In the late 8th century, various counties across the eastern Pyrenees
were established by the Frankish kingdom
as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became progressively independent.
In 1137, Barcelona
and the Kingdom of Aragon
were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon
. Within the Crown, the Catalan counties adopted a common polity, the Principality of Catalonia
, developing its own institutional system, such as Courts
, becoming the base for the Crown's Mediterranean trade and expansionism. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature
flourished. In 1469, the king
of Aragon and the queen
were married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.
During the Franco-Spanish War
(1635–1659), Catalonia revolted
(1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army, being briefly proclaimed a republic
under French protection, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. By the Treaty of the Pyrenees
(1659), the northern parts of Catalonia
, mostly the Roussillon
, were ceded to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession
(1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the BourbonPhilip V of Spain
; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees
which, like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon, suppressed the Catalan institutions and rights. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Throughout the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth.
In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic
and Carlist Wars
. In the second third of the century, it experienced industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, it saw a cultural renaissance
coupled with incipient nationalism
while several workers movements
appeared. With the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic
(1931–1939), the Generalitat
was restored as a Catalan autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War
, the Francoist
dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language. After a period of autarky
, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth
, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. During the Spanish transition to democracy
(1975–1982), Catalonia regained self-government and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain.
Since the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence
. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament unilaterally declared independence following a disputed referendum
. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the Catalan government and calling a snap regional election
. The Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned seven former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President, Carles Puigdemont
—fled to other European countries.
Etymology and pronunciation
The name Catalonia — Medieval Latin
, spelled Cathalonia
— began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans
) in the late 11th century and was probably used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and the March of Hispania
under the control of the Count of Barcelona
and his relatives.
The origin of the name Catalunya
is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence.
One theory suggests that Catalunya
derives from the name Gothia
("Land of the Goths
"), since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia
, whence Gothland
During the Middle Ages
chroniclers claimed that Catalania
derives from the local medley of Goths
, initially constituting a Goth-Alania
Other less plausible or recent theories suggest:
- Catalunya derives from the term "land of castles", having evolved from the term castlà or castlan, the medieval term for a castellan (a ruler of a castle). This theory therefore suggests that the names Catalunya and Castile have a common root.
- The source is the Celtic Catalauni, meaning "chiefs of battle," similar to the Celtic given name *Katuwalos; although the area is not known to have been occupied by the Celtiberians, a Celtic culture was present within the interior of the Iberian Peninsula in pre-Roman times.
- The Lacetani, an Iberian tribe that lived in the area and whose name, due to the Roman influence, could have evolved by metathesis to Katelans and then Catalans.
- Miguel Vidal, finding serious shortcomings with earlier proposals (such as that an original -t- would have, by normal sound laws in the local Romance languages, developed into -d-), suggested an Arabic etymology: qattāl (قتال, pl.qattālūn قتالون) – meaning "killer" – could have been applied by Muslims to groups of raiders and bandits on the southern border of the Marca Hispanica. The name, originally derogatory, could have been reappropriated by Christians as an autonym. This is comparable to attested development of the term Almogavar in nearby areas. In this model, the name Catalunya derives from the plural qattālūn while the adjective and language name català derives from the singular qattāl, both with the addition of common Romance suffixes.
In English, Catalonia
is pronounced /
The first known human settlements in what is now Catalonia were at the beginning of the Middle Paleolithic
. The oldest known trace of human occupation is a mandible found in Banyoles
, described by some sources as pre-Neanderthal
some 200,000 years old; other sources suggest it to be only about one third that old.
From the next prehistoric era, the Epipalaeolithic
, important remains survive, the greater part dated between 8000 and 5000 BC, such as those of Sant Gregori (Falset
) and el Filador (Margalef
de Montsant). The most important sites from these eras, all excavated in the region of Moianès
, are the Balma del Gai (Epipaleolithic) and the Balma de l'Espluga (late Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic).
era began in Catalonia around 5000 BC, although the population was slower to develop fixed settlements than in other places, thanks to the abundance of woods, which allowed the continuation of a fundamentally hunter-gatherer
culture. An example of such settlements would be La Draga, an "early Neolithic village which dates from the end of the 6th millennium BC."
period developed in Catalonia between 2500 and 1800 BC, with the beginning of the construction of copper objects. The Bronze Age
occurred between 1800 and 700 BC. There are few remnants of this era, but there were some known settlements in the low Segre
zone. The Bronze Age coincided with the arrival of the Indo-Europeans
through the Urnfield Culture
, whose successive waves of migration began around 1200 BC, and they were responsible for the creation of the first proto-urban settlements.
Around the middle of the 7th century BC, the Iron Age
arrived in Catalonia.
Pre-Roman and Roman period
After the Carthaginian defeat by the Roman Republic
, the north-east of Iberia became the first to come under Roman rule and became part of Hispania
, the westernmost part of the Roman Empire
) was one of the most important Roman cities in Hispania and the capital of the province
. Other important cities of the Roman period are Ilerda (Lleida), Dertosa (Tortosa), Gerunda (Girona) as well as the ports of Empuriæ (former Emporion) and Barcino (Barcelona). As for the rest of Hispania, Latin law
was granted to all cities under the reign of Vespasian
(69-79 AD), while Roman citizenship
was granted to all free men of the empire by the Edict of Caracalla
in 212 AD (Tarraco, the capital, was already a colony of Roman law
since 45 BC). It was a rich agricultural province (olive oil, vine, wheat
), and the first centuries of the Empire saw the construction of roads (the most important being the Via Augusta
, parallel to Mediterranean coastline) and infrastructure like aqueducts
Conversion to Christianity
, attested in the 3rd century, was completed in urban areas in the 4th century. Although Hispania remained under Roman rule and did not fall under the rule of Vandals
in the 5th century, the main cities suffered frequent sacking and some deurbanization
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire
, the area was conquered by the Visigoths
and was ruled as part of the Visigothic Kingdom
for almost two and a half centuries. In 718, it came under Muslim
control and became part of Al-Andalus
, a province of the Umayyad Caliphate
. From the conquest of Roussillon in 760, to the conquest of Barcelona in 801, the Frankish empire
took control of the area between Septimania and the Llobregat
river from the Muslims and created heavily militarised, self-governing counties
. These counties formed part of the historiographically known as the Gothic
marches, a buffer zone
in the south of the Frankish empire in the former province of Septimania and in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, to act as a defensive barrier for the Frankish empire against further Muslim invasions from Al-Andalus.
These counties came under the rule of the counts of Barcelona
, who were Frankish vassals
nominated by the emperor of the Franks, to whom they were feudatories
(801–988). The earliest known use of the name "Catalonia
" for these counties dates to 1117. At the end of the 9th century, the Count of Barcelona Wilfred the Hairy
made his title hereditary and founded the dynasty of the House of Barcelona
, which ruled Catalonia until 1410.
Hug IV, count of Empúries, and Pero Maça during the conquest of Mallorca (1229)
A 15th-century miniature of the Catalan Courts
In 988 Borrell II
, Count of Barcelona, did not recognise the new French king Hugh Capet
as his king, evidencing the loss of dependency from Frankish rule and confirming his successors (from Ramon Borrell I
to Ramon Berenguer IV) as independent of the Capetian crown whom they regarded as usurpers of the Carolingian Frankish realm.
At the beginning of eleventh century the Catalan counties suffered an important process of feudalisation, partially controlled by the church's sponsored Peace and Truce Assemblies
and by the negotiation skills of the Count of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer I
, which began the codification of feudal law in the written Usages of Barcelona
, becoming the basis of the Catalan law. In 1137, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
decided to accept King Ramiro II of Aragon
's proposal to marry Queen Petronila
, establishing the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon
, creating the Crown of Aragon
and making the Catalan counties that were united under the county of Barcelona into a principality
of the Aragonese Crown.
In 1258, by means of the Treaty of Corbeil
, James I of Aragon
King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona
, king of Mallorca and of Valencia, renounced his family rights and dominions in Occitania
and recognised the king of France as heir of the Carolingian Dynasty
. The king of France, Louis IX
, formally relinquished his claims of feudal lordship over all the Catalan counties, except the County of Foix
, despite the opposition of the king of Aragon and count of Barcelona.
This treaty confirmed, from French point of view, the independence of the Catalan counties established and exercised during the previous three centuries, but also meant the irremediable separation between the geographical areas of Catalonia and Languedoc
As a coastal territory, Catalonia became the base of the Aragonese Crown's maritime forces, which spread the power of the Aragonese Crown in the Mediterranean, and made Barcelona into a powerful and wealthy city. In the period of 1164–1410, new territories, the Kingdom of Valencia
, the Kingdom of Majorca
, the Kingdom of Sicily
, and, briefly, the Duchies
, were incorporated into the dynastic domains of the House of Aragon
. The expansion was accompanied by a great development of the Catalan trade, creating an extensive trade network across the Mediterranean which competed with those of the maritime republics of Genoa
At the same time, the Principality of Catalonia
developed a complex institutional and political system based in the concept of a pact between the estates of the realm
and the king. Laws had to be approved in the General Court of Catalonia
, one of the first parliamentary bodies of Europe that banned the royal power to create legislation unilaterally (since 1283).
The Courts were composed of the three Estates, were presided over by the king of Aragon, and approved the constitutions
, which created a compilation of rights for the citizenship of the Principality. In order to collect general taxes, the Courts of 1359 established a permanent representative of deputies position, called the Deputation of the General (and later usually known as Generalitat
), which gained political power over the next centuries.
Ferdinand II of Aragon
, the grandson of Ferdinand I, and Queen Isabella I of Castile
were married in 1469, later taking the title the Catholic Monarchs
; subsequently, this event was seen by historiographers as the dawn of a unified Spain. At this time, though united by marriage, the Crowns of Castile
maintained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, parliaments, laws and currency.
Castile commissioned expeditions to the Americas
and benefited from the riches acquired in the Spanish colonisation of the Americas
, but, in time, also carried the main burden of military expenses of the united Spanish kingdoms. After Isabella's death, Ferdinand II personally ruled both kingdoms.
Corpus de Sang
(7 June 1640), one of the main events of the Reaper's War. Painted in 1910
Over the next few centuries, the Principality of Catalonia was generally on the losing side of a series of wars that led steadily to an increased centralization of power in Spain. Despite this fact, between the 16th and 18th centuries, the participation of the political community in the local and the general Catalan government grew, while the kings remained absent and its constitutional system continued to consolidate. Tensions between Catalan institutions and the Monarchy began to arise. The large and burdensome presence of the Spanish royal army in the Principality due to the Franco-Spanish War
led to an uprising of peasants, provoking the Reapers' War
(1640–1652), which saw Catalonia rebel (briefly as a republic
led by the chairman of the Generalitat, Pau Claris
) with French help against the Spanish Crown for overstepping Catalonia's rights during the Thirty Years' War
Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia. Most of Catalonia was reconquered by the Spanish Monarchy but Catalan rights were recognised. Roussillon
was lost to France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees
The most significant conflict concerning the governing monarchy was the War of the Spanish Succession
, which began when the childless Charles II of Spain
, the last Spanish Habsburg, died without an heir in 1700. Charles II had chosen Philip V of Spain
from the French House of Bourbon
. Catalonia, like other territories that formed the Crown of Aragon, rose up in support of the Austrian Habsburg pretender Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
, in his claim for the Spanish throne as Charles III of Spain. The fight between the houses of Bourbon and Habsburg for the Spanish Crown split Spain and Europe.
The fall of Barcelona
on 11 September 1714 to the Bourbon
king Philip V
militarily ended the Habsburg claim to the Spanish Crown, which became legal fact in the Treaty of Utrecht
. Philip felt that he had been betrayed by the Catalan Courts, as it had initially sworn its loyalty to him when he had presided over it in 1701. In retaliation for the betrayal, and inspired by the French absolutist
style of government, the first Bourbon king introduced the Nueva Planta decrees
, that incorporated the lands of the Crown of Aragon, including the Principality of Catalonia, as provinces under the Crown of Castile in 1716, terminating their separate institutions, laws and rights, as well as their pactist politics, within a united kingdom of Spain.
From the second third of 18th century onwards Catalonia carried out a successful process of proto-industrialization
, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.
Industrialisation, Republic and autonomy
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic Wars
. In 1808, it was occupied by French troops; the resistance against the occupation eventually developed into the Peninsular War
. The rejection to French dominion was institutionalized with the creation of "juntas" (councils) who, remaining loyal to the Bourbons, exercised the sovereignty and representation of the territory due to the disappearance of the old institutions. Napoleon took direct control of Catalonia to establish order, creating the Government of Catalonia under the rule of Marshall Augereau
, and making Catalan briefly an official language again. Between 1812 and 1814, Catalonia was annexed to France and organized as four départements
The French troops evacuated Catalan territory at the end of 1814. After the Bourbon restoration in Spain and the death of the absolutist king Ferdinand VII
, Carlist Wars
erupted against the new born liberal state
of Isabella II
. Catalonia was divided, the coast and most industrialized areas support liberalism, while many inland areas were in the hands of Carlists
, as the last ones proposed to reestablish the institutional systems suppressed in the Nueva Planta decrees in all the ancient realms of the Crown of Aragon.
In the second third of the 19th century, it became an industrial center. This process was boosted by, amongst other things, national protectionist laws [es]
(although the policy of the Spanish government during those times changed many times between free trade and protectionism) and the conditions of proto-industrialization of the prior two centuries of the Catalan urban areas and its countryside. Along the century, textile industry flourished in urban areas and in the countryside, usually in the form of company towns
. To this day it remains one of the most industrialised areas of Spain. In 1832 it was inaugurated in Barcelona the factory Bonaplata, the first of the country which worked with steam engine
. During those years, Barcelona was the focus of important revolutionary uprisings, called "bullangues", causing a difficult relation between many sectors of Catalan society and the central government and, in Catalonia, a republican
current began to develop; also, inevitably, many Catalans favored a more federal Spain. Meanwhile, the Catalan language saw a cultural renaissance (the Renaixença
) at popular and bourgeois level. After the fall of the First Spanish Republic
and the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty (1874), Catalan nationalism grew in importance.
had been active throughout the early 20th century, founding the CNT
trade union and achieving one of the first eight-hour workday
in Europe in 1919.
Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week
in Barcelona in 1909. In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia gained and lost varying degrees of autonomy several times. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces were authorized to create a Commonwealth
(Catalan: Mancomunitat de Catalunya
), without any legislative power or specific autonomy which carried out an ambitious program of modernization, but it was disbanded in 1925 by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera
(1923-1930). During the last steps of the Dictatorship, Barcelona celebrated the 1929 International Exposition
while Spain began to suffer an economic crisis.
After the fall of the dictator and a brief proclamation of the Catalan Republic
during the events which led to the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic
it received its first Statute of Autonomy
from the Spanish Republic's Parliament, establishing an autonomous body, the Generalitat of Catalonia, which included a parliament, a government and a court of appeal
, and the left-wing independentist leader Francesc Macià
was elected its first president. The governments of the Republican Generalitat, led by the Republican Left of Catalonia
(ERC) members Francesc Macià (1931-1933) and Lluís Companys
(1933-1940) made efforts to implement an advanced and progressive social agenda, despite the internal difficulties. This period was marked by political unrest, the effects of the economic crisis and their social repercussions. The Statute of Autonomy was suspended in 1934, due to the Events of 6 October
in Barcelona, as a response[clarification needed]
to the accession of right-wing Spanish nationalist party CEDA
to the government of the Republic, considered close to fascism
After the electoral victory of the Popular Front
in February 1936, the Government of Catalonia was pardoned and the self-government restored.
Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and Franco's rule (1939–1975)
The defeat of the military rebellion against the Republican government in Barcelona
placed Catalonia firmly in the Republican side
of the Spanish Civil War
. During the war, there were two rival powers in Catalonia: the de jure power of the Generalitat and the de facto power of the armed popular militias.
Violent confrontations between the workers' parties (CNT-FAI
against the PSUC
) culminated in the defeat of the first ones in 1937. The situation resolved itself progressively in favor of the Generalitat, but at the same time the Generalitat was partially losing its autonomous power within Republican Spain. In 1938 Franco's troops broke the Republican territory in two, isolating Catalonia from the rest of the Republic. The defeat of the Republican army in the Battle of the Ebro
led in 1938 and 1939 to the occupation of Catalonia by Franco's forces.
The defeat of the Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War
brought to power the dictatorship of Francisco Franco
, whose first ten-year rule was particularly violent, autocratic, and repressive both in a political, cultural, social, and economical sense.
In Catalonia, any kind of public activities associated with Catalan nationalism
, including the publication of books on those subjects or simply discussion of them in open meetings, was banned.
Franco's regime banned the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and during public events, and also the Catalan institutions of self-government were abolished. The pro-Republic of Spain president of Catalonia, Lluís Companys
, was taken to Spain from his exile in the German-occupied France, and was tortured and executed in the Montjuïc Castle
of Barcelona for the crime of 'military rebellion'.
During later stages of Francoist Spain
, certain folkloric and religious celebrations in Catalan resumed and were tolerated. Use of Catalan in the mass media
had been forbidden, but was permitted from the early 1950s
in the theatre. Despite the ban during the first years and the difficulties of the next period, publishing in Catalan continued throughout his rule.
The years after the war were extremely hard. Catalonia, like many other parts of Spain, had been devastated by the war. Recovery from the war damage was slow and made more difficult by the international trade embargo and the autarkic
politics of Franco's regime. By the late 1950s the region had recovered its pre-war economic levels and in the 1960s was the second fastest growing economy in the world in what became known as the Spanish miracle
. During this period there was a spectacular growth of industry and tourism in Catalonia that drew large numbers of workers to the region from across Spain and made the area around Barcelona into one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas.
Transition and democratic period (1975–present)
After Franco's death in 1975, Catalonia voted for the adoption of a democratic Spanish Constitution in 1978, in which Catalonia recovered political and cultural autonomy, restoring the Generalitat (exiled since the end of the Civil War in 1939) in 1977 and adopting a new Statute of Autonomy
in 1979. First election
to the Parliament of Catalonia under this Statute gave the Catalan presidency to Jordi Pujol
, a position he would hold until 2003. During this time, he also led Convergència i Unió
(CiU), a center-right Catalan nationalist electoral coalition. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the institutions of Catalan autonomy continued to develop, among them an autonomous police force (Mossos d'Esquadra
, in 1983),
and the broadcasting network Televisió de Catalunya
and its first channel TV3
, created in 1983.
Today, Catalonia is one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. The Catalan capital and largest city, Barcelona, is a major international cultural centre and a major tourist destination. In 1992, Barcelona hosted
the Summer Olympic Games
The new Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, approved after a referendum in 2006, was contested by important sectors of the Spanish society, especially by the conservative People's Party
, which sent the law to the Constitutional Court of Spain
. In 2010, the Court declared non-valid some of the articles that established an autonomous Catalan system of Justice, improved aspects of the financing, a new territorial division, the status of Catalan language or the symbolical declaration of Catalonia as a nation.
This decision was severely contested by large sectors of Catalan society, which increased the demands of independence.
A controversial independence referendum
was held in Catalonia on 1 October 2017, using a disputed voting process.
It was declared illegal and suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain
, because it breached the 1978 Constitution
Subsequent developments saw, on 27 October 2017, a symbolic declaration of independence
by the Parliament of Catalonia, the enforcement of direct rule
by the Spanish government through the use of Article 155 of the Constitution,
the dismissal of the Executive Council
and the dissolution of the Parliament, with a snap regional election
called for 21 December 2017, which ended with a victory of pro-independence parties.
Former President Carles Puigdemont
and five former cabinet ministers fled Spain and took refuge in other European countries (such as Belgium
, in Puigdemont's case), whereas nine other cabinet members, including vice-president Oriol Junqueras
, were sentenced to prison under various charges of rebellion, sedition, and misuse of public funds. Quim Torra
became the 131st President of the Government of Catalonia
on 17 May 2018,
after the Spanish courts blocked three other candidates.
Climates of Catalonia:
In the Mediterranean area, summers are dry and hot with sea breezes, and the maximum temperature is around 26–31 °C (79–88 °F). Winter is cool or slightly cold depending on the location. It snows frequently in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally snows at lower altitudes, even by the coastline. Spring and autumn are typically the rainiest seasons, except for the Pyrenean valleys, where summer is typically stormy.
The inland part of Catalonia is hotter and drier in summer. Temperature may reach 35 °C (95 °F), some days even 40 °C (104 °F). Nights are cooler there than at the coast, with the temperature of around 14–17 °C (57–63 °F). Fog is not uncommon in valleys and plains; it can be especially persistent, with freezing drizzle
episodes and subzero temperatures during winter, mainly along the Ebro
valleys and in Plain of Vic
Catalonia has a marked geographical diversity, considering the relatively small size of its territory. The geography
is conditioned by the Mediterranean coast, with 580 kilometres (360 miles) of coastline, and large relief units of the Pyrenees to the north. The Catalan territory is divided into three main geomorphological units:
- The Pyrenees: mountainous formation that connects the Iberian Peninsula with the European continental territory, and located in the north of Catalonia;
- The Catalan Coastal mountain ranges or the Catalan Mediterranean System: an alternating delevacions and planes parallel to the Mediterranean coast;
- The Catalan Central Depression: structural unit which forms the eastern sector of the Valley of the Ebro.
The Catalan Pyrenees represent almost half in length of the Pyrenees, as it extends more than 200 kilometres (120 miles). Traditionally differentiated the Axial Pyrenees (the main part) and the Pre-Pyrenees
(southern from the Axial) which are mountainous formations parallel to the main mountain ranges but with lower altitudes, less steep and a different geological formation. The highest mountain of Catalonia, located north of the comarca of Pallars Sobirà is the Pica d'Estats (3,143 m), followed by the Puigpedrós (2,914 m). The Serra del Cadí
comprises the highest peaks in the Pre-Pyrenees and forms the southern boundary of the Cerdanya
The Central Catalan Depression is a plain located between the Pyrenees and Pre-Coastal Mountains. Elevation ranges from 200 to 600 metres (660 to 1,970 feet). The plains and the water that descend from the Pyrenees have made it fertile territory for agriculture
and numerous irrigation canals have been built. Another major plain is the Empordà
, located in the northeast.
The Catalan Mediterranean system is based on two ranges running roughly parallel to the coast (southwest–northeast), called the Coastal and the Pre-Coastal Ranges. The Coastal Range is both the shorter and the lower of the two, while the Pre-Coastal is greater in both length and elevation. Areas within the Pre-Coastal Range include Montserrat
and the Ports de Tortosa-Beseit
. Lowlands alternate with the Costal and Pre-Costal Ranges. The Coastal Lowland is located to the East of the Coastal Range between it and the coast, while the Pre-Coastal Lowlands are located inland, between the Costal and Pre-Costal Ranges, and includes the Vallès
Flora and fauna
Catalonia is a showcase of European landscapes
on a small scale. Just over 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 square miles) hosting a variety of substrates, soils, climates, directions, altitudes and distances to the sea. The area is of great ecological diversity and a remarkable wealth of landscapes, habitats and species.
The fauna of Catalonia comprises a minority of animals endemic to the region and a majority of non-native animals. Much of Catalonia enjoys a Mediterranean climate (except mountain areas), which makes many of the animals that live there adapted to Mediterranean ecosystems. Of mammals, there are plentiful wild boar
, red foxes, as well as roe deer
and in the Pyrenees, the Pyrenean chamois
. Other large species such as the bear
have been recently reintroduced.
Most of Catalonia belongs to the Mediterranean Basin
. The Catalan hydrographic network consists of two important basins, the one of the Ebro
and the one that comprises the internal basins of Catalonia (respectively covering 46.84% and 51.43% of the territory), all of them flow to the Mediterranean
. Furthermore, there is the Garona
river basin that flows to the Atlantic Ocean
, but it only covers 1.73% of the Catalan territory.
The hydrographic network can be divided in two sectors, an occidental slope or Ebro river slope and one oriental slope constituted by minor rivers that flow to the Mediterranean along the Catalan coast. The first slope provides an average of 18,700 cubic hectometres
(4.5 cubic miles
) per year, while the second only provides an average of 2,020 hm3
(0.48 cu mi)/year. The difference is due to the big contribution of the Ebro river, from which the Segre
is an important tributary. Moreover, in Catalonia there is a relative wealth of groundwaters, although there is inequality between comarques
, given the complex geological structure of the territory.
In the Pyrenees there are many small lakes, remnants of the ice age
. The biggest are the lake of Banyoles
and the recently recovered lake of Ivars
Anthropic pressure and protection of nature
The majority of Catalan population is concentrated in 30% of the territory, mainly in the coastal plains. Intensive agriculture, livestock farming and industrial activities have been accompanied by a massive tourist
influx (more than 20 million annual visitors), a rate of urbanization and even of major metropolisation which has led to a strong urban sprawl: two thirds of Catalans live in the urban area of Barcelona, while the proportion of urban land increased from 4.2% in 1993 to 6.2% in 2009, a growth of 48.6% in sixteen years, complemented with a dense network of transport infrastructure. This is accompanied by a certain agricultural abandonment (decrease of 15% of all areas cultivated in Catalonia between 1993 and 2009) and a global threat to natural environment
. Human activities have also put some animal species at risk, or even led to their disappearance from the territory, like the gray wolf
and probably the brown bear
of the Pyrenees. The pressure created by this model of life means that the country's ecological footprint
exceeds its administrative area.
Faced with this problems, Catalan authorities initiated several measures whose purpose is to protect natural ecosystems. Thus, in 1990, the Catalan government created the Nature Conservation Council (Catalan: Consell de Protecció de la Natura), an advisory body with the aim to study, protect and manage the natural environments and landscapes of Catalonia. In addition, the Generalitat has carried out the Plan of Spaces of Natural Interest (Pla d'Espais d'Interès Natural or PEIN) in 1992 while eighteen Natural Spaces of Special Protection (Espais Naturals de Protecció Especial or ENPE) have been instituted.
There's a National Park
, Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici
; fourteen Natural Parks
, Alt Pirineu
, Aiguamolls de l'Empordà, Cadí-Moixeró
, Cap de Creus
, Sources of Ter and Freser, Collserola
, Ebro Delta
, Montgrí, Medes Islands and Baix Ter
, Sant Llorenç del Munt and l'Obac, Serra de Montsant
and the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone
; as well as three Natural Places of National Interest (Paratge Natural d'Interes Nacional
or PNIN), the Pedraforca
, the Poblet
Forest and the Albères
, second president of the Generalitat of Catalonia between 1933 and 1940, executed by Franco's regime
This autonomous community has gradually achieved more autonomy
since the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978
. The Generalitat holds exclusive jurisdiction in education, health, culture, environment, communications, transportation, commerce, public safety and local government, and only shares jurisdiction with the Spanish government in justice.
In all, some analysts argue that formally the current system grants Catalonia with "more self-government than almost any other corner in Europe".
The support for Catalan nationalism ranges from a demand for further autonomy and the federalisation
of Spain to the desire for independence from the rest of Spain, expressed by Catalan independentists.
The first survey following the Constitutional Court ruling that cut back elements of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy, published by La Vanguardia
on 18 July 2010, found that 46% of the voters would support independence in a referendum.
In February of the same year, a poll by the Open University of Catalonia
gave more or less the same results.
Other polls have shown lower support for independence, ranging from 40 to 49%.
Although it is established in the whole of the territory, support for independence is significantly higher in the hinterland and the northeast, away from the more populated coastal areas such as Barcelona.
Since 2011 when the question started to be regularly surveyed by the governmental Center for Public Opinion Studies (CEO), support for Catalan independence has been on the rise.
According to the CEO opinion poll from July 2016, 47.7% of Catalans would vote for independence and 42.4% against it while, about the question of preferences, according to the CEO opinion poll from March 2016, a 57.2 claim to be "absolutely" or "fairly" in favour of independence.
Other polls have shown lower support for independence, ranging from 40 to 49%.
Other polls show more variable results, according with the Spanish CIS, as of December 2016, 47% of Catalans rejected independence and 45% supported it.
In hundreds of non-binding local referendums on independence, organised across Catalonia from 13 September 2009, a large majority voted for independence, although critics argued that the polls were mostly held in pro-independence areas. In December 2009, 94% of those voting backed independence from Spain, on a turn-out of 25%.
The final local referendum was held in Barcelona, in April 2011. On 11 September 2012, a pro-independence march pulled in a crowd of between 600,000 (according to the Spanish Government
), 1.5 million (according to the Guàrdia Urbana de Barcelona
), and 2 million (according to its promoters);
whereas poll results revealed that half the population of Catalonia supported secession from Spain.
Prominent Catalan politicians in Spain
Two major factors were Spain's Constitutional Court's
2010 decision to declare part of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia unconstitutional, as well as the fact that Catalonia contributes 19.49% of the central government's tax revenue, but only receives 14.03% of central government's spending.
In the 25 November 2012 Catalan parliamentary election
, sovereigntist parties supporting a secession referendum gathered 59.01% of the votes and held 87 of the 135 seats in the Catalan Parliament. Parties supporting independence from the rest of Spain obtained 49.12% of the votes and a majority of 74 seats.
, then the president of Catalonia, organised early elections that took place on 27 September 2015. In these elections, Convergència and Esquerra Republicana decided to join, and they presented themselves under the coalition named "Junts pel Sí" (in Catalan
, "Together for Yes
"). "Junts pel Sí" won 62 seats and was the most voted party, and CUP (Candidatura d'Unitat Popular
, a far-left and independentist party) won another 10, so the sum of all the independentist forces/parties was 72 seats, reaching an absolute majority, but not in number of individual votes, comprising 47,74% of the total.
Statute of Autonomy
The Statute of Autonomy
of Catalonia is the fundamental organic law, second only to the Spanish Constitution from which the Statute originates.
Both the 1979 Statute of Autonomy and the current one, approved in 2006, state that "Catalonia, as a nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an Autonomous Community in accordance with the Constitution and with the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, which is its basic institutional law, always under the law in Spain".
The Preamble of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia states that the Parliament of Catalonia
has defined Catalonia as a nation
, but that "the Spanish Constitution recognizes Catalonia's national reality as a nationality".
While the Statute was approved by and sanctioned by both the Catalan and Spanish parliaments, and later by referendum in Catalonia, it has been subject to a legal challenge by the surrounding autonomous communities of Aragon
, Balearic Islands
as well as by the conservative People's Party
. The objections are based on various issues such as disputed cultural heritage
but, especially, on the Statute's alleged breaches of the principle of "solidarity between regions" in fiscal and educational matters enshrined by the Constitution
Spain's Constitutional Court
assessed the disputed articles and on 28 June 2010, issued its judgment on the principal allegation of unconstitutionality presented by the People's Party in 2006. The judgment granted clear passage to 182 articles of the 223 that make up the fundamental text. The court approved 73 of the 114 articles that the People's Party had contested, while declaring 14 articles unconstitutional in whole or in part and imposing a restrictive interpretation on 27 others.
The court accepted the specific provision that described Catalonia as a "nation", however ruled that it was a historical and cultural term with no legal weight, and that Spain remained the only nation recognised by the constitution.
Government and law
The Catalan Statute of Autonomy establishes that Catalonia is organised politically through the Generalitat of Catalonia
(in Catalan: Generalitat de Catalunya
), conformed by the Parliament
, the Presidency of the Generalitat, the Government
or Executive Council and the other institutions created by the Parliament, among them the Ombudsman (Síndic de Greuges
), the Office of Auditors (Sindicatura de Comptes
) or the Council for Statutory Guarantees (Consell de Garanties Estatutàries
The Parliament of Catalonia (in Catalan: Parlament de Catalunya
) is the legislative body of the Generalitat and represents the citizens of Catalonia. It is elected every four years by universal suffrage
, and it has powers to legislate in different matters such as education, health, culture, internal institutional and territorial organization, election and control of the president of the Generalitat and the Government, budget and other affairs, according with the Statute of Autonomy. The last Catalan election was held on 21 December 2017, and its current president is Roger Torrent
, incumbent since January 2018.
The president of the Generalitat of Catalonia
(in Catalan: president de la Generalitat de Catalunya
) is the highest representative of Catalonia, and is also responsible of leading the government's action. Since the restoration of the Generalitat on the return of democracy in Spain, the presidents of Catalonia
have been Josep Tarradellas
(1977–1980, president in exile since 1954), Jordi Pujol
(1980–2003), Pasqual Maragall
(2003–2006), José Montilla
(2006–2010), Artur Mas
(2010–2016), Carles Puigdemont
(2016–2017) and, after the imposition of direct rule from Madrid, Quim Torra
(2018–2020) and Pere Aragonès
The Executive Council
(in Catalan: Consell Executiu
) or Government (Govern
), is the body responsible of the government of the Generalitat, it holds executive and regulatory power. It comprises the president of the Generalitat, the First Minister
(or the Vice President
) and the Ministers (consellers
). Its seat is the Palau de la Generalitat
, in Barcelona.
Security forces and Justice
Catalonia has its own police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra
(officially called Mossos d'Esquadra-Policia de la Generalitat de Catalunya
), whose origins date back to the 18th century. Since 1980 they have been under the command of the Generalitat, and since 1994 they have expanded in number in order to replace the national Civil Guard
and National Police Corps
, which report directly to the Homeland Department of Spain. The national bodies retain personnel within Catalonia to exercise functions of national scope such as overseeing ports, airports, coasts, international borders, custom offices, the identification of documents and arms control, immigration control, terrorism prevention, arms trafficking prevention, amongst others.
Most of the justice system is administered by national judicial institutions, the highest body and last judicial instance in the Catalan jurisdiction, integrating the Spanish judiciary, is the High Court of Justice of Catalonia
. The criminal justice
system is uniform throughout Spain, while civil law
is administered separately within Catalonia. The civil laws that are subject to autonomous legislation have been codified in the Civil Code of Catalonia
(Codi civil de Catalunya
) since 2002.
Administrative divisions of Catalonia
Catalonia is organised territorially into provinces
, further subdivided into comarques
. The 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia establishes the administrative organisation of three local authorities: vegueries
, comarques, and municipalities.
Catalonia is divided administratively into four provinces, the governing body of which is the Provincial Deputation (Catalan: Diputació Provincial
, Spanish: Diputación Provincial
). The four provinces and their populations are:
Comarques (singular: "comarca") are entities composed by the municipalities to manage their responsibilities and services. The current regional division has its roots in a decree of the Generalitat de Catalunya of 1936, in effect until 1939, when it was suppressed by Franco. In 1987 the Government adopted the territorial division again and in 1988 three new comarques were added (Alta Ribagorça
, Pla d'Urgell
and Pla de l'Estany
), and in 2015 was created another comarca, the Moianès
. At present there are 41. Every comarca is administered by a comarcal council
The Val d'Aran
(Aran Valley), until 2015 considered as a comarca, is officially defined today as "unique territorial entity", has a special status and its autonomous government is named Conselh Generau d'Aran
There are at present 948 municipalities (municipis
) in Catalonia. Each municipality is run by a council (ajuntament
) elected every four years by the residents in local elections. The council consists of a number of members (regidors
) depending on population, who elect the mayor
). Its seat is the town hall
, casa de la ciutat
or casa de la vila
The vegueria is a new type of division defined as a specific territorial area for the exercise of government and inter-local cooperation with legal personality. The current Statute of Autonomy states vegueries are intended to supersede provinces in Catalonia, and take over many of functions of the comarques.
The territorial plan of Catalonia (Pla territorial general de Catalunya
) provided six general functional areas,
but was amended by Law 24/2001, of 31 December, recognizing the Alt Pirineu i Aran
as a new functional area differentiated of Ponent.
On 14 July 2010 the Catalan Parliament approved the creation of the functional area of the Penedès
- Alt Pirineu i Aran: Alta Ribagorça, Alt Urgell, Cerdanya, Pallars Jussà, Pallars Sobirà and Val d'Aran.
- Àmbit Metropolità de Barcelona: Baix Llobregat, Barcelonès, Garraf, Maresme, Vallès Oriental and Vallès Occidental.
- Camp de Tarragona: Tarragonès, Alt Camp, Baix Camp, Conca de Barberà and Priorat.
- Comarques gironines: Alt Empordà, Baix Empordà, Garrotxa, Gironès, Pla de l'Estany, La Selva and Ripollès.
- Comarques centrals: Anoia (8 municipalities of 33), Bages, Berguedà, Osona and Solsonès.
- Penedès: Alt Penedès, Baix Penedès, Anoia (25 municipalities of 33) and Garraf.
- Ponent: Garrigues, Noguera, Segarra, Segrià, Pla d'Urgell and Urgell.
- Terres de l'Ebre: Baix Ebre, Montsià, Ribera d'Ebre and Terra Alta.
A highly industrialized land, the nominal GDP
of Catalonia in 2018 was €228 billion (second after the community of Madrid
, €230 billion) and the per capita GDP was €30,426 ($32,888), behind Madrid
(€35,041), the Basque Country (€33,223), and Navarre
That year, the GDP growth was 2.3%.
In recent years, and increasingly following the unilateral declaration of independence in 2017
, there has been a negative net relocation rate of companies based in Catalonia moving to other autonomous communities of Spain. From the 2017 independence referendum
until the end of 2018, for example, Catalonia lost 5454 companies to other parts of Spain (mainly Madrid), 2359 only in 2018, gaining 467 new ones from the rest of the country during 2018.
Catalonia's long-term credit rating is BB (Non-Investment Grade) according to Standard & Poor's
, Ba2 (Non-Investment Grade) according to Moody's
, and BBB- (Low Investment Grade) according to Fitch Ratings
Catalonia's rating is tied for worst with between 1 and 5 other autonomous communities of Spain, depending on the rating agency.
The city of Barcelona occupies the eighth position as the best world city to live, work, research and visit in 2021, according to the report "The World's Best Cities 2021", prepared by Resonance Consultancy and released this Sunday, 3 January, on Barcelona's town hall .
The Catalan capital, despite the current moment of crisis, is also one of the European bases of "reference for start-ups" and the fifth city in the world to establish one of these companies, behind London, Berlin, Paris and Amsterdam, according to the Eu-Starts-Up 2020 study. Barcelona is behind London, New York, Paris, Moscow, Tokyo, Dubai and Singapore and ahead of Los Angeles and Madrid. 
In the context of the financial crisis of 2007–2008
, Catalonia was expected to suffer a recession
amounting to almost a 2% contraction of its regional GDP in 2009.
Catalonia's debt in 2012 was the highest of all Spain's autonomous communities,
reaching €13,476 million, i.e. 38% of the total debt of the 17 autonomous communities,
but in recent years its economy recovered a positive evolution and the GDP grew a 3.3% in 2015.
The distribution of sectors is as follows:
Many savings banks
were based in Catalonia before the independence referendum of 2017
, with 10 of the 46 Spanish savings banks having headquarters in the region at that time. This list included Europe's premier savings bank, La Caixa
, who, on 7 October 2017, a week after the referendum, moved its headquarters to Palma de Mallorca
, in the Balearic Islands
, in the Valencian Community
The first private bank
in Catalonia, Banc Sabadell
, ranked fourth among all Spanish private banks, also moved its headquarters to Alicante
, in the Valencian Community.
The stock market of Barcelona, which in 2016 had a volume of around €152 billion, is the second largest of Spain after Madrid, and Fira de Barcelona
organizes international exhibitions and congresses to do with different sectors of the economy.
The main economic cost for the Catalan families is the purchase of a home. According to data from the Society of Appraisal on 31 December 2005 Catalonia is, after Madrid, the second most expensive region in Spain for housing: 3,397 €/m2
on average (see Spanish property bubble
The unemployment rate stood at 10.5%
and was lower than the national average.
Unemployment rate (December data) (%)
Since the Middle Ages, Catalonia has been well integrated into international maritime networks. The port of Barcelona
(owned and operated by Puertos del Estado [es]
, a Spanish Government entity) is an industrial, commercial and tourist port of worldwide importance. With 1,950,000 TEUs
in 2015, it is the first container port in Catalonia, the third in Spain after Valencia and Algeciras
in Andalusia, the 9th in the Mediterranean Sea, the 14th in Europe and the 68th in the world. It is sixth largest cruise port in the world, the first in Europe and the Mediterranean with 2,364,292 passengers in 2014. The ports of Tarragona
(owned and operated by Puertos del Estado) in the southwest and Palamós
near Girona at northeast are much more modest. The port of Palamós and the other ports in Catalonia (26) are operated and administered by Ports de la Generalitat [ca]
, a Catalan Government entity.
The development of these infrastructures, resulting from the topography and history of the Catalan territory, responds strongly to the administrative and political organization of this autonomous community.
There are 12,000 kilometres (7,500 mi) of roads throughout Catalonia.
The principal highways are AP-7
(Autopista de la Mediterrània
) and A-7
(Autovia de la Mediterrània
). They follow the coast from the French border
. The main roads generally radiate from Barcelona. The AP-2
(Autopista del Nord-est
) and A-2
(Autovia del Nord-est
) connect inland and onward to Madrid.
Other major roads are:
Public-own roads in Catalonia are either managed by the autonomous government of Catalonia (e.g., C-
roads) or the Spanish government
Catalonia saw the first railway construction in the Iberian Peninsula
in 1848, linking Barcelona with Mataró
. Given the topography most lines radiate from Barcelona. The city has both suburban and inter-city services. The main east coast line runs through the province connecting with the SNCF
(French Railways) at Portbou
on the coast.
There are two publicly owned railway companies operating in Catalonia: the Catalan FGC
that operates commuter and regional services, and the Spanish national RENFE
that operates long-distance and high-speed rail services (AVE and Avant) and the main commuter and regional service Rodalies de Catalunya
, administered by the Catalan government since 2010.
) services from Madrid
currently reach Lleida, Tarragona and Barcelona. The official opening between Barcelona and Madrid took place 20 February 2008. The journey between Barcelona and Madrid now takes about two-and-a-half hours. A connection to the French high-speed TGV network
has been completed (called the Perpignan–Barcelona high-speed rail line
) and the Spanish AVE service began commercial services on the line 9 January 2013, later offering services to Marseille on their high speed network.
This was shortly followed by the commencement of commercial service by the French TGV on 17 January 2013, leading to an average travel time on the Paris-Barcelona TGV
route of 7h 42m.
This new line passes through Girona
with a tunnel
through the Pyrenees.
As of 2017, the official population of Catalonia was 7,522,596.
1,194,947 residents did not have Spanish citizenship, accounting for about 16% of the population.
In 1900, the population of Catalonia was 1,966,382 people and in 1970 it was 5,122,567.
The sizeable increase of the population was due to the demographic boom in Spain during the 60s and early 70s
as well as in consequence of large-scale internal migration from the rural economically weak regions to its more prospering industrial cities. In Catalonia that wave of internal migration arrived from several regions of Spain, especially from Andalusia
Immigrants from other countries settled in Catalonia since the 1990s;
a large percentage comes from Africa
, Latin America
and Eastern Europe
, and smaller numbers from Asia
and Southern Europe
, often settling in urban centers such as Barcelona and industrial areas.
In 2017, Catalonia had 940,497 foreign residents (11.9% of the total population) with non-Spanish ID cards, without including those who acquired the Spanish citizenship.
Foreign population by country of citizenship (2018)
Religion in Catalonia (2020)
Historically, all the Catalan population was Christian
, specifically Catholic
, but since the 1980s there has been a trend of decline of Christianity and parallel growth of irreligion
(including stances of atheism
) and other religions. According to the most recent study sponsored by the government of Catalonia
, as of 2020, 62.3% of the Catalans identify as Christians (up from 61.9% in 2016
and 56.5% in 2014
) of whom 53.0% Catholics, 7.0% Protestants
, 1.3% Orthodox Christians
and 1.0% Jehovah's Witnesses
. At the same time, 18.6% of the population identify as atheists
, 8.8% as agnostics
, 4.3% as Muslims
, and a further 3.4% as being of other religions.
According to the linguistic census held by the Government of Catalonia in 2013, Spanish is the most spoken language in Catalonia (46.53% claim Spanish as "their own language"), followed by Catalan
(37.26% claim Catalan as "their own language"). In everyday use, 11.95% of the population claim to use both languages equally, whereas 45.92% mainly use Spanish and 35.54% mainly use Catalan. There is a significant difference between the Barcelona metropolitan area
(and, to a lesser extent, the Tarragona area
), where Spanish is more spoken than Catalan, and the more rural and small town areas, where Catalan clearly prevails over Spanish.
Originating in the historic territory of Catalonia, Catalan
has enjoyed special status since the approval of the Statute of Autonomy of 1979
which declares it to be "Catalonia's own language",
a term which signifies a language given special legal status within a Spanish territory, or which is historically spoken within a given region. The other languages with official status in Catalonia are Spanish, which has official status throughout Spain, and Aranese Occitan, which is spoken in Val d'Aran.
Since the Statute of Autonomy of 1979
dialect of Occitan
) has also been official and subject to special protection in Val d'Aran
. This small area of 7,000 inhabitants was the only place where a dialect of Occitan had received full official status. Then, on 9 August 2006, when the new Statute came into force, Occitan became official throughout Catalonia. Occitan is the mother tongue of 22.4% of the population of Val d'Aran, which has attracted heavy immigration from other Spanish regions to work in the service industry. Catalan Sign Language
is also officially recognised.
Although not considered an "official language" in the same way as Catalan, Spanish, and Occitan, the Catalan Sign Language
, with about 18,000 users in Catalonia,
is granted official recognition and support: "The public authorities shall guarantee the use of Catalan sign language and conditions of equality for deaf people who choose to use this language, which shall be the subject of education, protection and respect."
As was the case since the ascent of the Bourbon dynasty to the throne of Spain after the War of the Spanish Succession
, and with the exception of the short period of the Second Spanish Republic
, under Francoist Spain
Catalan was banned from schools and all other official use, so that for example families were not allowed to officially register children with Catalan names.
Although never completely banned, Catalan language publishing was severely restricted during the early 1940s, with only religious texts and small-run self-published texts being released. Some books were published clandestinely or circumvented the restrictions by showing publishing dates prior to 1936.
This policy was changed in 1946, when restricted publishing in Catalan resumed.
Rural–urban migration originating in other parts of Spain also reduced the social use of Catalan in urban areas and increased the use of Spanish. Lately, a similar sociolinguistic
phenomenon has occurred with foreign immigration. Catalan cultural activity increased in the 1960s and the teaching of Catalan began thanks to the initiative of associations such as Òmnium Cultural
After the end of Francoist Spain, the newly established self-governing democratic institutions in Catalonia embarked on a long-term language policy
to recover the use of Catalan
and has, since 1983, enforced laws which attempt to protect and extend the use of Catalan. This policy, known as the "linguistic normalisation" (normalització lingüística
in Catalan, normalización lingüística
in Spanish) has been supported by the vast majority of Catalan political parties through the last thirty years. Some groups consider these efforts a way to discourage the use of Spanish,
whereas some others, including the Catalan government
and the European Union
consider the policies respectful,
or even as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union".
Today, Catalan is the main language of the Catalan autonomous government and the other public institutions that fall under its jurisdiction. Basic public education is given basically in Catalan, but also there are some hours per week of Spanish medium instruction. Although businesses are required by law to display all information (e.g. menus, posters) at least in Catalan, this not systematically enforced. There is no obligation to display this information in either Occitan or Spanish, although there is no restriction on doing so in these or other languages. The use of fines was introduced in a 1997 linguistic law
that aims to increase the public use of Catalan and defend the rights of Catalan speakers. On the other hand, the Spanish Constitution does not recognize equal language rights for national minorities since it enshrined Spanish as the only official language of the state, the knowledge of which being compulsory. Numerous laws regarding for instance the labelling of pharmaceutical products, make in effect Spanish the only language of compulsory use.
The law ensures that both Catalan and Spanish – being official languages – can be used by the citizens without prejudice in all public and private activities,.
The Generalitat uses Catalan in its communications and notifications addressed to the general population, but citizens can also receive information from the Generalitat in Spanish if they so desire.
Debates in the Catalan Parliament take place almost exclusively in Catalan and the Catalan public television
broadcasts programs basically in Catalan.
In Catalonia, there is a high social and political consensus on the language policies favoring Catalan, also among Spanish speakers and speakers of other languages.[needs update]
However, some of these policies have been criticised for trying to promote Catalan by imposing fines on businesses. For example, following the passage of the law on Catalan cinema in March 2010, which established that half of the movies shown in Catalan cinemas had to be in Catalan, a general strike of 75% of the cinemas took place.
The Catalan government gave in and dropped the clause that forced 50% of the movies to be dubbed or subtitled in Catalan before the law came to effect.
On the other hand, organisations such as Plataforma per la Llengua
reported different violations of the linguistic rights of the Catalan speakers in Catalonia and the other Catalan-speaking territories in Spain, most of them caused by the institutions of the Spanish government in these territories.
The Catalan language policy has been challenged by some political parties in the Catalan Parliament. Citizens
, currently the main opposition party, has been one of the most consistent critics of the Catalan language policy within Catalonia. The Catalan branch of the People's Party
has a more ambiguous position on the issue: on one hand, it demands a bilingual Catalan–Spanish education and a more balanced language policy that would defend Catalan without favoring it over Spanish,
whereas on the other hand, a few local PP politicians have supported in their municipalities measures privileging Catalan over Spanish
and it has defended some aspects of the official language policies, sometimes against the positions of its colleagues from other parts of Spain.
Catalonia has given to the world many important figures in the area of the art. Catalan painters internationally known are, among others, Salvador Dalí
, Joan Miró
and Antoni Tàpies
. Closely linked with the Catalan pictorial atmosphere, Pablo Picasso
lived in Barcelona during his youth, training them as an artist and creating the movement of cubism
. Other important artists are Claudi Lorenzale
for the medieval Romanticism
that marked the artistic Renaixença, Marià Fortuny
for the Romanticism and Catalan Orientalism of the nineteenth century, Ramon Casas
or Santiago Rusiñol
, main representatives of the pictorial current of Catalan modernism from the end of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century, Josep Maria Sert
for early 20th-century Noucentisme
, or Josep Maria Subirachs
for expressionist or abstract sculpture and painting of the late twentieth century.
In the field of architecture were developed and adapted to Catalonia different artistic styles prevalent in Europe, leaving footprints in many churches, monasteries and cathedrals, of Romanesque
(the best examples of which are located in the northern half of the territory) and Gothic styles
. The Gothic developed in Barcelona and its area of influence is known as Catalan Gothic
, with some particular characteristics. The church of Santa Maria del Mar
is an example of this kind of style. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers.
Monuments and World Heritage Sites
The Medieval church of Sant Climent de Taüll
, located at the foothills of the Pyrenees, in the province of Lleida
The oldest surviving literary use of the Catalan language is considered to be the religious text known as Homilies d'Organyà
, written either in late 11th or early 12th century.
There are two historical moments of splendor of Catalan literature. The first begins with the historiographic chronicles of the 13th century (chronicles written between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries narrating the deeds of the monarchs and leading figures of the Crown of Aragon) and the subsequent Golden Age of the 14th and 15th centuries. After that period, between the 16th and 19th centuries the Romantic historiography
defined this era as the Decadència
, considered as the "decadent" period in Catalan literature because of a general falling into disuse of the vernacular language in cultural contexts and lack of patronage among the nobility.
The second moment of splendor began in the 19th century with the cultural and political Renaixença
(Renaissance) represented by writers and poets such as Jacint Verdaguer
, Víctor Català
(pseudonym of Caterina Albert i Paradís
), Narcís Oller
, Joan Maragall
and Àngel Guimerà
. During the 20th century, avant-garde movements developed, initiated by the Generation of '14 (called Noucentisme
in Catalonia), represented by Eugeni d'Ors
, Joan Salvat-Papasseit
, Josep Carner
, Carles Riba
, J.V. Foix
and others. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, the Civil War (Generation of '36
) and the Francoist period, Catalan literature was maintained despite the repression against the Catalan language, being often produced in exile.
The most outstanding authors of this period are Salvador Espriu
, Josep Pla
, Josep Maria de Sagarra
(the latter three being considered as the main responsible of the renewal of Catalan prose), Mercè Rodoreda
, Joan Oliver Sallarès or "Pere Quart
", Pere Calders
, Gabriel Ferrater
, Manuel de Pedrolo
, Agustí Bartra
or Miquel Martí i Pol
. In addition, several foreign writers who fought in the framework of the International Brigades
then recount their experiences of fighting in their works, historical or fictional, with for example Homage to Catalonia
of the British George Orwell
in 1938 or Le Palace
in 1962 and The Georgics
in 1981 by Frenchman Claude Simon
After the transition to democracy (1975–1978) and the restoration of the Generalitat (1977), literary life and the editorial market have returned to normality and literary production in Catalan is being bolstered with a number of language policies intended to protect Catalan culture. Besides the aforementioned authors, other relevant 20th-century writers of the Francoist and democracy periods include Joan Brossa
, Agustí Bartra
, Manuel de Pedrolo
, Pere Calders
or Quim Monzó
Festivals and public holidays
Castell 4 de 9 amb folre i pilar by Colla Vella de Valls
are one of the main manifestations of Catalan popular culture. The activity consists in constructing human towers by competing colles castelleres
(teams). This practice originated in Valls
, on the region of the Camp de Tarragona, during the 18th century, and later it was extended along the next two centuries to the rest of the territory. The tradition of els Castells i els Castellers
was declared Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO
In main celebrations, other elements of the Catalan popular culture are also usually present: parades with gegants
(giants), bigheads, stick-dancers and musicians, and the correfoc
, where devils and monsters dance and spray showers of sparks using firecrackers. Another traditional celebration in Catalonia is La Patum de Berga
, declared a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by the UNESCO
on 25 November 2005.
in Catalonia lasts two days, plus Christmas Eve
. On the 25th, Christmas is celebrated, followed by a similar feast on the 26, called Sant Esteve (Saint Steve's Day). This allows families to visit and dine with different sectors of the extended family, or get together with friends on the second day.
One of the most deeply-rooted and curious Christmas traditions
is the popular figure of the Tió de Nadal
, consisting of an (often hollow) log with a face painted on it and often two little front legs appended, usually wearing a Catalan hat and scarf. Note that the word has nothing to do with the Spanish word tío
, meaning uncle. Tió
means log in Catalan. The log is sometimes "found in the woods" (in an event staged for children) and then adopted and taken home, where it is fed and cared for during a month or so. On Christmas Day
or on Christmas Eve
, a game is played where children march around the house singing a song requesting the log to poop, then they tap the log gently with a stick, as if a magic wand, to make it poop, and lo and behold, as if through magic, it poops candy, and sometimes other small gifts. Usually the larger or main gifts are brought by the Three Kings on 6 January, and the tió only brings small things.
A tió exhibited at Plaça Sant Jaume in Barcelona in the 2010–2011 Christmas season.
Another custom is to make a pessebre (nativity scene) in the home or in shop windows, the latter sometimes competing in originality or shear size and detail. Churches often host exhibits of numerous dioramas by nativity scene makers, or a single nativity scene they put out, and town halls generally put out a nativity scene in the central square. In Barcelona, every year, the main nativity scene is designed by different artists, and often ends up being an interesting, post-modern or conceptual and strange creation. In the home, the nativity scene often consists of strips of cork bark to represent cliffs or mountains in the background, moss as grass in the foreground, some wood chips or other as dirt, and aluminum foil for rivers and lakes. The traditional figurines often included are the three wise men on camels or horses, which are moved every day or so to go closer to the manger, a star with a long tail in the background to lead people to the spot, the annunciation with shepherds having a meal and an angel appearing (hanging from something), a washer lady washing clothes in the pond, sheep, ducks, people carrying packages on their backs, a donkey driver with a load of twigs, and atrezzo such as a starry sky, miniature towns placed in the distance, either Oriental-styled or local-looking, a bridge over the river, trees, etc.
One of the most astonishing and sui-generis figurines traditionally placed in the nativity scene, to the great glee of children, is the caganer
, a person depicted in the act of defecating.
This figurine is hidden in some corner of the nativity scene and the game is to detect it. Of course, churches forgo this figurine, and the main nativity scene of Barcelona, for instance, likewise does not feature it. The caganer is so popular it has, together with the tió, long been a major part of the Christmas markets, where they come in the guise of your favorite politicians or other famous people, as well as the traditional figures of a Catalan farmer. People often buy a figurine of a caganer in the guise of a famous person they are actually fond of, contrary to what one would imagine, though sometimes people buy a caganer in the guise of someone they dislike, although this means they have to look at them in the home...
Another (extended) Christmas tradition is the celebration of the Epiphany on 6 January, which is called Reis, meaning Three Kings Day. This is every important in Catalonia and the Catalan-speaking areas, and families go to watch major parades on the eve of the Epiphany, where they can greet the kings and watch them pass by in pomp and circumstance, on floats and preceded and followed by pages, musicians, dancers, etc. They often give the kings letters with their gift requests, which are collected by the pages. On the next day, the children find the gifts the three kings brought for them.
In addition to traditional local Catalan culture, traditions from other parts of Spain can be found as a result of migration from other regions, for instance the celebration of the Andalusian Feria de Abril
Music and dance
is considered to be the most characteristic Catalan folk dance, interpreted to the rhythm of tamborí
(from the oboe family), trumpet
, trombó (trombone
), fiscorn (family of bugles) and contrabaix with three strings played by a cobla
, and are danced in a circle dance. Other tunes and dances of the traditional music are the contrapàs (obsolete today), ball de bastons
(the "dance of sticks"), the moixiganga, the goigs (popular songs), the galops
or the jota
in the southern part. The havaneres
are characteristic in some marine localities of the Costa Brava, especially during the summer months when these songs are sung outdoors accompanied by a cremat
of burned rum.
Art music was first developed, up to the nineteenth century and, as in much of Europe, in a liturgical setting, particularly marked by the Escolania de Montserrat. The main Western musical trends have marked these productions, medieval monodies or polyphonies, with the work of Abbot Oliba
in the eleventh century or the compilation Llibre Vermell de Montserrat
("Red Book of Montserrat") from the fourteenth century. Through the Renaissance there were authors such as Pere Albert Vila
, Joan Brudieu
or the two Mateu Fletxa
("The Old" and "The Young"). Baroque had composers like Joan Cererols
. The Romantic music was represented by composers such as Fernando Sor
, Josep Anselm Clavé
(father of choir movement in Catalonia and responsible of the music folk reviving) or Felip Pedrell
Modernisme also expressed in musical terms from the end of the 19th century onwards, mixing folkloric and post-romantic influences, through the works of Isaac Albéniz
and Enric Granados
. The avant-garde spirit initiated by the modernists is prolonged throughout the twentieth century, thanks to the activities of the Orfeó Català
, a choral society founded in 1891, with its monumental concert hall, the Palau de la Música Catalana
in Catalan, built by Lluís Domènech i Montaner from 1905 to 1908, the Barcelona Symphony Orchestra
created in 1944 and composers, conductors and musicians engaged against the Francoism like Robert Gerhard
, Eduard Toldrà
and Pau Casals
Performances of opera
, mostly imported from Italy, began in the 18th century, but some native operas were written as well, including the ones by Domènec Terradellas
, Carles Baguer
, Ramon Carles
, Isaac Albéniz and Enric Granados. The Barcelona main opera house, Gran Teatre del Liceu
(opened in 1847), remains one of the most important in Spain, hosting one of the most prestigious music schools in Barcelona, the Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu
. Several lyrical artists trained by this institution gained international renown during the 20th century, such as Victoria de los Ángeles
, Montserrat Caballé
, Giacomo Aragall
and Josep Carreras
Media and cinema
Logo of Televisió de Catalunya
Catalonia is the autonomous community, along with Madrid, that has the most media (TV, Magazines, Newspapers etc.). In Catalonia there is a wide variety of local and comarcal media. With the restoration of democracy, many newspapers and magazines, until then in the hands of the Franco government, were recovered in order to convert them into free and democratic media, while local radios and televisions were implemented.
Televisió de Catalunya
, which broadcasts entirely in the Catalan language, is the main Catalan public TV. It has five channels: TV3
, El 33
. In 2018, TV3 became the first television channel to be the most viewed one for nine consecutive years in Catalonia.
State televisions that broadcast in Catalonia in Spanish language include Televisión Española
(with few emissions in Catalan), Antena 3
, and La Sexta
. Other smaller Catalan television channels include; 8TV
(owned by Grup Godó), Barça TV
and the local televisions, the greatest exponent of which is betevé [ca]
, the TV channel of Barcelona, which also broadcasts in Catalan.
Catalonia has a long tradition of use of radio, the first regular radio broadcast in the country was from Ràdio Barcelona in 1924.
Today, the public Catalunya Ràdio
(owned by Catalan Media Corporation
) and the private RAC 1
(belonging to Grup Godó) are the two main radios of Catalonia, both in Catalan.
Regarding the cinema, after the democratic transition, three styles have dominated since then. First, auteur cinema, in the continuity of the Barcelona School
, emphasizes experimentation and form, while focusing on developing social and political themes. Worn first by Josep Maria Forn
or Bigas Luna
, then by Marc Recha
, Jaime Rosales
and Albert Serra
, this genre has achieved some international recognition. Then, the documentary
became another genre particularly representative of contemporary Catalan cinema, boosted by Joaquim Jordà i Català
and José Luis Guerín
. Later, horror films and thrillers have also emerged as a specialty of the Catalan film industry, thanks in particular to the vitality of the Sitges Film Festival
, created in 1968. Several directors have gained worldwide renown thanks to this genre, starting with Jaume Balagueró and his series REC
(co-directed with Valencian Paco Plaza), Juan Antonio Bayona
and El Orfanato
or Jaume Collet-Serra
Catalan actors have shot for Spanish and international productions, such as Sergi López
The Museum of Cinema - Tomàs Mallol Collection
(Museu del Cinema - Col.lecció Tomàs Mallol in Catalan) of Girona is home of important permanent exhibitions of cinema and pre-cinema objects. Other important institutions for the promotion of cinema are the Gaudí Awards
(Premis Gaudí in Catalan, which replaced from 2009 Barcelona Film Awards themselves created in 2002), serving as equivalent for Catalonia to the Spanish Goya
or French César
Seny is a form of ancestral Catalan wisdom or sensibleness. It involves well-pondered perception of situations, level-headedness, awareness, integrity, and right action. Many Catalans consider seny something unique to their culture, is based on a set of ancestral local customs stemming from the scale of values and social norms of their society.
Despite the fact that the most popular sports are represented outside by the Spanish national teams, Catalonia can officially play as itself in some others, like korfball
or rugby league
Most of Catalan Sports Federations have a long tradition and some of them participated in the foundation of international sports federations, as the Catalan Federation of Rugby, that was one of the founder members of the Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur
(FIRA) in 1934.
The majority of Catalan sport federations are part of the Sports Federation Union of Catalonia
(Catalan: Unió de Federacions Esportives de Catalunya
), founded in 1933.
The Catalan Football Federation
also periodically fields a national team
against international opposition, organizing friendly matches. In the recent years they have played with Bulgaria, Argentina, Brazil, Basque Country, Colombia, Nigeria, Cape Verde and Tunisia. The biggest football clubs are FC Barcelona
(also known as Barça), who have won five European Cups (UEFA Champions League
), and RCD Espanyol
, who have twice been runner-up of the UEFA Cup
. Both play in La Liga
The Catalan waterpolo
is one of the main powers of the Iberian Peninsula. The Catalans won triumphs in waterpolo competitions at European and world level by club (the Barcelona was champion of Europe in 1981/82 and the Catalonia in 1994/95) and national team (one gold and one silver in Olympic Games and World Championships). It also has many international synchronized swimming
Motorsport has a long tradition in Catalonia, which involving many people, with some world champions and several competitions organized since the beginning of the 20th century. The Circuit de Catalunya
, built in 1991, is one of the main motorsport venues, holding the Catalan motorcycle Grand Prix, the Spanish F1 Grand Prix, a DTM race, and several other races.
Catalonia has its own representative and distinctive national symbols such as:
Catalan gastronomy has a long culinary tradition. Various local food recipes have been described in documents dating from the fifteenth century. As with all the cuisines of the Mediterranean, Catatonian dishes make abundant use of fish
, seafood, olive oil
. Regional specialties include the pa amb tomàquet
(bread with tomato), which consists of bread (sometimes toasted), and tomato
seasoned with olive oil and salt. Often the dish is accompanied with any number of sausages (cured botifarres
, iberic ham, etc.), ham or cheeses. Others dishes include the calçotada
, escudella i carn d'olla
, suquet de peix
(fish stew), and a dessert
, Catalan cream
Twinning and covenants
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