Its name arose from the fact that almost no shots were fired
, and Celeste Caeiro
to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship; other demonstrators followed suit, and carnations were placed in the muzzles of guns and on the soldiers' uniforms.
In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday
: Dia da Liberdade
, Freedom Day) which commemorates the revolution.
The revolution changed the government
to a democracy
and produced enormous social, economic, territorial, demographic and political changes. These changes evolved during (and after) a two-year transitional period known as Processo Revolucionário Em Curso
(PREC, Ongoing Revolutionary Process), which was characterised by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces.
Despite repeated radio appeals by the revolutionaries asking the population to stay home, thousands of Portuguese citizens descended on the streets and mingled with the military insurgents
The military-led coup returned democracy to Portugal, ending the unpopular Colonial War
(in which thousands of Portuguese citizens had been conscripted
into military service) and replacing the Estado Novo regime and its secret police
(which curbed civil liberties
and political freedom
). It began as a
protest by Portuguese Armed Forces captains
against a law: the Dec Lei nº 353/73 of 1973.
(the Estado Novo's political police) killed four people before surrendering, the revolution was unusual because the revolutionaries did not use violence to achieve their goals. Holding red carnations
), many people joined revolutionary soldiers on the streets of Lisbon in apparent joy and audible euphoria.
Red is the colour of socialism
, the ideological tendencies of many anti-Estado Novo insurgents.
It was the end of the Estado Novo (the longest-lived authoritarian regime in Western Europe
), and the dissolution of the Portuguese Empire. In the aftermath of the revolution, a new constitution
was drafted, censorship
was prohibited, free speech
was permitted, political prisoners
were released and the Portuguese overseas territories in sub-Saharan Africa
were granted independence. East Timor
was also offered independence, shortly before it was invaded by Indonesia
Portugal's Estado Novo government was initially tolerated by its NATO
partners due to its anti-communist
stance. In elections
the government candidate usually ran unopposed; the opposition used the limited political freedoms
allowed during the brief election period to protest
against the regime, withdrawing their candidates before the election to deny the regime political legitimacy
. In 1958, General Humberto Delgado
(a former member of the regime) stood against the regime's presidential candidate, Américo Tomás
, and refused to allow his name to be withdrawn.
Tomás won the election amidst claims of widespread electoral fraud. Immediately after the election, the Salazar government abandoned the practice of popularly electing the president and gave the task to the National Assembly
, which was firmly under the regime's control. During Caetano's time in office, he made minor attempts at political reform that did not appease those opposing the government. However, many of these reforms were obstructed by Salazarist elements in the regime. The hardliners were supported by Tomás, who was unwilling to give Caetano as free a hand as Salazar had. The Estado Novo's political police, the PIDE
(Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado, later the DGS, Direcção-Geral de Segurança and originally the PVDE, Polícia de Vigilância e Defesa do Estado), persecuted
opponents of the regime, who were often tortured, imprisoned or killed.
helicopter in Africa
The war became more unpopular in Portugal due to its length and cost, the worsening of diplomatic relations
with other United Nations member states, and its role in perpetuating the Estado Novo regime. Its escalation led to the mutiny of FAP
in the Carnation Revolution. Atrocities such as the Wiriyamu Massacre
undermined the war's popularity and the government's diplomatic position, although details of the massacre are still disputed.
Many left-wing students and anti-war activists were forced to leave Portugal to escape conscription, imprisonment and torture
by government forces. Between 1945-74, however, three generations of right-wing militants in Portuguese schools were guided by a revolutionary nationalism
partially influenced by European neo-fascism
. The core of the radical students' struggle was an uncompromising defense of the Portuguese Empire
and an authoritarian regime.
Portuguese colonies in Africa under the Estado Novo regime
The Companhia União Fabril (CUF) was one of the largest and most-diversified Portuguese conglomerates; its core businesses
included cement, petrochemicals
, textiles, beer, beverages, metallurgy
, naval engineering
, electrical engineering
, banking, paper, tourism and mining. Although its corporate headquarters was in mainland Portugal
, it had branches, plants and projects throughout the Portuguese Empire (especially in the territories of Cabinda
, Angola and Mozambique).
Other medium-sized family companies specialised in textiles (such as those in Covilhã
and the northwest), ceramics, porcelain, glass and crystal (such as those in Alcobaça
, Caldas da Rainha
and Marinha Grande
), engineered wood (such as SONAE
, near Porto
), canned fish (Algarve
and the northwest), fishing, food and beverages (liqueurs, beer and port wine
), tourism (in Estoril
and the Algarve
) and agriculture (the Alentejo
, known as the breadbasket
of Portugal) by the early-1970s. Rural families engaged in agriculture and forestry.
During the 1961–74 Portuguese Colonial War (a counterinsurgency
), Portuguese Congo
, Portuguese Angola
and Portuguese Mozambique
(colonies at the time) experienced economic growth in the production of oil, coffee, cotton, cashews, coconuts, timber, minerals (including diamonds), metals (such as iron and aluminium), bananas, citrus, tea, sisal, beer, cement, fish and other seafood, beef and textiles. Labour unions
were prohibited, and minimum wage
laws were not enforced. The outbreak of colonial wars in Africa set off significant social changes, among them the rapid incorporation of women into the labour market. Marcelo Caetano fostered economic growth and social improvement, such as a monthly pension
to rural workers who had never contributed to Portugal's social security
. The objectives of Caetano's pension reform were to increase equity and economic efficiency
and reduce fiscal imbalance
After Salazar's stroke in 1968, Caetano took over as prime minister
. He adopted a slogan of "continuous evolution", suggesting reforms of Salazar's system. Caetano's Primavera Marcelista (Marcelist Spring) included greater political tolerance and freedom of the press
, and was seen as an opportunity for the opposition to gain concessions
from the regime. Portugal had a taste of democracy in 1969, and Caetano authorised the country's first democratic labour-union movement since the 1920s. However, after the elections of 1969 and 1973 it became clear that past political repression
would continue against communists
and other opponents of the regime.
By the early-1970s, the Portuguese Colonial War had a steadily-increasing budget. The Portuguese military
was overstretched and there was no political solution in sight. Although the number of casualties
was relatively small, the war had entered its second decade; Portugal faced criticism from the international community, and was becoming increasingly isolated.
The war had a profound impact on the country. Thousands of young men avoided conscription
by emigrating illegally
, primarily to France
and the United States
. The revolutionary Armed Forces Movement
(MFA) began as an attempt to liberate Portugal from the Estado Novo regime and challenge new military laws which were coming into force
The laws would reduce the military budget and reformulate the Portuguese military.
Younger military-academy graduates resented Caetano's programme of commissioning militia officers who completed a brief training course and had served in the colonies' defensive campaigns at the same rank as academy graduates.
The war in the colonies was becoming increasingly unpopular in Portugal, and the military insurgency gained momentum.
After the revolution, the MFA began to negotiate with African pro-independence guerrillas. The new government in Lisbon
was no longer inclined to support Portugal's expensive empire, and the Portuguese territories in Africa were rapidly granted independence.
In February 1974, Caetano decided to remove General António de Spínola
from the command of Portuguese forces in Guinea in the face of Spínola's increasing disagreement with the promotion of military officers and the direction of Portuguese colonial policy. This occurred shortly after the publication of Spínola's book, Portugal and the Future
, which expressed his political and military views of the Portuguese Colonial War. Several military officers who opposed the war formed the MFA to overthrow the government in a military coup
. The MFA was headed by Vítor Alves
, Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho
and Vasco Lourenço, and was joined later by Salgueiro Maia
. The movement was aided by other Portuguese army officers who supported Spínola and democratic civil and military reform. It is speculated that Francisco da Costa Gomes
actually led the revolution.
Six hours later, the Caetano government relented. Despite repeated radio appeals from the "captains of April" (the MFA) advising civilians to stay home, thousands of Portuguese took to the streets – mingling with, and supporting, the military insurgents. A central gathering point was the Lisbon flower market, then richly stocked with carnations (which were in season). Some of the insurgents put carnations in their gun barrels
, an image broadcast on television worldwide
which gave the revolution its name. Although no mass demonstrations
preceded the coup, spontaneous civilian involvement turned the military coup into a popular revolution "led by radical army officers, soldiers, workers and peasants that toppled the senile Salazar dictatorship, using the language of socialism and democracy. The attempt to radicalise the outcome," noted a contemporary observer of the time, "had little mass support and was easily suppressed by the Portuguese Socialist Party
and its allies."
Caetano found refuge in the main headquarters of the Lisbon military police, the National Republican Guard
, at the Largo do Carmo. This building was surrounded by the MFA, which pressured him to cede power to General Spínola. Caetano and President Américo Tomás
fled to Brazil; Caetano spent the rest of his life there, and Tomás returned to Portugal a few years later. The revolution was closely watched by neighbouring Spain, where the government (and the opposition) were planning the succession
of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco
. Franco died a year and a half later, in 1975.
Only four civilians were shot dead by government forces under the Directorate General of Security, whose personnel involved were later arrested by the MFA for their murders.
Demonstration in Porto
The conservative forces surrounding Spinola and the MFA radicals initially confronted each other (covertly or overtly), and Spinola was forced to appoint key MFA figures to senior security positions. Right-wing military figures attempted an unsuccessful counter-coup
, resulting in Spinola's removal from office. Unrest within the MFA between leftist forces (often close to the Communist Party
) and more-moderate groups (often allied with the Socialists
) eventually led to the group's splintering and dissolution.
Before April 1974, the intractable Portuguese Colonial War in Africa consumed up to 40 percent of the Portuguese budget. Although part of Guinea-Bissau
became independent de facto
in 1973, Bissau
(its capital) and the large towns were still under Portuguese control. In Angola
, independence movements were active in more remote rural areas from which the Portuguese Army had retreated.
A consequence of the Carnation Revolution was the sudden withdrawal of Portuguese administrative and military personnel from its overseas colonies. Hundreds of thousands of Portuguese Africans
returned to Portugal. These people—workers, small businesspeople, and farmers—often had deep roots in the former colonies and became known as the retornados
was invaded by Indonesia
, and would be occupied
until 1999. There were an estimated 102,800 conflict-related deaths from 1974 to 1999 (about 18,600 killings and 84,200 deaths from hunger and illness), most of which occurred during the Indonesian occupation.
Pre-revolutionary Portugal had some social and economic achievements.
After a long period of economic decline before 1914, the Portuguese economy recovered slightly until 1950. It began a period of economic growth in common with Western Europe, of which it was the poorest country until the 1980s. Portuguese economic growth between 1960 and 1973 (under the Estado Novo regime) created an opportunity for integration with the developed economies of Western Europe despite the colonial war. Through emigration, trade, tourism and foreign investment, individuals and companies changed their patterns of production and consumption. The increasing complexity of a growing economy sparked new technical and organisational challenges.
On 13 November 1972, Fundo do Ultramar (The Overseas Fund, a sovereign wealth fund
) was enacted with Decreto-Lei n.º 448/ /72 and the Ministry of Defense ordinance Portaria 696/72 to finance the war.
The increasing burden of the war effort meant that the government had to find continuous sources of financing. Decretos-Leis n.os 353, de 13 de Julho de 1973, e 409, de 20 de Agosto were enforced to reduce military expenses and increase the number of officers by incorporating militia
and military-academy officers as equals.
According to government estimates, about 900,000 hectares (2,200,000 acres) of agricultural land were seized between April 1974 and December 1975 as part of land reform
; about 32 percent of the appropriations were ruled illegal.[full citation needed]
In January 1976, The government pledged to restore the illegally-occupied land to its owners in 1976, and enacted the Land Reform Review Law the following year. Restoration of illegally-occupied land began in 1978.
In 1960, Portugal's per-capita GDP was 38 percent of the European Economic Community average. By the end of the Salazar period in 1968 it had risen to 48 percent, and in 1973 it had reached 56.4 percent; the percentages were affected by the 40 percent of the budget which underwrote the African wars). In 1975 (the year of greatest revolutionary turmoil), Portugal's per-capita GDP declined to 52.3 percent of the EEC average. Due to revolutionary economic policies, oil shocks, recession in Europe and the return of hundreds of thousands of overseas Portuguese from its former colonies, Portugal began an economic crisis in 1974–1975.
Real gross domestic product
growth resumed as a result of Portugal's economic resurgence since 1985. The country's 1991 per-capita GDP reached 54.9 percent of the EEC average, slightly exceeding the level at the height of the revolutionary period.
A January 2011 story in the Diário de Notícias
(a Portuguese tabloid newspaper) reported that the government of Portugal
encouraged overspending and investment bubbles in public-private partnerships between 1974 and 2010, and the economy has been damaged by risky credit
, public debt
creation and mismanaged European structural and cohesion funds
for almost four decades. Prime Minister José Sócrates
' cabinet was unable to foresee or forestall this when symptoms first appeared in 2005, and could not ameliorate the situation when the Portugal was on the verge of bankruptcy in 2011 and required financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund
and the European Union
Freedom of religion
The ban on Jehovah's Witnesses
activity was abolished. The Witnesses were registered as a religious organisation in December 1976, and organised their first Portuguese international convention in Lisbon in 1978.
Freedom Day (25 April) is a national holiday
, with state-sponsored and spontaneous commemorations of the civil liberties
and political freedoms
achieved after the revolution. It commemorates the 25 April 1974 coup and Portugal's first free elections on that date the following year.
Originally named after former Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar, the 25 de Abril Bridge is a Lisbon icon
Construction of the 25 de Abril Bridge began on 5 November 1962. It opened on 6 August 1966 as the Salazar Bridge, named after Estado Novo leader António de Oliveira Salazar
. Soon after the Carnation Revolution, the bridge was renamed the 25 de Abril Bridge
to commemorate the revolution. Citizens who removed the large, brass "Salazar" sign from a main pillar of the bridge and painting a provisional "25 de Abril" in its place were recorded on film. Many Portuguese streets and squares are named vinte e cinco de Abril
, for the day of the revolution. The Portuguese Mint chose the 40th anniversary of the Carnation Revolution for its 2014 2 euro commemorative coin
After an early period of turmoil, Portugal emerged as a democratic country. The country divested itself of almost all of its former colonies and experienced severe economic turmoil. For the Portuguese and their former colonies this was a very difficult period, but civil rights
and political freedoms
- Setúbal, ville rouge (France–Portugal 1975 documentary, b/w and colour, 16 mm, 93 minutes, by Daniel Edinger) – In October 1975 Setúbal, neighbourhood committees, factory committees, soldiers' committees and peasant cooperatives organise a central committee.
- Cravos de Abril (April Carnations), 1976 documentary, b/w and colour, 16 mm, 28 minutes, by Ricardo Costa – Depicts the revolutionary events from 24 April to 1 May 1974, illustrated by the French cartoonist Siné.
- Scenes from the Class Struggle in Portugal – U.S.–Portugal 1977, 16 mm, b/w and colour, 85 minutes, directed by Robert Kramer
- A Hora da Liberdade [pt] (The Hour of Freedom), 1999 documentary, by Joana Pontes, Emídio Rangel [pt] and Rodrigo de Sousa e Castro [pt]
- Capitães de Abril (April Captains), a 2000 dramatic film by Maria de Medeiros about the Carnation Revolution
- 25 de Abril: uma Aventura para a Democracia (25th April: an Adventure for Democracy), 2000 documentary, by Edgar Pêra
- The BBC-made A New Sun is Born, a two-part television series, for the UK's Open University. The first episode details the coup, and the second narrates the transition to democracy.
- Longwave (Les Grandes Ondes (à l'ouest)), a 2013 screwball comedy about Swiss radio reporters assigned to Portugal in 1974
- ^ "1974: Rebels seize control of Portugal", On This Day, 25 April, BBC, 25 April 1974, retrieved 2 January 2010
- ^ Association, Peter Booker, Algarve History. "Why April 25th is a holiday – the Carnation Revolution and the events of 1974". Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- ^ Birmingham, David (1996), A Concise History of Portugal, JHU Press, p. 184, ISBN 978-0-8018-5158-2, Almost immediately, massive crowds filled the streets, supporting the junior officers, crowds that put carnations in the soldiers' guns, thus helping legitimize and make irreversible the "carnation revolution".
- ^ (in Portuguese) Cronologia: Movimento dos capitães, Centro de Documentação 25 de Abril, University of Coimbra
- ^ (in Portuguese) Arquivo Electrónico: Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, Centro de Documentação 25 de Abril, University of Coimbra
- ^ Manuel Amaro Bernardo, Guerra, Paz e Fuzilamentos dos Guerrilheiros
- ^ Flight from Angola, The Economist (16 August 1975).
- ^ Dismantling the Portuguese Empire, Time Magazine (Monday, 7 July 1975).
- ^ Cheers, Carnations and Problems, Time Magazine (May. 13, 1974)
- ^ Stewart Lloyd-Jones, ISCTE (Lisbon), Portugal's history since 1974, "The Portuguese Communist Party (PCP–Partido Comunista Português), which had courted and infiltrated the MFA from the very first days of the revolution, decided that the time was now right for it to seize the initiative. Much of the radical fervour that was unleashed following Spínola's coup attempt was encouraged by the PCP as part of their own agenda to infiltrate the MFA and steer the revolution in their direction.", Centro de Documentação 25 de Abril, University of Coimbra
- ^ a b "Adrian Hastings". The Daily Telegraph. London. 26 June 2001.
- ^ Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Afonso, Aniceto. Oa anos da Guerra Colonial – Wiriyamu, De Moçambique para o mundo. Lisboa, 2010
- ^ Arslan Humbarachi & Nicole Muchnik, Portugal's African Wars, N.Y., 1974.
- ^ Cabrita, Felícia (2008). Massacres em África. A Esfera dos Livros, Lisbon. pp. 243–282. ISBN 978-989-626-089-7.
- ^ Westfall, William C., Jr., Major, United States Marine Corps, Mozambique-Insurgency Against Portugal, 1963–1975, 1984. Retrieved on 10 March 2007
- ^ "MOZAMBIQUE: Mystery Massacre". Time. 30 July 1973.
- ^ "PORTUGUESE PRIME MINISTER (VISIT) (Hansard, 10 July 1973)". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- ^ A direita radical na Universidade de Coimbra (1945–1974) Archived 3 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, MARCHI, Riccardo. A direita radical na Universidade de Coimbra (1945–1974). Anál. Social, July 2008, nº 188, pp. 551–576. ISSN 0003-2573.
- ^ a b (in Portuguese) Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA). In Infopédia [Em linha]. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003–2009. [Consult. 2009-01-07]. Disponível na www: URL: http://www.infopedia.pt/$movimento-das-forcas-armadas-(mfa).
- ^ Movimento das Forças Armadas (1974–1975), Projecto CRiPE – Centro de Estudos em Relações Internacionais, Ciência Política e Estratégia. © José Adelino Maltez. Cópias autorizadas, desde que indicada a origem. Última revisão em: 2 October 2008
- ^ Decretos-Leis n.os 353, de 13 de Julho de 1973, e 409, de 20 de Agosto.
- ^ "The Carnation Revolution – A Peaceful Coup in Portugal – Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training". Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- ^ Ali, Tariq (2010). 'Preface' in A Calculus of Power. Verso. ISBN 978-1-84467-620-0.
- ^ (in Portuguese) ENTREVISTA COM ALPOIM CALVÃO, Centro de Documentação 25 de Abril, University of Coimbra
- ^ Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). "The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999". A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). Archived from the original on 29 May 2012.
- ^ "TREATY BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF PORTUGAL ON RECOGNITION OF INDIA'S SOVEREIGNTY OVER GOA, DAMAN, DIU, DADRA AND NAGAR HAVELI AND RELATED MATTERS  INTSer 53". www.commonlii.org.
- ^ Fundação da SEDES – As primeiras motivações (in Portuguese), SEDES, archived from the original on 19 December 2012, retrieved 6 February 2009, Nos anos 60 e até 1973 teve lugar, provavelmente, o mais rápido período de crescimento económico da nossa História, traduzido na industrialização, na expansão do turismo, no comércio com a EFTA, no desenvolvimento dos sectores financeiros, investimento estrangeiro e grandes projectos de infra-estruturas. Em consequência, os indicadores de rendimentos e consumo acompanham essa evolução, reforçados ainda pelas remessas de emigrantes.
- ^ Sequeira, Tiago Neves, Crescrimento Económico no Pós-Guerra: os casos de Espanha, Portugal e Irlanda (PDF) (in Portuguese), University of Beira Interior, archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008, retrieved 6 November 2008
- ^ Leite, Joaquim da Costa, Instituições, Gestão e Crescimento Económico: Portugal, 1950–73 (in Portuguese), Aveiro University
- ^ (in Portuguese) A verdade sobre o Fundo do Ultramar Archived 11 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Diário de Notícias (29 November 2012)
- ^ Movimento das Forças Armadas (1974–1975), Projecto CRiPE- Centro de Estudos em Relações Internacionais, Ciência Política e Estratégia. © José Adelino Maltez. Cópias autorizadas, desde que indicada a origem. Última revisão em: 2 October 2008
- ^ (in Portuguese) Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA). In Infopédia [Em linha]. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003–2009. [Consult. 2009-01-07]. Disponível na www: URL: http://www.infopedia.pt/$movimento-das-forcas-armadas-(mfa)[permanent dead link].
- ^ João Bravo da Matta, A Guerra do Ultramar, O Diabo, 14 October 2008, pp.22
- ^ "Portugal", Country Studies, U.S. Library of Congress, In the mid-1980s, agricultural productivity was half that of the levels in Greece and Spain and a quarter of the EC average. The land tenure system was polarized between two extremes: small and fragmented family farms in the north and large collective farms in the south that proved incapable of modernizing. The decollectivization of agriculture, which began in modest form in the late 1970s and accelerated in the late 1980s, promised to increase the efficiency of human and land resources in the south during the 1990s.
- ^ "Portugal Agriculture", The Encyclopedia of the Nations
- ^ Linz, Juan José (1996), Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation, JHU Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-5158-2
- ^ "Economic Growth and Change", Country Studies, U.S. Library of Congress
- ^ (in Portuguese) Grande investigação DN Conheça o verdadeiro peso do EstadoArchived 8 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Diário de Notícias (7 January 2011)
- ^ "REGISTRATION OF RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES"(PDF).
- ^ Almeida, Manuel de Jesus. Watchtower, 7 January 1999. pp. 23–27.
- ^ "Commemorative coins". European Commission - European Commission. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- ^ "Setubal Ville Rouge". ISKRA. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- ^ A New Sun Is Born (1997). OCLC 51658463.
- ^ Boyd van Hoeij (22 August 2013). "Longwave (Les Grandes Ondes (a l'Ouest)): Locarno Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- ^ "Les grandes ondes (à l'ouest) (2013)". IMDb. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- Barker, Collin. Revolutionary Rehearsals. Haymarket Books. First Edition, 1 December 2002. ISBN 1-931859-02-7.
- Phil Mailer, Portugal: The Impossible Revolution? (All sixteen chapters and the introduction by Maurice Brinton)
- Ferreira, Hugo Gil, and Marshall, Michael William. "Portugal's Revolution: 10 years on". Cambridge University Press, 303 pages, 1986. ISBN 0-521-32204-9
- Green, Gil. Portugal's Revolution. 99 pages. International Publishers. First Edition, 1976. ISBN 0-7178-0461-5.
- Mailer, Phil. Portugal: The Impossible Revolution? PM Press. 2nd ed. 2012. ISBN 978-1-60486-336-9
- Maxwell, Kenneth, 'Portugal: "The Revolution of the Carnations", 1974–75', in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 144–161. ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6.
- Wise, Audrey. Eyewitness in Revolutionary Portugal. Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation for Spokesman Books, 72 pages, 1975
- Wright, George. The Destruction of a Nation: United States Policy Towards Angola Since 1945, ISBN 0-7453-1029-X
Last edited on 15 May 2021, at 12:51
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.