Burton Stephen Lancaster
(November 2, 1913 – October 20, 1994) was an American actor and producer. Initially known for playing tough guys with a tender heart, he went on to achieve success with more complex and challenging roles over a 45-year career in film and, later, television. He was a four-time nominee for the Academy Award for Best Actor
(winning once), and he also won two BAFTA
Awards and one Golden Globe Award
for Best Lead Actor. The American Film Institute
ranks Lancaster as #
19 of the greatest male stars
of classic Hollywood cinema.
Lancaster performed as a circus acrobat in the 1930s. After serving in World War II
, the 32-year-old Lancaster landed a role in a Broadway play and drew the attention of a Hollywood agent. His breakthrough role was the film noir The Killers
in 1946 alongside Ava Gardner
. A critical success, it launched both of their careers. In 1953, Lancaster played the illicit lover of Deborah Kerr
in the military drama From Here to Eternity
. A box office smash, it won eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, and landed a Best Actor nomination for Lancaster. In 1956, he starred in The Rainmaker
, with Katharine Hepburn
, earning a Best Actor Golden Globe nomination, and in 1957 he starred in Gunfight at the O.K. Corral
with frequent co-star Kirk Douglas
. During the 1950s, his production company, Hecht-Hill-Lancaster
, was highly successful, with Lancaster acting in films such as: Trapeze
in 1956, a box office smash in which he used his acrobatic skills; Sweet Smell of Success
(1957), a dark drama today considered a classic; Run Silent, Run Deep
(1958), a WWII submarine drama with Clark Gable
; and Separate Tables
(1958), a hotel-set drama which received seven Oscar nominations.
In the early 1960s, Lancaster starred in a string of critically successful films, each in very disparate roles. Playing a charismatic biblical con-man in Elmer Gantry
in 1960 won him the Academy Award and the Golden Globe for Best Actor. He played a Nazi war criminal in 1961 in the all-star, war-crime-trial film, Judgment at Nuremberg
. Playing a bird expert prisoner in Birdman of Alcatraz
in 1962, he earned the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor and his third Oscar nomination. In 1963, Lancaster traveled to Italy to star as an Italian prince in the epic period drama The Leopard
. In 1964, he played a US Air Force General who, opposed by a Colonel played by Kirk Douglas, tries to overthrow the President in Seven Days in May
. Then, in 1966, he played an explosives expert in the western The Professionals
In 1970, Lancaster starred in the box-office hit, air-disaster drama Airport
. He experienced a career resurgence in 1980 with the crime-romance Atlantic City
, winning the BAFTA for Best Actor and landing his fourth Oscar nomination. Starting in the late 1970s, he also appeared in television mini-series, including the award-winning Separate but Equal
with Sidney Poitier
. He continued acting into his late 70s, until a stroke in 1990 forced him to retire; four years later he died from a heart attack. His final film role was in the Oscar-nominated Field of Dreams
Lancaster was born on November 2, 1913, in Manhattan
, New York, at his parents' home at 209 East 106th Street, the son of Elizabeth (née
Roberts) and mailman James Lancaster.
Both of his parents were Protestants
of working-class origin. All four of his grandparents were immigrants from Ireland to the United States, from the province of Ulster
; his maternal grandparents were from Belfast
and were descendants of English immigrants to Ireland.
Cravat and Lancaster performing on the horizontal bars
At the age of 9, Lancaster met Nick Cravat
with whom he developed a lifelong partnership.
Together, they learned to act in local theatre productions and circus arts at Union Settlement
, one of the city's oldest settlement houses.
In the 1930s, they formed the acrobat duo Lang and Cravat
and soon joined the Kay Brothers circus. However, in 1939, an injury forced Lancaster to give up the profession, with great regret. He then found temporary work, first as a salesman for Marshall Fields
and then as a singing waiter in various restaurants.
World War II service
Lancaster returned to New York after his Army service. Although initially unenthusiastic about acting, Lancaster was encouraged to audition for a Broadway play by a producer who saw him in an elevator while he was visiting his then-girlfriend at work.
The audition was successful and Lancaster was cast in Harry Brown
's A Sound of Hunting
(1945). The show only ran three weeks, but his performance attracted the interest of a Hollywood agent, Harold Hecht
. Lancaster had other offers but Hecht promised him the opportunity to produce their own movies within five years of hitting Hollywood.
Through Hecht, Lancaster was brought to the attention of producer Hal B. Wallis
, who signed him to a non-exclusive eight-movie contract.
Hellinger used Lancaster again on Brute Force
in 1947, a prison drama written by Richard Brooks
and directed by Jules Dassin
. It was also well received.
Wallis released his films through Paramount, and so Lancaster and other Wallis contractees made cameos in Variety Girl
Lancaster's next film was a thriller for Wallis in 1947, I Walk Alone
, co-starring Lizabeth Scott and a young Kirk Douglas
, who was also under contract to Wallis. Variety
listed it as one of the top grossers of the year, taking in more than 2 million dollars.
Hecht kept to his promise to Lancaster to turn producer. The two of them formed a company, Norma Productions, and did a deal with Universal to make a thriller about a disturbed G.I. in London, Kiss the Blood Off My Hands
in 1948, with Joan Fontaine
and directed by Norman Foster. It made a profit of only $50,000, but was critically acclaimed.
Back in Hollywood, Lancaster made another film noir with Siodmak, Criss Cross
, in 1949. It was originally going to be produced by Hellinger and when Hellinger died, another took over. Tony Curtis
made an early appearance.
Lancaster appeared in a fourth picture for Wallis, Rope of Sand
, in 1949.
Norma Productions signed a three-picture deal with Warner Bros.
The first was 1950's The Flame and the Arrow
, a swashbuckler movie, in which Lancaster drew on his circus skills. Nick Cravat had a supporting role and the film was a huge commercial success, making $6 million. It was Warners' most popular film of the year and established an entirely new image for Lancaster.
The second was 1952's The First Time
, a comedy which was the directorial debut of Frank Tashlin
. It was meant to star Lancaster but he wound up not appearing in the film—the first of their productions in which he did not act.
In 1951, the actor/producer duo changed the company's name to Hecht-Lancaster Productions. The first film under the new name was another swashbuckler: 1952's The Crimson Pirate
, directed by Siodmak. Co-starring Cravat, it was extremely popular.
Alternating with adventure films, he went into South Sea Woman
in 1952 at Warners. Part of the Norma-Warners contract was that Lancaster had to appear in some non-Norma films, of which this was one.
In 1954, for his own company, Lancaster produced and starred in His Majesty O'Keefe
, a South Sea island tale shot in Fiji. It was co-written by James Hill, who would soon become a part of the Hecht-Lancaster partnership.
Hecht and Lancaster left Warners for United Artists
, for what began as a two-picture deal, the first of which was to be 1954's Apache
, starring Lancaster as a Native American.
They followed it with another Western in 1954, Vera Cruz
, co-starring Gary Cooper
and produced by Hill. Both films were directed by Robert Aldrich
and were hugely popular.
United Artists signed Hecht-Lancaster to a multi-picture contract, to make seven films over two years.
These included films in which Lancaster did not act. Their first was Marty
in 1955, based on Paddy Chayefsky
's TV play starring Ernest Borgnine
and directed by Delbert Mann
. It won both the Best Picture Oscar
and the Palme d'Or
award at Cannes
. It also earned $2 million on a budget of $350,000. Vera Cruz
had been a huge success, but Marty
secured Hecht-Lancaster as one of the most successful independent production companies in Hollywood at the time. Marty
star Ernest Borgnine
was under contract to Hecht-Lancaster and was unhappy about his lack of upcoming roles, especially after only receiving some seven lines in 1957's Sweet Smell of Success
and half of his pay for Marty
He eventually sued for breach of contract to gain back some of this money in 1957.
Without Hill, Hecht and Lancaster produced The Kentuckian
in 1955; it was directed by Lancaster in his directorial debut, and he also played a lead role. Lancaster disliked directing and only did it once more, in the 1970s (The Midnight Man
Lancaster still had commitments with Wallis, and made The Rose Tattoo
for him in 1955, starring with Anna Magnani
and Daniel Mann
directing. It was very popular at the box office and critically acclaimed, winning Magnani an Oscar.
In 1955, Hill was made an equal partner in Hecht-Lancaster, with his name added to the production company. Hecht-Hill-Lancaster
(HHL) released their first film Trapeze
in 1956, with Lancaster performing many of his own stunts. The film, co-starring Tony Curtis
and Gina Lollobrigida
, went on to become the production company's top box office success, and United Artists expanded its deal with HHL.
The HHL team impressed Hollywood with its success; as Life
wrote in 1957, "[a]fter the independent production of a baker's dozen
of pictures, it has yet to have its first flop ... (They were also good pictures.)."
In late 1957, they announced they would make ten films worth $14 million in 1958.
Lancaster re-teamed with Tony Curtis
in 1957 for Sweet Smell of Success
, a co-production between Hecht-Hill-Lancaster and Curtis' own company with wife Janet Leigh
, Curtleigh Productions. The movie, directed by Alexander Mackendrick
, was a critical success but a commercial disappointment. Over the years it has come to be regarded as one of Lancaster's greatest films.
Additionally, HHL served as the production company for the 1960–61 TV series Whiplash
The Hecht-Hill-Lancaster Productions company dissolved in 1960 after Hill ruptured his relationship with both Hecht and Lancaster.
Hecht and Lancaster
Drawing of Lancaster after he won an Oscar for Elmer Gantry
(1960). Artist: Nicholas Volpe
Lancaster played the title role in Elmer Gantry
(1960), written and directed by Richard Brooks for United Artists. The film received five Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture and Best Actor. Lancaster won the 1960 Academy Award
for Best Actor, a Golden Globe Award, and the New York Film Critics Award
for his performance.
He then did another film with Hecht and Frankenheimer (replacing Charles Crichton
), Birdman of Alcatraz
(1962), a largely fictionalized biography. In it he plays Robert Stroud
, a federal prisoner incarcerated for life for two murders, who begins to collect birds and over time becomes an expert in bird diseases, even publishing a book. The film shows Stroud transferred to the maximum security Alcatraz prison where he is not allowed to keep birds and as he ages he gets married, markets bird remedies, helps stop a prison rebellion, and writes a book on the history of the U.S. penal system, but never gets paroled. The sympathetic performance earned Lancaster a Best Actor Oscar nomination, a BAFTA Award for Best Actor, and a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actor in a Dramatic Role. Hecht went on to produce five films without Lancaster's assistance, through his company Harold Hecht Films Productions between 1961 and 1967, including another Academy Award winner, Cat Ballou
, starring Lee Marvin
and Jane Fonda
Collaborations with younger filmmakers
In 1966, at the age of 52, Lancaster appeared nude in director Frank Perry
's film The Swimmer
(1968), in what the critic Roger Ebert
called "his finest performance".
Prior to working on The Swimmer
, Lancaster was terrified of the water because he did not know how to swim. In preparation for the film, he took swimming lessons from UCLA
swim coach Bob Horn.
Filming was difficult and clashes between Lancaster and Perry led to Sydney Pollack
coming in to do some filming.
The film was not released until 1968, when it proved to be a commercial failure, though Lancaster remained proud of the movie and his performance.
In 1967, Lancaster formed a new partnership with Roland Kibbee
, who had already worked as a writer on five Lancaster projects:
- Ten Tall Men
- The Crimson Pirate*
- Three Sailors and a Girl (in which Lancaster made a cameo appearance)
- Vera Cruz
- The Devil's Disciple
Through Norlan Productions, Lancaster and Kibbee produced The Scalphunters
in 1968, directed by Sydney Pollack.
Lancaster followed it with another film from Pollack, Castle Keep
in 1969, which was a big flop. So was The Gypsy Moths
, for Frankenheimer, also in 1969.
Lancaster had one of the biggest successes of his career with Airport
in 1970, starring alongside Dean Martin
, Jean Seberg
and Jacqueline Bisset
. The film received nine Academy Award nominations, including one for Best Picture. It became one of the biggest box-office hits of 1970 and, at that time, reportedly the highest-grossing film in the history of Universal Pictures
He then went into a series of Westerns: Lawman
in 1971, directed by Michael Winner
; Valdez Is Coming
in 1971, for Norlan; and Ulzana's Raid
in 1972, directed by Aldrich and produced by himself and Hecht. None were particularly popular but Ulzana's Raid
has become a cult film.
Lancaster returned to directing in 1974 with The Midnight Man
, which he also wrote and produced with Kibee.
Lancaster was top-billed in Go Tell the Spartans
in 1978, a Vietnam War
film; Lancaster admired the script so much that he took a reduced fee and donated money to help the movie to be completed. He was in Zulu Dawn
Lancaster began the 1980s with a highly acclaimed performance alongside Susan Sarandon
in Atlantic City
in 1980, directed by Louis Malle
. The film received 5 Oscar nominations, including Best Picture and a Best Actor nomination for Lancaster.
Lancaster appeared in a total of 17 films produced by his agent, Harold Hecht
. Eight of these were co-produced by James Hill
. He also appeared in eight films produced by Hal B. Wallis
and two with producer Mark Hellinger
. Although Lancaster's work alongside Kirk Douglas was mostly known as a successful pair of actors, Douglas, in fact, produced four films for the pair, through his production companies Bryna Productions and Joel Productions. Roland Kibbee also produced three Lancaster films, and Lancaster was also cast in two Stanley Kramer
Kirk Douglas starred in seven films across the decades with Burt Lancaster: I Walk Alone
(1948), Gunfight at the O.K. Corral
(1957), The Devil's Disciple
(1959), The List of Adrian Messenger
(1963), Seven Days in May
(1964), Victory at Entebbe
(1976) and Tough Guys
(1986), which fixed the notion of the pair as something of a team in the public imagination. Douglas was always billed under Lancaster in these movies but, with the exception of I Walk Alone
, in which Douglas played a villain, their roles were usually more or less the same size. Both actors arrived in Hollywood at about the same time, and first appeared together in the fourth film for each, albeit with Douglas in a supporting role. They both became actor-producers who sought out independent Hollywood careers.
wrote for seven Lancaster films. Lancaster used makeup veteran Robert Schiffer in 20 credited films, hiring Schiffer on nearly all of the films he produced.
Lancaster was a vocal supporter of progressive and liberal
He frequently spoke out in support of racial and other minorities. As a result, he was often a target of FBI investigations.
He was named in President Richard Nixon
's 1973 "Enemies List
A vocal opponent of the Vietnam War
, he helped pay for the successful defense of a soldier accused of "fragging
" (i.e., murdering) another soldier during war-time.
In 1968, Lancaster actively supported the presidential candidacy of anti-war Senator Eugene McCarthy
, and frequently spoke on his behalf during the Democratic
In 1985, Lancaster joined the fight against AIDS
after fellow movie star Rock Hudson
contracted the disease.
Lancaster delivered the bed-ridden Hudson's last words at the Commitment to Life fundraiser at a time when the stigma surrounding AIDS was at its height. He was the only major male star who attended.
Of his political opinions, frequent co-star Tony Curtis
said: "Here's this great big aggressive guy that looks like a ding-dong athlete playing these big tough guys and he has the soul of—who were those first philosophers of equality?—Socrates
. He was a Greek philosopher with a sense that everybody was equal."
Actor and SAG
president Ed Asner
said he showed everybody in Hollywood "how to be a liberal with balls".
Civil Rights Movement
While serving as a member of the five-person ACLU Foundation executive committee, he cast the key vote to retain Ramona Ripston
as executive director of the Southern California affiliate, a position she would build into a powerful advocacy force in Los Angeles politics. Ripston later recalled: "There was a feeling that a woman couldn't run the ACLU foundation, nor have access to the books. The vote finally came down to two 'yes' and two 'no.' Who had the deciding vote? Burt. He had a scotch or two and finally he said, 'I think she should be executive director.' I always loved him for that."
Marriages and relationships
Lancaster guarded his personal life and attempted to keep it private despite his stardom. He was married three times and had five children. He also attended gay orgies and had gay affairs, according to his family.
His first marriage was to June Ernst, a trapeze acrobat. Ernst was the daughter of a renowned female aerialist and an accomplished acrobat herself. After they were married, he performed with her and her family until their separation in the late 1930s. It is not clear when they divorced. Contemporary reports listed 1940, but subsequent biographers have suggested dates as late as 1946, thus delaying his marriage to his second wife.
He met second wife Norma Anderson (1917–1988) when the stenographer substituted for an ill actress in a USO production for the troops in Italy. Reportedly, on seeing Lancaster in the crowd on her way to town from the airport, she turned to an officer and asked, "Who is that good-looking officer and is he married?" The officer set up a blind date between the two for that evening.
She was active in political causes with an entire room in their Bel Air home devoted to her major interest, the League of Woman Voters, crammed with printing presses and all the necessary supplies for mass mailings.
She was a life-long member of the NAACP
. The couple held a fundraiser for Martin Luther King Jr.
and the SCLC
ahead of the 1963 March on Washington
All five of his children were with Anderson: Bill
(who became an actor and screenwriter), James, Susan, Joanna (who worked as a film producer), and Sighle (pronounced "Sheila"). However, it was a troubled marriage. The pair separated in 1966, and finally divorced in 1969.
In 1966, Lancaster began a long-term relationship with hairdresser Jackie Bone, who worked on The Professionals
. She was abusive, with Bone once smashing a wine bottle over Lancaster's head at a dinner with Sydney Pollack
and Peter Falk
. Reportedly, they eventually split up after her religious conversion, which Lancaster believed he could not share with her.
His third marriage, to Susan Martin, lasted from September 1990 until his death in 1994.
Friends said he claimed he was romantically involved with Deborah Kerr
during the filming of From Here to Eternity
However, Kerr stated that while there was a spark of attraction,
nothing ever happened.
In her 1980 autobiography, Shelley Winters
claimed to have had a two-year affair with him, during which time he was considering separation from his wife. In his Hollywood memoirs, friend Farley Granger
recalled an incident when he and Lancaster had to come to Winters' rescue one evening when she had inadvertently overdosed on alcohol and sleeping pills.
She broke up with him for "cheating on her with his wife" after she heard reports of his wife's third or fourth pregnancy.
Lancaster and Winters performed together in the 1949 radio play adaptation of The Killers
. They appeared in 2 films together: The Young Savages
, where she played his character's former lover, and The Scalphunters
According to biographer Kate Buford in Burt Lancaster: An American Life
, Lancaster was devotedly loyal to his friends and family. Old friends from his childhood remained his friends for life.
As Lancaster reached his sixties he began to be affected by cardiovascular disease
. In January 1980 he suffered complications from a routine gall bladder
operation; and in 1983, following two minor heart attacks, he underwent an emergency quadruple coronary bypass
. He continued to act, however, and to engage in public activism. In 1988, he attended a Congressional hearing in Washington, D.C., with former colleagues who included James Stewart
and Ginger Rogers
to protest against media magnate Ted Turner
's plan to colorize
various black-and-white films from the 1930s and 1940s. On November 30, 1990, when he was 77, a stroke
left him partially paralyzed
and largely unable to speak, effectively ending his acting career.
Lancaster's plaque under an oak tree in Westwood Memorial Park where his ashes were scattered
Burt Lancaster died at his apartment in Century City
, California, after suffering a third heart attack at 4:50 am on October 20, 1994, at the age of 80.
His body was cremated, and his ashes were scattered under a large oak tree in Westwood Memorial Park
which is located in Westwood Village
, California. A small, square ground plaque amidst several others, inscribed "Burt Lancaster 1913–1994", marks the location. As he had previously requested, upon his death no memorial or funeral service was held for him.
Filmography and awards
Box office ranking
For a number of years exhibitors voted Lancaster among the most popular stars:
In other media
- ^ "AFI's 50 GREATEST AMERICAN SCREEN LEGENDS" Archived February 22, 2019, at the Wayback Machine American Film Institute. Retrieved: December 7, 2016.
- ^ a b Buford 2008, p. 12.
- ^ Buford 2008, p. 28.
- ^ a b Andreychuk 2005, p. 3.
- ^ Andreychuk 2005, p. 6.
- ^ Andreychuk 2005, p. 7.
- ^ Andreychuk, Ed. Burt Lancaster: A Filmography and Biography. p. 7. [Norma] was then working for radio producer Ray Knight at the RCA Building in New York City. Going up in an elevator there, Burt noticed he was being stared at by a smaller man. ...His name was Jack Mahlor and as an associate of Irving Jacobs he was looking for a big-framed actor ... to read for the role of the tough-minded sergeant.
- ^ a b "Top Grossers of 1947". Variety. New York, NY: Variety Publishing Company. January 7, 1948. p. 63 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ "Desert Fury (1947)". AFI Catalog. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
- ^ "Film reviews". Variety. New York, NY: Variety Publishing Company. August 7, 1946. p. 13 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ "60 Top Grossers of 1946". Variety. New York, NY: Variety Publishing Company. January 1, 1947. p. 55 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ "The Killers". Criterion.com. Retrieved October 30, 2019. Its first screen incarnation came in 1946, when director Robert Siodmak unleashed The Killers, helping to define the film noir style and launching the careers of Burt Lancaster and Ava Gardner in this archetypal masterpiece
- ^ "The Killers (1946)". britannica.com. Retrieved October 30, 2019. The film established Lancaster as a major talent, and it helped launch Gardner as one of the screen’s legendary sex symbols. ...The film is regarded as one of the top crime sagas of 1940s cinema
- ^ a b "Top Grossers of 1948". Variety. New York, NY: Variety Publishing Company. January 5, 1949. p. 46 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ Warner Bros financial information in The William Shaefer Ledger. See Appendix 1, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, (1995) 15:sup1, 1-31 p 30 doi:10.1080/01439689508604551
- ^ The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study
- ^ FILM ACTORS' UNION EXTENDS CONTRACT: Screen Guild Eases Pressure on Producers by Negotiating 6-Month Addition to Pact By THOMAS F. BRADY Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES 14 Dec 1950: 51.
- ^ Burt Breaks Mold When Typed: Burt Balks at Typed Film Roles – Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times December 14, 1952: D1.
- ^ LANCASTER TO STAR IN SHIPWRECK TALE: Norma Productions Buys 'His Majesty O'Keefe' for the Actor's First '52 Role By THOMAS F. BRADY The New York Times January 1, 1951: 14.
- ^ BURT LANCASTER MAKES U. A. DEAL: Movie Star and His Partner, Harold Hecht, Find a New Outlet for Productions By THOMAS M. PRYOR New York Times June 24, 1953: 30.
- ^ Looking at Hollywood: Lancaster Gets Indian Role in 'Bronco Apache' Hopper, Hedda. Chicago Daily Tribune2 Dec 1952: a5.
- ^ HOLLYWOOD SURPRISE by THOMAS M. PRYOR. The New York Times February 14, 1954: X5.
- ^ HOLLYWOOD DOSSIER: 'MARTY' HITS JACKPOT – TEAM – ON THE SET By OSCAR GODBOUT HOLLYWOOD.. The New York Times September 11, 1955: X7.
- ^ Tino Balio, United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry, University of Wisconsin Press, 1987 p. 82
- ^ "Ernest Borgnine (1917-2012): A Personal Remembrance and An Unforgettable Interview". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
- ^ Andreychuk, Ed (September 1, 2015). Burt Lancaster: A Filmography and Biography. McFarland. ISBN 9781476606491.
- ^ ' The Top Box-Office Hits of 1955', Variety Weekly, January 25, 1956
- ^ ' The Top Box-Office Hits of 1956', Variety Weekly, January 2, 1957
- ^ Pryor, Thomas M. (1956). "Hecht-Lancaster Plans New Films: Producing Unit Signs Deal with United Artists—5 Features Are Listed Lancaster to Act". The New York Times, April 13, 1956. p. 20.
- ^ "Buzzell Ties with Hecht & Lancaster" (PDF). Billboard. March 16, 1957. p. 8.
- ^ Hodgins, Eric. "Amid Ruins of an Empire a New Hollywood Arises." Life, June 10, 1957, p. 146. Retrieved: April 22, 2012.
- ^ "Hecht-Hill-Lancaster Planning Record Year: Group Will Produce $14,000,000 Worth of Motion Pictures in 1958". Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1957. p. B9.
- ^ Kate Buford, Burt Lancaster: An American Life, Da Capo 2000 p 183
- ^ "1959: Probable Domestic Take", Variety, January 6, 1960 p 34
- ^ pp. 151–152 Larkins, Bob & Magers, Boyd The Films of Audie Murphy McFarland, August 19, 2009
- ^ Hill went on to produce a single additional film, The Happy Thieves, in a new production company, Hillworth Productions, co-owned with his wife Rita Hayworth.
- ^ Balio, Tino (1987). United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 145.
- ^ Buford, Kate (2000). Burt Lancaster: An American Life. London: Aurum. pp. 222–227. ISBN 1-85410-740-2.
- ^ Glenn Lovell, Escape Artist: The Life and Films of John Sturges, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008 p250
- ^ Ebert, Roger (July 2, 1968). "Review: "The Swimmer"". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois: Sun-Times Media Group. Retrieved October 24, 2018 – via RogerEbert.com.
- ^ Innis, Chris. "The Story of The Swimmer". The Swimmer (Blu-ray/DVD) (2014 ed.). Los Angeles, California: Grindhouse Releasing.
- ^ Stafford, Jeff "The Swimmer" (article) on TCM.com
- ^ "Big Rental Films of 1969", Variety, January 7, 1970 p 15
- ^ "I CAN'T GET JIMMY CARTER TO SEE MY MOVIE!" Aldrich, Robert. Film Comment; New York Vol. 13, Iss. 2, (Mar/Apr 1977): 46-52.
- ^ A Bittersweet Burt Lancaster, Looking Back-and Forward--at 62: A Bittersweet Burt Lancaster By Kenneth Turan. The Washington Post May 23, 1976: 165.
- ^ Kate Buford, Burt Lancaster (Da Capo Press, 2000) ISBN 0-306-81019-0
- ^ Stanfield, Peter; Krutnik, Frank; Neve, Brian; Neale, Steve (December 27, 2007). 'Un-American' Hollywood: Politics and Film in the Blacklist Era. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 212. ISBN 9780813543970.
- ^ a b c "ACLU HQ serial 1032". archive.org. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
- ^ "Series 70" [manuscript]. 1, Box: 1, File: 61-10149, ID: 810-1032. Marquette University: Marquette Archives.
- ^ https://www.enemieslist.info/list2sc.php
- ^ Buford 2008, p. 266.
- ^ Wheeler, Mark (August 5, 2013). Celebrity Politics. Cambridge, England: Polity. p. 48. ISBN 9780745652498.
- ^ "The Daily News from Port Angeles, Washington". Peninsula Daily News. Port Angeles, Washington: Black Press Ltd. July 20, 1976. p. 4. Retrieved August 1, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- ^ Schmich, Mary T.; Siskel, Gene (October 3, 1985). "Actor Rock Hudson, 59, Victim Of Aids". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois: Tronc. p. 2. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- ^ Harmetz, Aljean (September 20, 1985). "Hollywood Turns Out for AIDS Benefit". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
- ^ a b c d e f g "Burt Lancaster: An American Life".
- ^ Smith, Ronald L (2010). Horror Stars on Radio: The Broadcast Histories of 29 Chilling Hollywood Voices. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-7864-5729-8.
- ^ "Hollywood Fights Back - 10/26/1947 (1 of 2)" – via www.youtube.com.
- ^ Fagan, Myron (1948). Red Stars In Hollywood. p. 6.
- ^ Gray, Tim (August 28, 2015). "Hollywood Turned Out for Historic 'I Have a Dream' Speech". Variety. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- ^ Matthews, David (August 28, 2013). "Kennedy White House had jitters ahead of 1963 March on Washington". CNN Entertainment. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- ^ "Burt Lancaster speaks at the "March on Washington"". Retrieved October 23, 2019.
- ^ "ACLU PSA with Burt Lancaster". Retrieved October 23, 2019.
- ^ https://www.independent.ie/world-news/screen-god-burts-sex-life-set-the-stage-for-hollywood-gay-scene-26122343.html
- ^ a b c d Buford 2008.
- ^ Darden, Robert (September 23, 2016). Nothing but Love in God's Water: Volume 2: Black Sacred Music from Sit-Ins to Resurrection City. ISBN 9780271080123.
- ^ Buford 2008, pp. 127–30.
- ^ Goldbeck, MD, Larry O. (August 27, 2016). Their Stars Shone Brightly. Xlibris. ISBN 978-1524532154. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- ^ Granger, Farley; Calhoun, Robert (March 6, 2007). Include Me Out: My Life from Goldwyn to Broadway. ISBN 9781429945448.
- ^ Winters 1980, p. 259.
- ^ Buford, Kate (March 14, 2000). Burt Lancaster: An American Life. Knopf. ISBN 978-0679446033.[page needed]
- ^ Buford, Kate (2001). Burt Lancaster: An American Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0306810190.
- ^ "Oscar Winner Burt Lancaster Dies at 80". Los Angeles Times. October 24, 1994. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- ^ Holden, Stephen (May 12, 2013). "Film: lots of Lancaster at Lincoln Center". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
- ^ painted by Thomas Hart Benton (1954). "The Kentuckian (painting)". LACMA Collections.
- Andreychuk, Ed. Burt Lancaster: A Filmography And Biography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7864-2339-2.
- Buford, Kate. Burt Lancaster: An American Life. London: Aurum Press, 2008. ISBN 1-84513-385-4.
- Winters, Shelley. Shelley: Also known as Shirley. New York: Morrow, 1980. ISBN 978-0-688-03638-6.
- Karney, Robyn. Burt Lancaster: A Singular Man. Trafalgar Square Pub, 1997 ISBN 1570760748
Last edited on 9 May 2021, at 18:54
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