of these applicants, 2,566 were admitted for an acceptance rate of 5.4%.
For the academic year 2019-20 the university received 2,030 transfer applications, of which 5.8% were accepted.
Brown's admissions policy is stipulated need-blind
for all domestic first-year applicants. In 2017, Brown announced that loans would be eliminated from all undergraduate financial aid awards starting in 2018–2019, as part of a new $30 million campaign called the Brown Promise
In 2016–17, the university awarded need-based scholarships worth $120.5 million. The average need-based award for the class of 2020 was $47,940.
In 2017, the Graduate School accepted 11% of 9,215 applicants.
In 2021, Brown received a record 948 applications for roughly 90 spots in its Master of Public Health Degree.
For their 2021 rankings, The Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education ranked Brown 5th in the "Best Colleges 2021" edition.
magazine annual ranking of "America's Top Colleges 2019"—which ranked 650 research universities, liberal arts colleges and service academies—ranked Brown 7th overall and 7th among universities.
U.S. News & World Report
ranked Brown 14th among national universities in its 2021 edition.
The 2021 edition also ranked Brown 1st for undergraduate teaching, 20th in Most Innovative Schools, and 18th in Best Value Schools.
ranked Brown 37th in 2020 among 389 national universities in the U.S. based on its contribution to the public good, as measured by social mobility, research, and promoting public service.
In 2014, Forbes
magazine ranked Brown 7th on its list of "America's Most Entrepreneurial Universities."
analysis looked at the ratio of "alumni and students who have identified themselves as founders and business owners on LinkedIn" and the total number of alumni and students.
LinkedIn particularized the Forbes
rankings, placing Brown third (between MIT
) among "Best Undergraduate Universities for Software Developers at Startups." LinkedIn's methodology involved a career-path examination of "millions of alumni profiles" in its membership database.
According to 2020 data from the U.S. Department of Education, the median starting salary of Brown computer science graduates was the highest in the United States.
In 2020, Brown produced the second-highest amount of Fulbright
winners. For the three years prior, the university produced the most Fulbright winners in the nation.
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it
. (July 2020)
In 2014, Brown tied with the University of Connecticut
for the highest number of reported rapes in the nation, with its "total of reports of rape" on their main campus standing at 43.
Established in 1950, Spring Weekend is an annual spring music festival for students. Historical performers at the festival have included Ella Fitzgerald
, Dizzy Gillespie
, Ray Charles
, Bob Dylan
, Janis Joplin
, Bruce Springsteen
. More recent headliners include Kendrick Lamar
, Young Thug
, Daniel Caesar
, Anderson .Paak
, and Mac DeMarco
Since 1960, Spring Weekend has been organized by the student–run Brown Concert Agency.
Residential and Greek societies
Wriston Quadrangle houses Brown's Greek organizations
Approximately 12 percent of Brown students participate in Greek Life
The university recognizes eleven Greek organizations: six fraternities (Alpha Phi Alpha
, Beta Omega Chi, Delta Tau, Delta Phi
, Kappa Alpha Psi, and Theta Alpha), four sororities (Alpha Chi Omega
, Delta Sigma Theta
, Delta Gamma
, Kappa Delta
, and Kappa Alpha Theta
,), one co-ed house (Zeta Delta Xi
), and one co-ed literary society (Alpha Delta Phi
Since the early 1950s, all Greek organizations on campus have been located in Wriston Quadrangle.
The organizations are overseen by the Greek Council.
An alternative to Greek-letter organizations are Brown's program houses, which are organized by themes. As with Greek houses, the residents of program houses select their new members, usually at the start of the spring semester. Examples of program houses are St. Anthony Hall (located in King House), Buxton International House, the Machado French/Hispanic/Latinx House, Technology House, Harambee (African culture) House, Social Action House and Interfaith House.
All students not in program housing enter a lottery for general housing. Students form groups and are assigned time slots during which they can pick among the remaining housing options.
Societies and clubs
The earliest societies at Brown were devoted to oration and debate. The Pronouncing Society is mentioned in the diary of Solomon Drowne
, class of 1773, who was voted its president in 1771. It seems to have disappeared during the American Revolutionary War
. We next hear of the Misokosmian Society, founded in 1794 and renamed the Philermenian Society in 1798. This was effectively a secret society with membership limited to 45. It met fortnightly to hear speeches and debate and thrived until the Civil War; in 1821 its library held 1594 volumes. In 1799, a chapter of the Philandrian Society, also secret, was established at the college. In 1806, the United Brothers was formed as an egalitarian alternative to the Philermenian Society. "These two great rivals," says the university historian, "divided the student body between them for many years, surviving into the days of President Sears. A tincture of political controversy sharpened their rivalry, the older society inclining to the aristocratic Federals, the younger to the Republicans, the democrats of that day. ... The students continuing to increase in number, they outran the constitutional limits of both societies, and a third, the Franklin Society, was established in 1824; it never had the vitality of the other two, however, and died after ten years."
The Cammarian Club—founded in 1893 and taking its name from the Latin for lobster, its members' favorite dinner food—was at first a semi-secret society which "tapped" 15 seniors each year. In 1915, self-perpetuating membership gave way to popular election by the student body, and thenceforward the Club served as the de facto undergraduate student government. In 1971 the organization abandoned the name "Cammarian Club." The successor and present-day organization is known as the Undergraduate Council of Students.
Societas Domi Pacificae
, known colloquially as "Pacifica House," is a present-day, self-described secret society. It claims a continuous line of descent from the Franklin Society of 1824, citing a supposed intermediary "Franklin Society" traceable in the nineteenth century. But the intermediary turns out to be, on closer inspection, the well-known Providence Franklin Society, a civic organization unconnected to Brown whose origins and activity are well-documented. It was founded in 1821 by merchants William Grinnell and Joseph Balch, Jr., and chartered by the General Assembly in January 1823.
The "Pacifica House" account of this (conflated) Franklin Society cites published mentions of it in 1859, 1876, and 1883. But the first of these (Rhees 1859, see footnote infra
) is merely a sketch of the 1824 Brown organization; the second (Stockwell 1876) is a reference-book article on the Providence Franklin Society itself; and the third is the Providence Franklin Society's own publication, which the "Pacifica House" reference mis-ascribes to the "Franklin Society," dropping the word "Providence."
There are over 300 registered student organizations on campus with diverse interests. The Student Activities Fair, during the orientation program, provides first-year students the opportunity to become acquainted with the wide range of organizations. A sample of organizations includes:
Brown has several resource centers on campus. The centers often act as sources of support as well as safe spaces for students to explore certain aspects of their identity. Additionally, the centers often provide physical spaces for students to study and have meetings. Although most centers are identity-focused, some provide academic support as well.
The Brown Center for Students of Color
(BCSC) is a space that provides support for students of color
. Established in 1972 at the demand of student protests, the BCSC encourages students to engage in critical dialogue, develop leadership skills, and promote social justice
The center houses various programs for students to share their knowledge and engage in discussion. Programs include the Third World Transition Program, the Minority Peer Counselor Program, the Heritage Series, and other student-led initiatives. Additionally, the BCSC hopes to foster community among the students it serves by providing spaces for students to meet and study.
The Sarah Doyle Women's Center
aims to provide a space for members of the Brown community to examine and explore issues surrounding gender
The center was named after one of the first women to attend Brown, Sarah Doyle
. The center emphasizes intersectionality
in its conversations on gender, encouraging people to see gender as present and relevant in various aspects of life. The center hosts programs and workshops in order to facilitate dialogue and provide resources for students, faculty, and staff.
Other centers include the LGBTQ+
Center, the Undocumented, First-Generation College and Low-Income Student (U-FLi) Center,
and the Curricular Resource Center.
The 1968 Black Student Walkout
On December 5 of 1968, several Black women from Pembroke College initiated a walkout in protest an atmosphere at the colleges described by Black students as a “stifling, frustrating, [and] degrading place for Black students” after feeling the colleges were non-responsive to their concerns. In total, 65 Black students participated in the walk out. Their principal demand was to increase Black student enrollment to 11% of the student populace, in an attempt to match that of the proportion in the US. This ultimately resulted in a 300% increase in Black enrollment the following year, but some demands have yet to be met.
The 1879 Brown baseball varsity, with W.E. White
seated second from right. White's appearance in an 1879 major league game may be the first person of color to play professional baseball, 68 years before Jackie Robinson
The Brown Bears has one of the largest university sports programs in the United States, sponsoring 32 varsity
Brown's athletic program is one of the U.S. News & World Report
top 20—the "College Sports Honor Roll"—based on breadth of program and athletes' graduation rates.
Nelson Fitness Center (opened 2012)
Brown's newest varsity team is women's rugby, promoted from club-sport status in 2014. Brown women's rowing has won 7 national titles between 1999 and 2011. Brown men's rowing
perennially finishes in the top 5 in the nation, most recently winning silver, bronze, and silver in the national championship races of 2012, 2013, and 2014. The men's and women's crews have also won championship trophies at the Henley Royal Regatta
and the Henley Women's Regatta
. Brown's men's soccer is consistently ranked in the top 20,
and has won 18 Ivy League titles overall; recent[when?]
soccer graduates play professionally in Major League Soccer
Brown women's gymnastics won the Ivy League tournament in 2013 and 2014. The Brown women's sailing team has won 5 national championships, most recently in 2019
while the coed sailing team won 2 national championships in 1942 and 1948.
Both teams are consistency ranked in the top 10 in the nation.
The first intercollegiate ice hockey game in America was played between Brown and Harvard on January 19, 1898.
The first university rowing regatta larger than a dual-meet was held between Brown, Harvard, and Yale at Lake Quinsigamond
in Massachusetts on July 26, 1859.
Brown also supports competitive intercollegiate club sports, including ultimate frisbee
. The men's ultimate team, Brownian Motion, has won three national championships, in 2000, 2005 and 2019.
Prominent alumni in business and finance include philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr.
(1897), former Chair of the Federal Reserve
and current Secretary of the Treasury Janet Yellen
'67, World Bank President Jim Yong Kim
'82, Bank of America
CEO Brian Moynihan
founder Ted Turner
chairman and CEO Thomas Watson, Jr.
'37, co-founder of Starwood Capital Group Barry Sternlicht
'82, Apple Inc.
CEO John Sculley
'61, Blackberry Ltd.
CEO John S. Chen
'78, Facebook CFO David Ebersman
'91, and Uber
CEO Dara Khosrowshahi
'91.Companies founded by Brown alumni
,The Wall Street Journal, Searchlight Pictures
, W Hotels
, Warby Parker
, and Cards Against Humanity
Alumni in the arts and media include actors Emma Watson
'14, Daveed Diggs
'04, Julie Bowen
'91, Tracee Ellis Ross
'94, and Jessica Capshaw
'98; NPR program host Ira Glass
'82; singer-composer Mary Chapin Carpenter
'81; humorist and Marx Brothers
screenwriter S.J. Perelman
'25; novelists Nathanael West
'24, Jeffrey Eugenides
'83, Edwidge Danticat
(MFA '93), and Marilynne Robinson
'66; composer and synthesizer pioneer Wendy Carlos
'62; journalist James Risen
'77; political pundit Mara Liasson
host and The Nation
editor-at-large Chris Hayes
'01; New York Times,
publisher A. G. Sulzberger
'04, and magazine editor John F. Kennedy, Jr.
Other notable alumni include "Lafayette of the Greek Revolution
" and its historian Samuel Gridley Howe
(1821) Governor of Wyoming Territory
and Governor of Nebraska John Milton Thayer
(1841), Governor of Rhode IslandAugustus Bourn
head during first seven Apollo
missions Thomas O. Paine
'42, diplomat Richard Holbrooke
'62, sportscaster Chris Berman
'77, Houston Texans
head coach Bill O'Brien
'92, 2018 Miss America Cara Mund
'16, Penn State
football coach Joe Paterno
'50, Heisman Trophy
namesake John W. Heisman
'91, Olympic and world champion triathlete Joanna Zeiger
such as Prince Rahim Aga Khan
, Prince Faisal bin Al Hussein
of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Princess Leila Pahlavi
of Iran '92, Prince Nikolaos of Greece and Denmark
, Prince Nikita Romanov
, Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark
, Prince Jaime of Bourbon-Parma, Duke of San Jaime and Count of Bardi
, Prince Ra'ad bin Zeid
, Lady Gabriella Windsor
, Prince Alexander von Fürstenberg
, Countess Cosima von Bülow Pavoncelli
, and her half-brother Prince Alexander-Georg von Auersperg
, David Shrier
, American futurist and author, and Olympic gold ('98), silver ('02), and bronze ('06) medal-winning hockey player Katie King-Crowley
Notable past and present faculty include biologists Anne Fausto-Sterling
and Kenneth R. Miller
, chemist Lars Onsager
; computer scientists Robert Sedgewick
and Andries van Dam
; economists Hyman Minsky
, Glenn Loury
, George Stigler
, and Emily Oster
; historians Gordon S. Wood
, Joan Wallach Scott
; mathematicians David Gale
, David Mumford
, Mary Cartwright
and Solomon Lefschetz
; physicists Sylvester James Gates
and Gerald Guralnik
. Faculty in literature include Chinua Achebe
, Ama Ata Aidoo
, and Carlos Fuentes
. Among Brown's faculty and fellows in political science, and public affairs are former Prime Minister of Italy and former EU
chief Romano Prodi
, former President of Brazil Fernando Cardoso
, former President of Chile Ricardo Lagos
, and son of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
, Sergei Khrushchev
. Other faculty include philosopher Martha Nussbaum
, author Ibram X. Kendi
, sociologist Talcott Parsons
, and public health doctor Ashish Jha
- Notable Brown University alumni include:
, class of 1819, regarded as the father of American public education
Tracee Ellis Ross
, class of 1994, Award-winning actress, model, comedienne, and television host
In popular culture
- ^ The school's founding was preceded by that of Harvard Medical School and Dartmouth Medical School. While Yale chartered a medical school in 1810, instruction did not begin for another three years.
- ^ Vartan Gregorian (1998), Edmund Morgan (historian) (2000), Donald Kagan (2002), Marilynne Robinson (2012), Gordon S. Wood (2010), Krista Tippett (2014), Natalie Zemon Davis (2012)
- ^ John D. Rockefeller Jr. (1897), Akash Ambani [hi] (2013), Paul Kazarian (1980), Orlando Bravo (1970), Barry Sternlicht (1982), Brad Jacobs (1979), Andres Santo Domingo (2000), Ferdinand Oetker [de] (1996), Aneel Bhusri (1988), Glenn Creamer (1984), Ted Turner, Jonathan M. Nelson (1977), Sidney Frank, Ipek Kiraç (2007), Chung Yong-jin (1994), Roberta Anamaria Civita, Wilbur Edwin “Ed” Bosarge (1969)
- ^ The program was preceded by that of the Rensselaer Institute (1824) and Union College (1845)
- ^ The school's founding was preceded by that of Harvard Medical School and Dartmouth Medical School. While Yale chartered a medical school in 1810, instruction did not begin for another three years.
- ^ "Brown University Admission Facts and Figures". Brown University. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- ^ As of June 30, 2020. "With 12.1% return, Brown endowment grows to record $4.7 billion". Brown University. October 2, 2020. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
- ^ Nickel, Mark. "Locke named 13th provost of Brown University". News from Brown. Brown University. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2015. Richard M. Locke ... has been appointed provost of the University ... [starting] July 1, 2015
- ^ "Brown at a Glance". Brown University. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ a b c "Common Data Set 2019-2020" (PDF). Brown University. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- ^ "Brown Visual Identity Policy" (PDF).
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Bicentennial celebration". Brown University. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Bronson, Walter Cochrane (1914). The History of Brown University, 1764-1914. Internet Archive. Providence, The University. pp. 346–347. ISBN 978-0-405-03697-2.
- ^ Maugin, Gerard A. (April 8, 2013). Continuum Mechanics Through the Twentieth Century: A Concise Historical Perspective. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-94-007-6353-1.
- ^ Parsons, Charles W; Rhode Island Historical Society (1881). The medical school formerly existing in Brown University, its professors and graduates. Providence, R.I.: S.S. Rider. OCLC 1038137370.
- ^ Skidmore, Lydia Defusto,Alex (May 24, 2019). "Open Curriculum at 50". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Curriculum". Brown University. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
- ^ Kubzansky, Will (April 6, 2021). "Brown admits record-low 5.4 percent of applicants to the class of 2025". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
- ^ Méras, Phyllis (2012). Explorer's Guide Rhode Island. Katherine Palmer Imbrie (6 ed.). Woodstock, VT. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-58157-786-0. OCLC 918312532.
- ^ NEWS, BILL RAPPLEYE, NBC 10 (October 13, 2017). "Homes on Benefit Street in Providence neglected". WJAR. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
- ^ "Carl Ferdinand Oetker". Forbes. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- ^ "Ipek Kirac". Forbes. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- ^ "Roberta Anamaria Civita". Forbes. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- ^ Greene, Richard Henry (1890). Official Positions Held by Alumni of Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Brown, University of Pennsylvania, and by the Men Educated at William and Mary College: With a Comparative Statement, Including a Resumé from the Material Gathered Concerning Harvard College for the N. E. Hist. and Gen. Register, July, 1887, by Chief Justice Wm. A. Richardson, LL.D., the Papers on Official Positions Held by Alumni of Yale, College of New Jersey, University of Pennsylvania, Columbia College and Brown University. D. Clapp & Son, printers. p. 34.
- ^ "Colleges and Universities with U.S. Rhodes Scholarship Winners | The Rhodes Scholarships". www.rhodesscholar.org. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- ^ "Statistics". www.marshallscholarship.org. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- ^ "Class of 2015 graduate awarded prestigious Marshall Scholarship". Archived from the original on December 5, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- ^ "Brown eighth on list for producing most MacArthur Fellows". May 28, 2015. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- ^ "Prominent Brown Alumni". Brownbears.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- ^ a b Stiles, Ezra (1916). Dexter, Franklin Bowditch (ed.). Extracts From the Itineraries and Other Miscellanies of Ezra Stiles, D. D., Ll. D., 1755-1794: With a Selection From His Correspondence. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 25.
- ^ Dexter (1916), p. 25.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Charter". www.brown.edu. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ International Dictionary of University Histories. Carol J. Summerfield, Mary Elizabeth Devine, Anthony Levi. Chicago. 1998. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-134-26217-5. OCLC 864899539.
- ^ a b Phillips, Janet M (1992). Brown University:A Short History (PDF). Providence, RI: Office of University Relations, Brown University. OCLC 30582651.
- ^ Beebe, Elaine (July 21, 2008). "The small-town birthplace of Brown University". Brown University. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- ^ Guild, Reuben Aldridge (1867). History of Brown University: With Illustrative Documents. Providence Press Company, printers. p. 233.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | University Hall". www.brown.edu. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- ^ Szep, Jason. Brown exhibit traces links to slave trade Reuters, March 29, 2007.
- ^ University, Brown (1914). Historical Catalogue of Brown University, 1764-1914. The University. p. 11.
- ^ Howell, Ricardo (2001, July). "Slavery, the Brown Family of Providence and Brown University Archived 2008-04-09 at the Wayback Machine", Brown University News Service
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Manning, James". www.brown.edu. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ Evans, Farrell. "America's First Black Regiment Gained Their Freedom by Fighting Against the British". HISTORY. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
- ^ Lewin, Tamar (March 2, 2012). "A Princeton Dean Is Named to Lead Brown". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ Plomin, Joe (October 16, 2001). "Ivy league appoints first black president". the Guardian. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ a b Leubsdorf, Ben (March 2, 2005). "The New Curriculum Then". Brown Daily Herald. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
- ^ Ira magaziner with Elliot Maxwell; et al. "Draft of a working paper for education at Brown University". Brown University Library. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- ^ Mitchell, Martha (1993). "Curriculum". Encyclopedia Brunoniana. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University Library. OCLC 31085279. Archived from the original on September 11, 2006. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- ^ Skidmore, Lydia Defusto,Alex (May 24, 2019). "Open Curriculum at 50". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- ^ "Grade Inflation and the Brown Grading System: 2001–2002 Sheridan Center Research Project". The Teaching Exchange. Sheridan Center for Teaching, Brown University. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2007.; Lutts, Chloe (March 15, 2006). "Plus/minus fails key test: Faculty could still vote to change grading system". Brown Daily Herald. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2005.
- ^ "Slavery and Justice" (PDF). www.brown.edu. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 30, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- ^ Belluck, Pam (October 19, 2006). "Panel Suggests Brown U. Atone for Ties to Slavery". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- ^ a b Lehrer-Small, Asher (October 16, 2019). "Lehrer-Small '20: Revisiting the Slavery and Justice Report". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- ^ Gimenes, Livia (July 29, 2020). "Brown to fully fund $10 million endowment for Providence Public Schools". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- ^ "The US is grappling with its history of slavery. The blueprint for dealing with it? Some say Brown University". www.usatoday.com. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- ^ Cellini, Richard. "How Universities Can Respond to Their Slavery Ties". www.chronicle.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Seal". www.brown.edu. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
- ^ "Brown Houses". Brown University. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
- ^ Chafee, Louisa (September 9, 2013). "'Starchitects' design cutting-edge buildings". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- ^ a b R.M.Kliment & Frances Halsband Architects (February 2006). "Campus Heritage at Brown University" (PDF). Brown University. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- ^ Rasmussen, Amy (September 19, 2012). "From swamp to Simmons: Lincoln, the legacy". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- ^ Mitchell, Martha. (1993). "Van Wickle GatesArchived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine." Encyclopedia Brunoniana
- ^ Ok, Katherine (March 21, 2019). "Hay Library's Special Collections offer more than a human skin-bound book". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- ^ "From Martha Mitchell's Encyclopedia Brunoniana: John Hay Library". Brown.edu. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- ^ "The Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection :: Brown University Library". Dl.lib.brown.edu. Archived from the original on February 19, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- ^ "Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection - Brown University Library". library.brown.edu. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- ^ Johnson, M.L. (January 7, 2006). "Some of nation's best libraries have books bound in human skin". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 31, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- ^ "EBSCO Publishing and the John Carter Brown Library Join Forces to Offer Free Historical Database". PRWeb. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
- ^ "EBSCO Publishing and the John Carter Brown Library Join Forces to Offer Database", September 16, 2010, published online at Journals.EBSCO.com
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | John Carter Brown Library". www.brown.edu. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- ^ BBC News, "Bay Psalm Book is most expensive printed work at $14.2m," BBC Archived July 20, 2018, at the Wayback Machine; Sothebys.com Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "64 Mexican incunables and counting | John Carter Brown Library". jcblibrary.org. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- ^ Goldberg, Daniel (March 7, 2019). "Haffenreffer Museum begins complete inventory of one million objects". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Annmary Brown Memorial". www.brown.edu. Archived from the original on January 23, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- ^ Corey, Patrick (February 1, 2008). "Straight Path on Walk opens to public". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ Geller, Sarah (December 8, 2006). "Plans for the Walk begin to take shape". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
- ^ Rubinton, Noel (October 20, 2017). "Where to See (Really See) the Art of Maya Lin". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
- ^ Wrenn, John (March 18, 2021). "Wrenn GS: College Hill's Grim Reaper". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
- ^ Geh, Victoria; Li, Evan; Puma, Patrick; Du, Hong Sen. "The 'inescapable' effect of off-campus athletics: How the distance to Baker has shaped Columbia's recruiting, performance, and sports culture". Columbia Daily Spectator. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
- ^ Elizabeth Abbott (December 13, 2011). "Providence Puts Focus on Making a Home for Knowledge". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- ^ Bai, Corrine (January 30, 2019). "South Street Landing move improves staff experience". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
- ^ Goldstein, Li (October 19, 2018). "Office of Sustainability's twice-weekly tours spotlight University initiatives". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- ^ "Department of Facilities Management, Energy and Environmental Advisory Committee". Brown University. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- ^ Raymond, Mark (November 12, 2010). "U. moves toward greener campus". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- ^ Reed, Allie (September 13, 2018). "University on track to meet sustainability goals". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- ^ Pender, Caelyn (March 4, 2020). "Brown sells 90 percent of fossil fuel investments". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- ^ Pender, Caelyn (March 5, 2021). "University launches strategic sustainability plan". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ "U.S. Potential Natural Vegetation, Original Kuchler Types, v2.0 (Spatially Adjusted to Correct Geometric Distortions)". Archived from the original on July 3, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- ^ "Degrees and Completions Factbook". Brown University Office of Institutional Research. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- ^ Aratani, Lauren (April 6, 2015). "Independent concentrations reflect students' interdisciplinary interests". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ Brown University. "Brown University Office of Admission facts and figures". Brown.edu. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- ^ a b "Undergraduate Alumni Outcomes". Office of Institutional Research | Brown University. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ University, Brown (1900). Annual Report of the President to the Corporation of Brown University.
- ^ "07-013 (Brown/RISD Joint Degree)". www.brown.edu. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- ^ Kubzansky, Will (March 26, 2020). "Brown admits 6.9 percent of applicants amid COVID-19 crisis". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- ^ Li, Aubrey (November 4, 2020). "Brown collaborates with RISD to create new joint master's program". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- ^ Abramovitch, Seth (June 10, 2019). "Top 25 Graduate Schools for an Acting Degree, Ranked". The Hollywood Reporter.
- ^ "The Best 25 College Drama Programs Around the World". The Hollywood Reporter. June 8, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- ^ Roberts, Bella (April 27, 2017). "Pulitzer winners discuss MFA Program at University". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- ^ Kathy Borchers, "Brown University turning out one exceptional playwright after another," Associated Press (Providence Journal), December 18, 2009; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-28.
- ^ "Brown alumna, emeritus faculty member capture Pulitzers for drama, poetry | Brown University". www.brown.edu. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- ^ Molly Lederer, "Trinity Rep is still shining after 50 years," East Side Monthly, Oct. 2013, p. 17
- ^ Lutts, Chloe (July 16, 2006). "Four Brown alums win 2006 Pulitzers". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- ^ Ryan, Cate (April 16, 2019). "University alums win four Pulitzer Prizes". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- ^ "Brown, IBM Unveil Multimillion-Dollar Supercomputer - News from Brown". brown.edu. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- ^ Hess, Abigail Johnson (November 21, 2019). "Former Apple CEO John Sculley: 'The way we are educated is going to radically change'". CNBC. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- ^ Myers, Marc (December 17, 2019). "Masi Oka Found a Hollywood Solution to His Math Problem". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- ^ "Aneel Bhusri". Forbes. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- ^ "IMDB trivia for Toy Story page". IMDb. Archived from the original on April 13, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- ^ McCormick, Jango (December 6, 2018). "Computer science department plans expansion". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- ^ Wang, Sarah (September 14, 2017). "Computer science surpasses economics as most popular concentration". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- ^ Lader, Mary-Catherine (November 18, 2004). "University plans interdisciplinary approach for new archaeology institute". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- ^ Lutts, Chloe (November 9, 2005). "Nation's only Egyptology dept. set to expand, but details not set in stone". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- ^ Brown.edu Archived September 30, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Brown.edu". Archived from the original on February 22, 2019. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
- ^ Brown.edu Archived April 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "The Social Fabric: Global Migration, Local Exclusions, and the New Iberoamerican Agenda". Watson Institute. April 6, 2011. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- ^ Brown.edu Archived September 30, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Meera and Vikram Gandhi Fellows". Brown University. Archived from the original on March 9, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- ^ "Brown University community mourns loss of Richard C. Holbrooke, alumnus and career diplomat". Brown University. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- ^ "Sergei Khrushchev Recalls the Cuban Missile Crisis on BBC". Watson Institute. October 15, 2012. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- ^ Ismay, John (September 8, 2020). "At Least 37 Million People Have Been Displaced by America's War on Terror". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- ^ Defusto, Lydia (October 23, 2017). "Engineering Research Center opens early". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- ^ Ember, Sydney (July 26, 2010). "Corporation approves engineering school at May meeting". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- ^ Brown's website (October 2014). "IE Brown Executive MBA". Brown University News Service. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014.
- ^ Clark, Patrick (May 23, 2014). "Brown University Gets Into the MBA Game". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- ^ "IE Brown Executive MBA - Faqs - IE Brown Executive MBA". iebrown.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- ^ Hinds, Katherine (1985). "Joan Wallach Scott: Breaking New Ground for Women". Change. 17 (4): 48–53. ISSN 0009-1383.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Graduate School". www.brown.edu. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- ^ Weissmann, Elena (September 16, 2015). "Fifth-year master's programs see rise in enrollment, expand to new depts". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- ^ Miller, G. Wayne. "Brown University gets $100M gift for neuroscience institute". providencejournal.com. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
- ^ Renken, Elena (May 24, 2019). "Brain science blooms at Brown". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
- ^ Parsons, Charles W; Rhode Island Historical Society (1881). The medical school formerly existing in Brown University, its professors and graduates. Providence, R.I.: S.S. Rider. OCLC 1038137370.
- ^ "History of the Brown Medical School". Med.brown.edu. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- ^ a b Smith-Barrow, Delece (March 27, 2014). "10 Medical Schools With the Lowest Acceptance Rates". U.S. News and World Report LP. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- ^ "Best Medical Schools (Primary Care) Ranked in 2019 - US News Rankings". Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- ^ a b Kubzansky, Will (April 6, 2021). "Brown admits record-low 5.4 percent of applicants to the class of 2025". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- ^ February 14; Orenstein 401-863-1862, 2013 Media contact: David. "Brown creates School of Public Health". news.brown.edu. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- ^ Miller, Rhonda (July 13, 2013). "Brown launches public-health school". Providence Business News. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- ^ Wren, Kayli (September 28, 2016). "Brown becomes first in country to offer four-year joint MD-MPA program". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
- ^ Brown School of Professional Studies, archived from the original on April 13, 2018, retrieved May 13, 2018
- ^ "Brown launches two free online courses". Archived from the original on May 14, 2018. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
- ^ BrownX, archived from the original on May 14, 2018, retrieved May 13, 2018
- ^ "Brown University Common Data Set 2019-2020" (PDF). 2020.
- ^ "Brown University Common Data Set 2014-2015" (PDF). 2015.
- ^ "Brown University". U.S. News & World Report. 2021.
- ^ "Common Data Set 2019-2020" (PDF). brown.edu. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- ^ "Brown to eliminate loans from University undergraduate aid packages in 2018-19". Brown University. December 7, 2017. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- ^ "Home - Financial Aid". Brown University. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- ^ "Facts About Brown". Brown University. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- ^ "As public health dominates public conversation, Brown receives record number of MPH applications". March 10, 2021. Archived from the original on March 10, 2021.
- ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020: National/Regional Rank". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- ^ "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- ^ "Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education College Rankings 2021". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
- ^ "2021 Best National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- ^ "2020 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
- ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2020. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2021". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- ^ "World University Rankings 2021". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- ^ "2021 Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
- ^ a b "Brown University - U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- ^ "Best Colleges 2021: Explore the Full WSJ/THE College Ranking List". Wall Street Journal. September 17, 2020. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
- ^ "Brown University". Forbes. August 15, 2019. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2019.
- ^ "2021 Best National University Rankings". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- ^ "Brown University Overall Rankings". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- ^ "2020 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- ^ "Usnews.com". Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- ^ Liyan Chen. "Startup Schools: America's Most Entrepreneurial Universities". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 3, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- ^ "LinkedIn.com".
- ^ "10 Medical Schools With the Lowest Acceptance Rates". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
- ^ "25 Best Colleges for Computer Science 2020 | GradReports". www.gradreports.com. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ "Top Producers of Fulbright U.S. Scholars and Students, 2020-21". www.chronicle.com. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- ^ "Brown ranked nation's No. 2 producer of Fulbright winners for 2019-20". Brown University. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- ^ "Brown University". www.aau.edu. Association of American Universities (AAU). Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ^ "Carnegie Classifications Institution Lookup". carnegieclassifications.iu.edu. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ^ "Rankings by total R&D expenditures". nsf.gov. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ^ "NSF – NCSES Academic Institution Profiles – Brown University". ncsesdata.nsf.gov. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ^ Anderson, Nick (June 7, 2016). "These colleges have the most reports of rape". Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved June 9, 2016 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- ^ Sullivan, Connor (March 20, 2018). "Anderson .Paak, NAO to headline Spring Weekend". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Spring Weekend". www.brown.edu. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- ^ Michael, Katherine Ok,Nicholas (April 23, 2020). "The ghosts of Spring Weekends past". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- ^ Teng, Spencer Schultz,Emily (April 6, 2020). "Spring 2020 Herald poll reflects student perspectives, experiences". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | Fraternities". www.brown.edu. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- ^ Rhode Island Historical Society, "Providence Franklin Society Records, 1826-1922," published online at  Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ The three cited items of "evidence" in Pacifica House publicity are William J. Rhees, Manual of Public Libraries, Institutions and Societies in the United States (Philadelphia, 1859), pp. 437-8; Thomas B. Stockwell, A History of Public Education in Rhode Island, from 1636 to 1876 (Providence, 1876), p. 246; and Providence Franklin Society, Report on the Geology of Rhode Island (Providence, 1887, commissioned 1883), for which see, e.g., Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, no. 127 (Washington, 1896), p. 821)
- ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Brown Center for Students of Color. Brown University. Archived from the original on November 23, 2014. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
- ^ "Welcome to the Sarah Doyle Women's Center". Sarah Doyle Women's Center. Brown University. Archived from the original on December 2, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- ^ "Guiding Philosophies". Sarah Doyle Women's Center. Brown University. Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- ^ "Undocumented, First-Generation College, and Low-Income Student Center". Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- ^ "TWC History at Brown | Brown Center for Students of Color". www.brown.edu. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
- ^ Podugu, Trisha Thacker,Katherine Bennett,Priyanka (December 7, 2018). "Students commemorate legacy, impact of 1968 walkout". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
- ^ Robert Siegel, "Black Baseball Pioneer William White's 1879 Game," National Public Radio, broadcast January 30, 2004 (audio at npr.org)
- ^ Stefan Fatsis, "Mystery of Baseball: Was William White Game's First Black?" Wall Street Journall, January 30, 2004 (online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB107541676333815810)
- ^ Peter Morris and Stefan Fatsis, "Baseball's Secret Pioneer: William Edward White, the first black player in major-league history," Slate, February 4, 2014; baseball-reference.com/bullpen/Bill_White_(whitebi01)
- ^ Rick Harris, Brown University Baseball: A Legacy of the game (Charleston: The History Press, 2012), pp. 41-3
- ^ https://brownbears.com/
- ^ "National Champions (Teams)". Brown. Archived from the original on May 17, 2018. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- ^ "ICSA | Inter-collegiate Sailing Association". collegesailing.org. Archived from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- ^ "ICSA | Inter-collegiate Sailing Association". collegesailing.org. Archived from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- ^ "ICSA | Inter-collegiate Sailing Association". collegesailing.org. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- ^ "Harvard 1897-98 Men's Ice Hockey Schedule". Harvard University. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
- ^ Robert B. Johnson, A History of Rowing in America (1871), pp. 60-1
- ^ "2000 College". USAultimate.org. USAultimate.org. Archived from the original on March 24, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- ^ "Spinoff of Expedia Comes at Tough Time for Its Sector". The New York Times. August 8, 2005. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2017.(subscription required)
- ^ "Dara Khosrowshahi: Executive Profile & Biography", BusinessWeek
- ^ Rosenberg, Jerry Martin (1982). Inside the Wall Street Journal: The History and the Power of Dow Jones & Company and America's Most Influential Newspaper. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-604860-6.
- ^ "Out Of China". Forbes. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- ^ Mac, Ryan. "Tech Exec Aneel Bhusri Becomes A Billionaire As Workday Shares Soar". Forbes. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
- ^ Albert-Deitch, Cameron (January 2, 2018). "Why These Casper Co-Founders Swear by Their Morning Routine (Hint: It's Not Just Sleep)". Inc.com. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- ^ Heft-Luthy, Sam (October 17, 2012). "Two alums develop risque card game". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
- ^ "Something Great". Brown Alumni Magazine. Archived from the original on January 1, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- ^ Shapira, Ian (February 9, 1998). "Vanity Fair names Brown most elite, explores stereotypes of Ivy League". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- ^ Driver, Ben (April 26, 2012). "The Not-So-Far-Fetched Fictitious Alumni and Attendees of the Ivy League, Part I of II". Archived from the original on March 6, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- ^ Alvarez, Ana (April 19, 2010). "Is Brown's popularity a passing trend or here to stay?". The Brown Daily Herald. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
Last edited on 8 May 2021, at 00:58
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.