Aerial view of Buckingham Palace during Elizabeth II
's official 90th birthday celebrations in 2016. The principal façade, the East Front, was originally completed in 1850 and was remodelled in 1913.
Originally known as Buckingham House
, the building at the core of today's palace was a large townhouse
built for the Duke of Buckingham
in 1703 on a site that had been in private ownership for at least 150 years. It was acquired by King George III
as a private residence for Queen Charlotte
and became known as The Queen's House. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash
and Edward Blore
, who constructed three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria
The last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the East Front, which contains the well-known balcony on which the British royal family
traditionally congregates to greet crowds. A German bomb destroyed the palace chapel during the Second World War
; the Queen's Gallery
was built on the site and opened to the public in 1962 to exhibit works of art from the Royal Collection
The original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola
and blue and pink lapis
, on the advice of Sir Charles Long
. King Edward VII
oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque
cream and gold colour scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency
style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion
and from Carlton House
. The palace has 775 rooms, and the garden
is the largest private garden in London. The state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring.
In 1531, Henry VIII
acquired the Hospital of St James, which became St James's Palace
from Eton College
, and in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey.
These transfers brought the site of Buckingham Palace back into royal hands for the first time since William the Conqueror had given it away almost 500 years earlier.
Various owners leased it from royal landlords, and the freehold
was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century. By then, the old village of Eye Cross had long since fallen into decay, and the area was mostly wasteland.
Needing money, James I
sold off part of the Crown freehold but retained part of the site on which he established a 4-acre (1.6 ha) mulberry garden for the production of silk. (This is at the north-west corner of today's palace.) Clement Walker
in Anarchia Anglicana
(1649) refers to "new-erected sodoms and spintries at the Mulberry Garden at S. James's"; this suggests it may have been a place of debauchery. Eventually, in the late 17th century, the freehold was inherited from the property tycoon Sir Hugh Audley
by the great heiress Mary Davies.[c]
First houses on the site (1624–1761)
Possibly the first house erected within the site was that of a Sir William Blake, around 1624.
The next owner was Lord Goring
, who from 1633 extended Blake's house, which came to be known as Goring House, and developed much of today's garden, then known as Goring Great Garden.
He did not, however, obtain the freehold interest in the mulberry garden. Unbeknown to Goring, in 1640 the document "failed to pass the Great Seal
before Charles I
fled London, which it needed to do for legal execution".
It was this critical omission that would help the British royal family regain the freehold under George III
Buckingham House, c. 1710
Buckingham House was built for John Sheffield in 1703 to the design of William Winde
. The style chosen was of a large, three-floored central block with two smaller flanking service wings.
It was eventually sold by Buckingham's illegitimate son, Sir Charles Sheffield
, in 1761
to George III for £21,000.[d]
on the mulberry garden site, the freehold of which was still owned by the royal family, was due to expire in 1774.
From Queen's House to palace (1761–1837) Under the new royal ownership, the building was originally intended as a private retreat for George III's wife, Queen Charlotte
, and was accordingly known as The Queen's House
. Remodelling of the structure began in 1762.
In 1775, an Act of Parliament settled the property on Queen Charlotte, in exchange for her rights to nearby Somerset House
and 14 of her 15 children were born there. Some furnishings were transferred from Carlton House
and others had been bought in France after the French Revolution
of 1789. While St James's Palace
remained the official and ceremonial royal residence,
the name "Buckingham-palace" was used from at least 1791.
After his accession to the throne in 1820, George IV
continued the renovation intending to create a small, comfortable home. However, in 1826, while the work was in progress, the King decided to modify the house into a palace with the help of his architect John Nash
The external façade was designed, keeping in mind the French neoclassical
influence preferred by George IV. The cost of the renovations grew dramatically, and by 1829 the extravagance of Nash's designs resulted in his removal as the architect. On the death of George IV in 1830, his younger brother William IV
hired Edward Blore
to finish the work.
William never moved into the palace. After the Palace of Westminster
was destroyed by fire in 1834, he offered to convert Buckingham Palace into a new Houses of Parliament, but his offer was declined.
Queen Victoria (1837–1901)
The palace c. 1837, depicting Marble Arch
, which served as a ceremonial entrance to the Palace precincts. It was moved to make way for the east wing in 1847.
Buckingham Palace became the principal royal residence in 1837, on the accession of Queen Victoria,
who was the first monarch to reside there; her predecessor William IV had died before its completion.
While the state rooms
were a riot of gilt
and colour, the necessities of the new palace were somewhat less luxurious. It was reported the chimneys smoked so much that the fires had to be allowed to die down, and consequently the palace was often cold.
Ventilation was so bad that the interior smelled, and when it was decided to install gas lamps, there was a serious worry about the build-up of gas on the lower floors. It was also said that staff were lax and lazy and the palace was dirty.
Following the Queen's marriage in 1840, her husband, Prince Albert
, concerned himself with a reorganisation of the household
offices and staff, and with addressing the design faults of the palace.
By the end of 1840, all the problems had been rectified. However, the builders were to return within the decade.
By 1847, the couple had found the palace too small for court life and their growing family
and a new wing, designed by Edward Blore, was built by Thomas Cubitt
enclosing the central quadrangle. The large East Front, facing The Mall
, is today the "public face" of Buckingham Palace, and contains the balcony from which the royal family
acknowledge the crowds on momentous occasions and after the annual Trooping the Colour
The ballroom wing and a further suite of state rooms were also built in this period, designed by Nash's student Sir James Pennethorne
Before Prince Albert's death, the palace was frequently the scene of musical entertainments,
and the most celebrated contemporary musicians entertained at Buckingham Palace. The composer Felix Mendelssohn
is known to have played there on three occasions. Johann Strauss II
and his orchestra played there when in England.
Under Victoria, Buckingham Palace was frequently the scene of lavish costume balls, in addition to the usual royal ceremonies, investitures and presentations.
Widowed in 1861, the grief-stricken Queen withdrew from public life and left Buckingham Palace to live at Windsor Castle
, Balmoral Castle
and Osborne House
. For many years the palace was seldom used, even neglected. In 1864, a note was found pinned to the fence of Buckingham Palace, saying: "These commanding premises to be let or sold, in consequence of the late occupant's declining business."
Eventually, public opinion persuaded the Queen to return to London, though even then she preferred to live elsewhere whenever possible. Court functions were still held at Windsor Castle, presided over by the sombre Queen habitually dressed in mourning black, while Buckingham Palace remained shuttered for most of the year.
Early 20th century (1901–1945)
The east wing public façade, enclosing the courtyard, was built between 1847 and 1850; it was remodelled to its present form in 1913.
In 1901, the new king, Edward VII, began redecorating the palace. The King and his wife, Queen Alexandra
, had always been at the forefront of London high society, and their friends, known as "the Marlborough House
Set", were considered to be the most eminent and fashionable of the age. Buckingham Palace—the Ballroom, Grand Entrance, Marble Hall, Grand Staircase, vestibules and galleries were redecorated in the Belle Époque
cream and gold colour scheme they retain today—once again became a setting for entertaining on a majestic scale but leaving some to feel Edward's heavy redecorations were at odds with Nash's original work.
The last major building work took place during the reign of George V
when, in 1913, Sir Aston Webb
redesigned Blore's 1850 East Front to resemble in part Giacomo Leoni
's Lyme Park
in Cheshire. This new, refaced principal façade (of Portland stone
) was designed to be the backdrop to the Victoria Memorial
, a large memorial statue of Queen Victoria created by sculptor Sir Thomas Brock
, erected outside the main gates on a surround constructed by architect Sir Aston Webb.
George V, who had succeeded Edward VII in 1910, had a more serious personality than his father; greater emphasis was now placed on official entertaining and royal duties than on lavish parties.
He arranged a series of command performances
featuring jazz musicians such as the Original Dixieland Jazz Band
(1919; the first jazz performance for a head of state), Sidney Bechet
, and Louis Armstrong
(1932), which earned the palace a nomination in 2009 for a (Kind of) Blue Plaque
by the Brecon Jazz Festival
as one of the venues making the greatest contribution to jazz music in the United Kingdom.
During the First World War
, which lasted from 1914 until 1918, the palace escaped unscathed. Its more valuable contents were evacuated to Windsor, but the royal family remained in residence. The King imposed rationing
at the palace, much to the dismay of his guests and household.
To the King's later regret, David Lloyd George
persuaded him to go further and ostentatiously lock the wine cellars and refrain from alcohol, to set a good example to the supposedly inebriated working class. The workers continued to imbibe, and the King was left unhappy at his enforced abstinence.
George V's wife, Queen Mary
, was a connoisseur of the arts, and took a keen interest in the Royal Collection of furniture and art, both restoring and adding to it. Queen Mary also had many new fixtures and fittings installed, such as the pair of marble Empire style
chimneypieces by Benjamin Vulliamy
, dating from 1810, which the Queen had installed in the ground floor Bow Room, the huge low room at the centre of the garden façade. Queen Mary was also responsible for the decoration of the Blue Drawing Room.
This room, 69 feet (21 metres) long, previously known as the South Drawing Room, has a ceiling designed by Nash, coffered with huge gilt console brackets.
In 1938, the north-west pavilion, designed by Nash as a conservatory, was converted into a swimming pool.
Second World War
During the Second World War
, which broke out in 1939, the palace was bombed nine times.
The most serious and publicised incident destroyed the palace chapel in 1940. This event was shown in cinemas throughout the United Kingdom to show the common suffering of rich and poor. One bomb fell in the palace quadrangle while George VI
and Queen Elizabeth
(the future Queen Mother) were in the palace, and many windows were blown in and the chapel destroyed.
War-time coverage of such incidents was severely restricted, however. The King and Queen were filmed inspecting their bombed home; it was at this time the Queen famously declared: "I'm glad we have been bombed. Now I can look the East End
in the face".
The royal family were seen as sharing their subjects' hardship, as The Sunday Graphic
By the Editor: The King and Queen have endured the ordeal which has come to their subjects. For the second time a German bomber has tried to bring death and destruction to the home of Their Majesties … When this war is over the common danger which King George and Queen Elizabeth have shared with their people will be a cherished memory and an inspiration through the years.
On VE Day
—8 May 1945—the palace was the centre of British celebrations. The King, the Queen, Princess Elizabeth
(the future Queen), and Princess Margaret
appeared on the balcony, with the palace's blacked-out windows behind them, to cheers from a vast crowd in The Mall.
The damaged Palace was carefully restored after the war by John Mowlem & Co.
Late 20th century to present day
Many of the palace's contents are part of the Royal Collection, held in trust by Elizabeth II
; they can, on occasion, be viewed by the public at the Queen's Gallery
, near the Royal Mews. The purpose-built gallery opened in 1962 and displays a changing selection of items from the collection.
It occupies the site of the chapel that was destroyed in the Second World War.
The palace was designated a Grade I listed building
Its state rooms have been open to the public during August and September and on some dates throughout the year since 1993. The money raised in entry fees was originally put towards the rebuilding of Windsor Castle after the 1992 fire
devastated many of its state rooms.
In the year to 31 March 2017, 580,000 people visited the palace, and 154,000 visited the gallery.
The palace, like Windsor Castle, is owned by the reigning monarch in right of the Crown
. Occupied royal palaces are not part of the Crown Estate
but nor are they the monarch's personal property, unlike Sandringham House
and Balmoral Castle
. Her Majesty's Government
is responsible for maintaining the palace in exchange for the profits made by the Crown Estate.
In November 2015, the State Dining Room was closed for a year and a half because its ceiling had become potentially dangerous.
A 10-year schedule of maintenance work, including new plumbing, wiring, boilers, and radiators, and the installation of solar panels on the roof, has been estimated to cost £369 million and was approved by the prime minister in November 2016. It will be funded by a temporary increase in the Sovereign Grant
paid from the income of the Crown Estate and is intended to extend the building's working life by at least 50 years.
In March 2017, the House of Commons
backed funding for the project by 464 votes to 56.
Buckingham Palace is a symbol and home of the British monarchy, an art gallery, and a tourist attraction. Behind the gilded railings and gates that were completed by the Bromsgrove Guild
and Webb's famous façade, which has been described in a book published by the Royal Collection Trust
as looking "like everybody's idea of a palace",
is not only a weekday home of Elizabeth II, but also the London residence of the Duke of York
and the Earl
and Countess of Wessex
. The palace also houses their offices
, as well as those of the Princess Royal
and Princess Alexandra
, and is the workplace of more than 800 people.
Every year, some 50,000 invited guests are entertained at garden parties, receptions, audiences, and banquets. Three garden parties
are held in the summer, usually in July.
The forecourt of Buckingham Palace is used for the Changing of the Guard
, a major ceremony and tourist attraction (daily from April to July; every other day in other months).
of Buckingham Palace. The areas defined by shaded walls represent lower minor wings. Note
: This is an unscaled sketch plan for reference only. Proportions of some rooms may slightly differ in reality.
The front of the palace measures 355 feet (108 m) across, by 390 ft (120 m) deep, by 80 ft (24 m) high and contains over 830,000 sq ft (77,000 m2
) of floorspace.
There are 775 rooms, including 188 staff bedrooms, 92 offices, 78 bathrooms, 52 principal bedrooms, and 19 state rooms. It also has a post office
, cinema, swimming pool, doctor's surgery,
and jeweller's workshop.
The principal rooms are contained on the piano nobile
behind the west-facing garden façade at the rear of the palace. The centre of this ornate suite of state rooms is the Music Room, its large bow the dominant feature of the façade. Flanking the Music Room are the Blue and the White Drawing Rooms. At the centre of the suite, serving as a corridor to link the state rooms, is the Picture Gallery, which is top-lit and 55 yards (50 m) long.
The Gallery is hung with numerous works including some by Rembrandt
, van Dyck
other rooms leading from the Picture Gallery are the Throne Room
and the Green Drawing Room. The Green Drawing Room serves as a huge anteroom to the Throne Room, and is part of the ceremonial route to the throne from the Guard Room at the top of the Grand Staircase.
The Guard Room contains white marble statues of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, in Roman costume, set in a tribune
lined with tapestries. These very formal rooms are used only for ceremonial and official entertaining but are open to the public every summer.
The Duke of Edinburgh in the Chinese Luncheon Room
Directly underneath the State Apartments
are the less grand semi-state apartments. Opening from the Marble Hall, these rooms are used for less formal entertaining, such as luncheon parties and private audiences
. Some of the rooms are named and decorated for particular visitors, such as the 1844 Room, decorated in that year for the state visit of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia
, and the 1855 Room, in honour of the visit of Emperor Napoleon III of France
At the centre of this suite is the Bow Room, through which thousands of guests pass annually to the Queen's garden parties
The Queen and Prince Philip use a smaller suite of rooms in the north wing.
Between 1847 and 1850, when Blore was building the new east wing, the Brighton Pavilion
was once again plundered of its fittings. As a result, many of the rooms in the new wing have a distinctly oriental atmosphere. The red and blue Chinese Luncheon Room is made up from parts of the Brighton Banqueting and Music Rooms with a large oriental chimney piece designed by Robert Jones
and sculpted by Richard Westmacott
It was formerly in the Music Room at the Brighton Pavilion.
The ornate clock, known as the Kylin Clock
, was made in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province, China, in the second half of the 18th century; it has a later movement
by Benjamin Vulliamy
The Yellow Drawing Room
has wallpaper supplied in 1817 for the Brighton Saloon, and a chimney piece which is a European vision of how the Chinese chimney piece may appear. It has nodding mandarins
and fearsome winged dragons
, designed by Robert Jones.
At the centre of this wing is the famous balcony with the Centre Room behind its glass doors. This is a Chinese-style saloon enhanced by Queen Mary, who, working with the designer Sir Charles Allom
, created a more "binding"
Chinese theme in the late 1920s, although the lacquer
doors were brought from Brighton in 1873. Running the length of the piano nobile
of the east wing is the Great Gallery, modestly known as the Principal Corridor, which runs the length of the eastern side of the quadrangle.
It has mirrored doors and mirrored cross walls reflecting porcelain
pagodas and other oriental furniture from Brighton. The Chinese Luncheon Room and Yellow Drawing Room are situated at each end of this gallery, with the Centre Room in between.
The original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which still survive, included widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola
and blue and pink lapis
, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII
oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque
cream and gold colour scheme.
The 1844 Room, a sitting room of the Belgian Suite, also serves as an audience room and is often used for personal investitures.
When paying a state visit to Britain, foreign heads of state
are usually entertained by the Queen at Buckingham Palace. They are allocated an extensive suite of rooms known as the Belgian Suite, situated at the foot of the Minister's Staircase, on the ground floor of the north-facing Garden Wing. Narrow corridors link the rooms of the suite, one of them is given extra height and perspective by saucer domes
designed by Nash in the style of Soane.
A second corridor in the suite has Gothic-influenced cross-over vaulting
The Belgian Rooms themselves were decorated in their present style and named after King Leopold I of Belgium
, uncle of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. In 1936, the suite briefly became the private apartments of the palace when King Edward VIII
, which include the conferring of knighthoods
by dubbing with a sword, and other awards take place in the palace's Ballroom, built in 1854. At 120 ft (36.6 m) long, 60 ft (18 m) wide and 45 ft (13.5 m) high,
it is the largest room in the palace. It has replaced the throne room in importance and use. During investitures, the Queen stands on the throne dais beneath a giant, domed velvet canopy, known as a shamiana
or a baldachin
, that was used at the Delhi Durbar
A military band plays in the musicians' gallery as award recipients approach the Queen and receive their honours
, watched by their families and friends.
also take place in the Ballroom; these formal dinners are held on the first evening of a state visit by a foreign head of state.
On these occasions, for up to 170 guests in formal "white tie and decorations", including tiaras, the dining table is laid with the Grand Service, a collection of silver-gilt plate made in 1811 for the Prince of Wales, later George IV.
The largest and most formal reception at Buckingham Palace takes place every November when the Queen entertains members of the diplomatic corps
On this grand occasion, all the state rooms are in use, as the royal family proceed through them,
beginning at the great north doors of the Picture Gallery. As Nash had envisaged, all the large, double-mirrored doors stand open, reflecting the numerous crystal chandeliers and sconces
, creating a deliberate optical illusion of space and light.
Smaller ceremonies such as the reception of new ambassadors take place in the "1844 Room". Here too, the Queen holds small lunch parties, and often meetings of the Privy Council
. Larger lunch parties often take place in the curved and domed Music Room or the State Dining Room.
Since the bombing of the palace chapel in World War II, royal christenings have sometimes taken place in the Music Room. The Queen's first three children were all baptised there.
On all formal occasions, the ceremonies are attended by the Yeomen of the Guard
, in their historic uniforms, and other officers of the court such as the Lord Chamberlain
with members of the royal family in the ground floor Marble Hall
Court presentation of débutantes Débutantes
were aristocratic young ladies making their first entrée into society through a presentation to the monarch at court. These occasions, known as "coming out", took place at the palace from the reign of Edward VII. The débutantes entered—wearing full court dress, with three ostrich feathers in their hair—curtsied, performed a backwards walk and a further curtsey, while manoeuvring a dress train of prescribed length. The ceremony, known as an evening court, corresponded to the "court drawing rooms
" of Victoria's reign.
After World War II, the ceremony was replaced by less formal afternoon receptions, omitting the requirement court evening dress.
In 1958, the Queen abolished the presentation parties for débutantes,
replacing them with Garden Parties
for up to 8,000 invitees in the Garden. They are the largest functions of the year.
Garden and surroundings
At the rear of the palace is the large and park-like garden, which together with its lake is the largest private garden in London.
There, the Queen hosts her annual garden parties each summer and also holds large functions to celebrate royal milestones, such as jubilees. It covers 40 acres (16 ha) and includes a helicopter landing area, a lake, and a tennis court.
Adjacent to the palace is the Royal Mews
, also designed by Nash, where the royal carriages, including the Gold State Coach
, are housed. This rococo
gilt coach, designed by Sir William Chambers
in 1760, has painted panels by G. B. Cipriani
. It was first used for the State Opening of Parliament by George III in 1762 and has been used by the monarch for every coronation since George IV. It was last used for the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II
Also housed in the mews are the coach horses used at royal ceremonial processions.
The boy Jones
was an intruder who gained entry to the palace on three occasions between 1838 and 1841.
At least 12 people have managed to gain unauthorised entry into the palace or its grounds since 1914,
including Michael Fagan
, who broke into the palace twice in 1982 and entered the Queen's bedroom on the second occasion. At the time, news media reported that he had a long conversation with the Queen while she waited for security officers to arrive, but in a 2012 interview with The Independent
, Fagan said the Queen ran out of the room, and no conversation took place.
It was only in 2007 that trespassing on the palace grounds became a specific criminal offence.[g]
- ^ By tradition, the British Royal Court is officially resident at St James's Palace, which means that, while foreign ambassadors assuming their new position are received by the British sovereign at Buckingham Palace, they are accredited to the "Court of St James's Palace". This anomaly continues for the sake of tradition, as Buckingham Palace is to all intents and purposes the official residence. See History of St James's Palace (Official website of the British Monarchy).
- ^ The topography of the site and its ownership are dealt with in Wright, chapters 1–4.
- ^ Audley and Davies were key figures in the development of Ebury Manor and also the Grosvenor Estate (see dukes of Westminster), which still exists today. They are remembered in the streetnames North Audley Street, South Audley Street, and Davies Street, all in Mayfair.
- ^ The purchase price is given by Wright p. 142 as £28,000.
- ^ The tradition persists of foreign ambassadors being formally accredited to "the Court of St James's", even though it is at Buckingham Palace that they present their credentials and staff to the Monarch upon their appointment.
- ^ Princess Margaret is reputed to have remarked of the débutante presentations: "We had to put a stop to it, every tart in London was getting in."
- ^ Under section 128(1) of the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005, "A person commits an offence if he enters, or is on, any designated site in England and Wales or Northern Ireland as a trespasser". Buckingham Palace is a designated site under the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 (Designated Sites under Section 128) Order 2007.
- ^ "Buckingham". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- ^ "Palace". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- ^ Royal Household (12 November 2015). "Buckingham Palace". Royal Family website. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- ^ a b Robinson, p. 14.
- ^ Goring, p. 15.
- ^ Goring, p. 28.
- ^ Goring, p. 18.
- ^ "Chapter 1: The Acquisition of the Estate". The Grosvenor Estate in Mayfair. Survey of London. 39. London County Council. 1977. pp. 1–5. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
- ^ Wright, pp. 76–78.
- ^ Goring, pp. 31, 36.
- ^ Wright, p. 83.
- ^ Goring, Chapter V
- ^ a b c Harris, p. 21.
- ^ Wright, p. 96.
- ^ Goring, p. 62.
- ^ Goring, p. 58.
- ^ a b "Who built Buckingham Palace?". Royal Collection Trust. Archived from the original on 24 June 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- ^ Harris, p. 22.
- ^ Mackenzie, p. 12 and Nash, p. 18.
- ^ Mackenzie, p. 12
- ^ Harris, p. 24.
- ^ a b Old and New London. 4. Cassell, Petter & Galpin. 1878. pp. 61–74.
- ^ Jones, p. 42.
- ^ Burke, Edmund, ed. (1791). The Annual Register. p. 8. Retrieved 25 September 2016. Buckingham-palace was the dwelling house of the king.
- ^ Harris, pp. 30–31.
- ^ Harris, p. 33.
- ^ "The Royal Residences > Buckingham Palace > History". www.royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010.
- ^ Ziegler, Philip (1971). King William IV. Collins. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-00-211934-4.
- ^ "The Royal Residences > Buckingham Palace". www.royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010.
- ^ Hedley, p. 10.
- ^ a b Woodham-Smith, p. 249.
- ^ a b Rappaport, p. 84.
- ^ Harris, de Bellaigue & Miller, p. 33.
- ^ Holland & Hannen and Cubitts – The Inception and Development of a Great Building Firm, published 1920, p. 35.
- ^ Owens, Ed. "Buckingham Palace's balcony: a focal point for national celebration". Immediate Media/BBC. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^ King, p. 217.
- ^ Hedley, p. 19.
- ^ Healey, pp. 137–138.
- ^ Healey, p. 122.
- ^ "Who has lived at Buckingham Palace?". Royal Collection Trust. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^ John Gardiner (2006). The Victorians: An Age in Retrospect. A&C Black. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-85285-560-4.
- ^ a b c Robinson, p. 9.
- ^ Robinson (Page 9) asserts that the decorations, including plaster swags and other decorative motifs, are "finicky" and "at odds with Nash's original detailing".
- ^ Harris, p. 34.
- ^ Healey, p. 185.
- ^ "Buckingham Palace hits right note with jazz fans". London Evening Standard. 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- ^ Stephen Bates (3 August 2009). "By royal approval: Buckingham Palace's place in jazz history". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- ^ Rose, Kenneth (1983). King George V. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-0-297-78245-2.
- ^ Rose, pp. 178–179.
- ^ Healey pp. 221–222.
- ^ Harris, p. 63.
- ^ Allison and Riddell, p. 69.
- ^ "Letter from Queen Elizabeth to Queen Mary describing the bombing of Buckingham Palace, 13 September 1940". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- ^ Thornton, Michael (1984). Royal Feud. M. Joseph. p. 216.
- ^ Davies, Caroline (12 September 2009). "How the Luftwaffe bombed the palace, in the Queen Mother's own words". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
- ^ The Sunday Graphic, 18 September 1939, p. 1.
- ^ Price, Alfred. The Battle of Britain Day, Greenhill Books, London, 1990, pp. 49–50 and Stephen Bungay, The Most Dangerous Enemy: A History of the Battle of Britain. Aurum Press, London, 2000, p. 325.
- ^ "Pilot who 'saved Palace' honoured". BBC News. 2 November 2005. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
- ^ 1945: Rejoicing at end of war in Europe (BBC On this day.) Retrieved 3 February 2009.
- ^ "Sir Edgar Beck". The Telegraph. London. 9 August 2000. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- ^ "About the Royal Collection". Royal Collection Trust. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- ^ Historic England. "Buckingham Palace (Grade I) (1239087)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- ^ "Windsor Castle – five years from disaster to triumph". BBC. 17 November 1997. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- ^ Royal Collection Enterprises Limited (28 September 2017). "Full accounts made up to 31 March 2017". Companies House. p. 3. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- ^ House of Commons Treasury Committee (2010). The Management of the Crown Estate: Eighth Report of Session 2009–10. 1. Stationery Office. p. 30. Windsor Castle is an occupied Royal Palace and therefore not part of the Crown Estate.
- ^ "Royal Property". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 252. United Kingdom: House of Commons. 16 January 1995. col. 301W.
- ^ HM Treasury. "Sovereign Grant Act: frequently asked questions relating to the Act and on general issues". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- ^ Martin Bailey (23 March 2017). "Emergency repair work to Buckingham Palace's State Dining Room nears completion". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- ^ Gordon Rayner (18 November 2016). "Queen to remain in residence as Buckingham Palace gets £369m taxpayer-funded facelift to avert 'catastrophic building failure'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
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